Ia lecture gobelins march 2011

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Introduction to Information Architecture

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Ia lecture gobelins march 2011

  1. 1. A b c What Is Information Architecture March 2011
  2. 2. Kahn+Associates | 2 Outline— What is Information Architecture— Categories and Classification— Five ways to organize information: LATCH— Exploiting existing and potential metadata
  3. 3. Kahn+Associates | 3I. What is Information Architecture
  4. 4. Kahn+Associates | 4 Information Architecture is — discovering the kinds of information the site contains — matching this information to the needs of the users — determining the appropriate metadata structure Information is — a difference that makes a difference — a pattern that provides a structure for understanding
  5. 5. Kahn+Associates | 5 Jesse James Garrett: 5 Layer Process Model— The Elements of User Experience, Jesse James Garrett (2000)
  6. 6. Kahn+Associates | 6 Information Architecture > Facets of User Experience— Peter Morville (2004)
  7. 7. Kahn+Associates | 7
  8. 8. Kahn+Associates | 8 Kahn+Associates | 8 The IA must understand the data — text coding systems: SGML/XML — database storage — information retrieval the interaction models — principals of user interface design — user-based design methodology — the limits of current web browser technology
  9. 9. Kahn+Associates | 9 The IA must mediate — the requirements of a client, who wants to present information — the needs of the user, who needs to find and consume that information — balance between the desirable and the possible
  10. 10. Kahn+Associates | 10 Category and ClassificationCategorization is— the mental process of grouping things by perceptible similarity within a given context.— Creating groups through direct experience (bottom-up)
  11. 11. Kahn+Associates | 11— Categorization of music— Categories of music are an expression of listener’s perception and as communities emerge (bottom-up)
  12. 12. Kahn+Associates | 12Further category examplesCategories can be high-level: Categories can be continuousThree Categories of Drugs Categories of Hurricanes: • Depressants Category 1: 74-95 mph winds • Stimulants Category 2: 96-110 mph winds • Hallucinogens Category 3: 111-130 mph winds Category 4: 131-155 mph winds Category 5: 155+ mph winds
  13. 13. Kahn+Associates | 13 Category and Classification— Categorization is the mental process of grouping things by perceptible similarity within a given context.— Classification is a set of classes assigned according to a predetermined set of principles used to impose order on a set of entities.— Taxonomic classification establishes stability by applying a set of rules to one domain (top-down)— Classification system offer inter-operability benefits across applications
  14. 14. Kahn+Associates | 14— Classification of biology— Each living organism is classified in the Tree of Life taxonomy
  15. 15. Kahn+Associates | 15— MESH Classification of human diseases— Each disease is located in one or more places in the Medical Subject Headings (MESH) maintained by the National Library of Medicine in Washington DC
  16. 16. Kahn+Associates | 16 Category vs. Classification— 3 Categories of hair color — Classification of hair color
  17. 17. Kahn+Associates | 17 LATCH (+): Five ways to organize information for ease of use (+One) Location Alphabet Time Category Hierarchy see Richard Saul Wurman, INFORMATION ANXIETY 2 plus Common Focus
  18. 18. Kahn+Associates | 18 Location “Location is chosen when the information who you are comparing comes from several different sources or locales. Doctors use different locations of the body to group and study medicine. Concerning an industry you might want to know where on the world goods are distributed.” WSW— Location is the X/Y position in the context of a representation— In the most abstract sense, the X and Y positioning of any object on a plane is a purely visual distinction— Location can be used to organize information a geographical region (states, countries)— Location can be used in relation to an object (such as the body)
  19. 19. Kahn+Associates | 19
  20. 20. Kahn+Associates | 20
  21. 21. Kahn+Associates | 21 Alphabet — “Alphabet is best used when you have enormous amount of data. For example words in a dictionary or names in a telephone. As usually everybody is familiar with the Alphabet, categorizing by Alphabet is recommendable when not all the audience is familiar with different kind of groupings or categories you could use instead.” WSW — Reference to the order sequence of the letters in an alphabet — Common 26 letter European alphabet — Alphabetic order varies according to language
  22. 22. Kahn+Associates | 22 New York Times Blog Directory, November 2009
  23. 23. Kahn+Associates | 23Metropolitan Museum Timeline of Art History
  24. 24. Kahn+Associates | 24 Time “Time is the best form of categorization for events that happen over fixed durations. Meeting schedules or our calendar are examples. The work of important persons might be displayed as timeline as well. Time is an easily framework in which changes can be observed and comparisons made.” WSW — Absolute reference to actual event in time — Sequence of events in linear time, hours, days, months, years, decades, centuries — Potential for cycle as well as sequence
  25. 25. Herbert Bayer, WORLD GEOGRAPHIC ATLAS. A Composite of Man’sEnvironment. Chicago: Container Corporation of America, 1953.
  26. 26. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 26Joseph Preistley: biographical timeline
  27. 27. French Regional & American Museum Exchange: Galleries
  28. 28. Kahn+Associates | 30 Category — “Category is an organization type often used for goods and industries. Shops and services in the yellow pages are easy to find by category. Retail stores are divided into e.g. men- and woman-clothing. This mode works well to organizing items of similar importance.” WCW — Categories are determined by similar content — Each category is at the same level (“similar importance”)
  29. 29. New YorkTimes BlogDirectory,November 2010
  30. 30. Kahn+Associates | 32Library of Congress American Memory: category as topic
  31. 31. Kahn+Associates | 33
  32. 32. Kahn+Associates | 34 Hierarchy “Hierarchy organizes by magnitude. From small to large, least expensive to most expensive, by order of importance, etc. Hierarchy is to be used if you want to assign weight or value to the ordered information.” WSW — Organized by sequence of importance — Recursive sequence of whole to part, largest to smallest — Hierarchy implies sequence of quantity
  33. 33. Kahn+Associates | 35Tree of Life
  34. 34. Kahn+Associates | 36
  35. 35. Kahn+Associates | 37
  36. 36. Kahn+Associates | 38 A Sixth Method: Common Focus— Organizing information by what users are touching— Currently viewed— Most discussed— Most popular— People who bought this item also bought…
  37. 37. Kahn+Associates | 39
  38. 38. Kahn+Associates | 40 Le Monde: Most commented / Most emailed
  39. 39. Kahn+Associates | 41Amazon.com: exposing common purchase behavior
  40. 40. Kahn+Associates | 42 How do we design navigational links between items?— Indentify patterns that can be used to built links between units of data— Patterns can come from the nature of the data AND/OR nature of use— Shared Metadata: Structured information about a unit of data • Such as date/time, owner, ID, subject, etc.— Find facets / attributes / properties that can be associated used to identify similarities between units of data in a collection • Author name • Publication date • Subject
  41. 41. Implicit metadata:— Document type— File name— Time/Date stamp
  42. 42. Implicit metadata:— Documents— Images— Books— Blogs
  43. 43. Kahn+Associates | 45The role of Metadata — Associating the same metadata with items in different collections can be used to • Extract “related” item lists • Create topic collections — Unique Identifier (UID) codes for elements that appear in several contexts can be particularly valuable • Stock trading codes • Book ISBN • Part number
  44. 44. Kahn+Associates | 46 Further Examples of Applied Metadata— Scientific Publishing: • Digital Object Identifier (DOI) used by publishers to identify a publication unit, such as a scientific article, independent from the print location (journal, vol. issue. page) or current URL location.— Biomedical/Pharmaceudical: • UID code for pharmaceutical product— Finance: • Symbol for publicly traded companies, stocks and bonds used to link data and news
  45. 45. Kahn+Associates | 48 Further Examples of Common Metadata— Art: — Cinema: • Artist • Movie title • Title • Genre • Collection • Director • Exhibition • Actor(s) • Location— Writing: — Photographs: • Author • Date/time • Title • Location • Publisher • Tag • Subject/Tag • Title
  46. 46. Kahn+Associates | 50
  47. 47. Kahn+Associates | 51
  48. 48. Kahn+Associates | 52
  49. 49. Kahn+Associates | 53
  50. 50. Maps & Diagrams| January 2011 | 54 Différents types de visualisation / Visual forms of sensemaking— Spatial / Spatiale— Argumentational / Argumentaire— Faceted / En facettes— Hierarchical / Hiérarchique— Sequential / Séquentielle— Networked / Groupée from A classification of sensemaking representations, Faisal, Attfield & Blandford , 2009
  51. 51. Maps & Diagrams| January 2011 | 55Spatiale: distribution d’éléments exprimant leur relation d’un point de vue spatial, selon leuremplacement dans une espace compréhensible comme une ville, un pays, une rivière, unefrontière,etc. The Geography of Buzz: Art, Culture and the Social Milieu in Los Angeles and New York, Currid & Williams, 2009
  52. 52. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 56 Spatial: visual distribution of items expressing their spatial relationship. Items appear in relation totheir location within an understood space: city, country, coast/river outline.Art collections by museum, by collection, museesFRAME.org
  53. 53. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 57— Argumentaire: organisation multiple de propositions ou d’idées sous une forme argumentaire ( si/ alors/ pour/ contre) afin de rendre les relations entre les idées explicites.
  54. 54. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 58— En facettes : appliquer un lot commun de propriétés à plusieurs objets et les afficher, afin de comparer les objets entre eux.— Example: theyrule.net
  55. 55. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 59— Hiérarchique : organiser le contenu dans des catégories afin de grouper et de représenter les quantités et les thèmes. Treemap of Google feeds by Marcos Weskamp see Newsmap.jp
  56. 56. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 60— Sequentielle : organiser les éléments selon une séquence temporelle. Corporate intranet management process for Schlumberger
  57. 57. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 61— Sequential: organize items along a time series. see American Time Use Survey
  58. 58. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 62— En réseau: relier les éléments en groupe / cluster diagrams Mapping Iran’s Online Public: Politics and Culture in the Persian Blogosphere, Kelly & Etling
  59. 59. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 63— Blogosphère des élections présidentielles de 2007 blogopole.fr by RTGI/linkfluence
  60. 60. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 64See Data Visualisation and Journalism by Geoff McGhee for further examples

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