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Plantation forestry presentation1

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Plantation forestry presentation1

  1. 1. NUTRITION IN PLANTATION FORESTRY - Changing Concepts By, PAUL, C. ROBY 2010-17-106 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION In forest ecosystem, there is a unique feature of development of distinct forest floor, which is the outcome of periodical return of litter fall and sometimes trees. ‘closed nutrient cycle’- Nutrient cycles in undisturbed natural forests are in a state of dynamic equilibrium and plant demand for nutrients is met by efficient recycling systems. A large proportion of nutrients extracted from the forest soil is present in litter fall and a smaller proportion is retained in the trees. 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION (Contd…) In short-rotation plantations, changes in nutrient storage and cycling processes occur. These changes are due to factors that alter patterns of nutrient equilibrium and modified patterns of organic matter turnover. Also, preparing the soil, to a fine tilth, accelerate erosion. These factors can impact on storage and supply of soil nutrients for plant growth and consequently the sustainability of plantation systems. 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION (Contd…) Very intensive mechanical site preparation is expensive and has a number of negative environmental effects. Removal of nutrients (during harvesting or removing stumps and existing ground vegetation and litter) can result in major nutrient losses 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION (Contd…) Minimal site disturbance and retention of slash can reduce nutrient depletion. Slash retention after harvesting may improve the status of soil organic matter in second-rotation crops. but, if the slash is removed, nitrogen fertilisation may be required (Xu et al. 2004). management practices should aim to enhance the chemical and physical properties of soils to achieve sustained productivity. 5
  6. 6. Present scenario……. 6
  7. 7.  Indias achievements in rising forest plantation’s, in term of area, has been impressive. (32.6 million ha) but performance in term of survival and growth, has been poor. The MAI of these plantation’s is about 2 cu. m/yr for valuable timber species. MAI is 5 to 8 cu. m/yr for Eucalyptus sp. and other fast growing species. (for good quality industrial plantations in different countries; over 10 cu.m/ha/yr and about 50 cu.m/ha/yr) 7
  8. 8.  Eucalyptus plantations in tropical and subtropical environments are highly productive, but this potential productivity is seldom achieved in India (average yield is 6-10 m3 ha-1 yr-1 )(Lal, 2003). The productivity of eucalypt plantations in Kerala is estimated to be 5 - 10 m3 ha-1 yr-1. (Sankaran, K.V., 1998) Commercial teak plantation area in 2005- 2591 m Ha ( India ) of 5960 m Ha (10 main tropical countries) MAI of teak plantations in India - 4–9 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (9–15 in Brazil and Nigeria 6–20) {FAO (2000) and ITTO (2005)} 8
  9. 9.  In Brazil, the application of 2 kg basaltic rock into the plant hole of Eucalyptus sp. in lateritic soils resulted in higher height and standard diameter (Leonardos et al. 1987). The application of 2 kg of limestone with NPK also showed good responses. the Dongmen project in China (1984 - 1985), results indicated that, with less intensive site preparation and the addition of fertiliser, significant economies were possible in plantation establishment costs, site productivity could be increased and erosion minimised (Stevens 1986; McGuire et al. 1988; Wei 1996). 9
  10. 10. NUTRIENT Refers to the one that is required to complete the life cycle of the plant and its relative deficiency produces specific deficiency symptoms. For an element to be essential, it must fulfill Arnon’s criteria of essentiality. Nutrient cycling – refers to the transfer of minerals in and out among the various nutrient pools . It is a continuous process. Its is not 100% efficient, there are always leaks or losses. 10
  11. 11. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 17 in no. All are not required by all plants, but all are necessary to some plants. They are C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, Mo, Cl, Ni, Na, Co, Va, Se, Al and Si. Depending on quantities required by plants-1. Macronutrients- C, H, O + 10 (N,P and K) + 20 (Ca, Mg and S).2. Micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu; B, Mo and Cl) 11
  12. 12. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS IN TREES Diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies Specific deficiency symptoms in forest trees Correction of nutrient deficiencies. Matching the site and species properly. Application of right source and amount of nutrients through manures and fertilizers. 12
  13. 13. • The nutrient deficiency’s can be supplemented by……………….. MANURE’S AND FERTILIZER’S 13
  14. 14.  Active forest fertilisation started in many countries in the 1960s and the activity has now become integrated into the routine management of forests. Growing in and removing repeated crops of young seedlings from a nursery can place a severe nutrient drain on the soil. It is perhaps the one operation in forestry where nutrient management should be similar to that practised by every arable farmer. (Benzian ,1965) 14
  15. 15. MANURE is an organic matter used in agriculture. It contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients. Can be grouped – Bulky organic manures and Concentrated organic manures. 15
  16. 16. BULKY MANURES Farm Yard Manure traditional manure. decomposed mixture of Cattle dung and urine with straw and litter. Green Manures ploughing or burying into soil undecomposed green plant tissues. Also helps in improving structure and fertility of the soil. Sunhemp, dhaincha, guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), glyricidia, Pongamia pinnata etc. are used. Sheep and goat droppings 16
  17. 17. CONCENTRATED MANURES Oil cakes contains N, also some P and K along with large % of organic matter. quick acting organic manure. Oil cakes are of two types.• i. Edible oil cakes- (Mustard) and ii. Non-edible oil cakes- (Neem and groundnut) Bone Meal (oldest phosphatic fertilizer ) Bones and carcasses of all animals from slaughter houses contains some N. 17
  18. 18. CONCENTRATED MANURES (Contd..) Sewage and sludge liquid wastes contains large quantities nutrients. Use of raw sewage is a danger to health. Sewage is kept in a septic tank to undergo a fermentation and is aerated in the setting tank, and is called as ‘activated sludge’. Others Fish meal, blood meal etc. 18
  19. 19. FERTILIZERS Have definite chemical composition. Supply either one or two nutrients. May be organic and inorganic in nature. Types of fertilizers-1. Simple or straight2. Mixed3. Complete4. Complex 19
  20. 20. CLASSIFICATION OF FERTILIZERS Macronutrient fertilizers According to the manner in which the N2 is combined with other elements They are divided into 4 groups; nitrate, ammonia, and ammonium salts, chemical compounds containing nitrogen in the amide form, and plant and animal by-products. 20
  21. 21. Inorganic Nitrogenous Fertilizers Inorganic substances containing large amount of N. It is further divided intoa) Nitrate fertilizers (N03-)- eg- Sodium nitrate and Calcium nitrateb) Ammonium fertilizers (NH4+ )-eg- Ammonium sulphate, Ammonium chloride and Ammonium phosphatec) Nitrate and Ammonium fertilizers (N03- and NH4 +)- eg Ammonium nitrate, Calcium Ammonium Nitra (CAN) and Ammonium Sulphate Nitrate (ASN) 21
  22. 22. Organic Nitrogenous Fertilizers contain nitrogen in organic form. These include plant and animal by-products. These fertilizers are relatively slow acting supply nitrogen for a longer period. It is further divided intoa) Amide Fertilizers (Amine or amide) eg:Urea and Calcium cyanamide.b) Slow release nitrogenous fertilizers - Urea-form (Urea+Formaldehyde) and Oxamide. 22
  23. 23. PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS Phosphorus present is expressed in terms of phosphoric anhydride or P2O5 (availability of P to the plants depends on the supply of HP04- or H2P04 - ions. ) Based on solubilities, these fertilizers are divided into :a) Water soluble eg:(Single Superphosphate, Double superphosphate, Triple superphosphate and Ammonium phosphate)b) Citric acid soluble eg:(Dicalcium phosphate, Basic slag and Calcium meta phosphate)c) Water and citrate insoluble eg: Rock Phosphate and Bone meal 23d) Other phosphatic fertilizers eg: Thermophos and Pelophos
  24. 24. POTASSIC FERTILIZERS potassium content is usually expressed as (K2O) or potash. manufactured from minerals and ores. The commercial fertilizers are salts of chlorides and sulphates and are soluble and hence readily available to the plants. Examples are: muriate of potash (KCl), Potassium sulphate or sulphate of potash and Potassium magnesium sulphate. 24
  25. 25. SECONDARY NUTRIENT FERTILIZERS1. Calcium fertilizers The primary sources of calcium are CaC03, CaMgC03, CaS04.2H2O. Eg: Single super phosphate, Triple super phosphate, Rock phosphate and Ca EDTA2. Magnesium fertilizers Epsum salts are most widely used Mg fertilizer materials in dry fertilizer formulations. Dolomite is the mostly used material in acid soils. Other sources of Mg are MgO (55%), Mg (N03)2 (16%) and 25 Serpentine
  26. 26. 3. Sulphur fertilizers applied to the soil surface and moved into the profile with rainfall or irrigation. They are immediately plant available unless immobilized by microbes. Examples are: Elemental S, Ammonium bisulfite and Ammonium phosphate - sulphate 26
  27. 27. MICRO NUTRIENT FERTILIZERS Micronutrient deficiencies are not very common in natural forests. Boron (B) is the most commonly deficient micronutrient in forest plantations. Application of 10-20 kg ha-1 of commercial borax can correct the deficiencies. For correcting deficiencies of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn, their respective sulphates or chelates are used. For correcting molybdenum deficiency, sodium molybdate is used. 27
  28. 28.  The common examples for micronutrient fertilizers are listed below:i. Copper sulphateii. Zinc sulphateiii.Borax or Sodium borateiv.Manganese sulphatev. Ammonium molybdatevi.Ferrous sulphate 28
  29. 29. BIOFERTILIZER’S “preparations containing living or latent cells of efficient strains of nitrogen fixing, phosphorous solublising or cellulolytic micro-organism.” (living fertilizer compound of microbial inoculants or groups of micro- organisms) which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen solubilize phosphorus decompose organic material oxidize sulphur in the soil. it enhances the growth of plants increase in yield also improves soil fertility and reduces pollution. 29
  30. 30.  There are varieties of nitrogen fixing micro- organisms present in the nature. These are broadly divided into three categoriesa) Symbiotic micro-organism e.g. Legume - Rhizobium symbiosisb) Asymbiotic or free living e.g. Azotobacter, blue green algae.c) Associative Symbiosis, e.g. Azospirillumd) Azolla is a water fern associated to Anabaena (N fixing blue green algae). It contains 2-3% nitrogen when wet and also produces organic matter in the soil. 30
  31. 31. FERTILIZER APPLICATION SYSTEMS There are two general systems for fertilizer application in forests. They are(i) tractor powered ground traversing equipment and(ii)air craft. Choosing the particular system depends on accessibility of the area to the ground equipment, need for selective placement of the fertilizer and availability and relative cost of each system. 31
  32. 32.  For older trees broadcasting is the only practical method of application. For young plants, selective placement may be desirable, so that young trees can derive maximum benefit with minimum stimulation of competing vegetation and requires the use of ground equipment. Selective placement also reduces the quantity of fertilizer. combining ground application with other operations such as bedding, planting and these reduce supervision and application cost. 32
  33. 33. GROUND EQUIPMENT Several fertilizer application systems that uses tractor mounted spreaders involve both broadcast and band application. Used mainly in young stands. This system is of two groups:(i) fertilizer is applied before planting and incorporated into the soil(ii) those in which is surface applied at the time of planting or soon thereafter. Ground equipment has the following advantages over other systems: (i) flexible, (ii) accurate, and (iii) relatively rapid. 33
  34. 34. AERIAL APPLICATION SYSTEM is used for fertilization in older forest stands. Fixed wing types air craft most widely used. Distribution pattern depends on the pilot skill, climatic condition and terrain. Irregular growth patterns will result due to poor distribution. 34
  35. 35. FORMULATION OFFERTILIZER MATERIALS 35
  36. 36. 1. Granulation Most solid fertilizer materials and mixtures are granulated dust free, non-caking fertilizers easy to handle and apply. also facilitates bulk blending formulation of fertilizers to meet the specific requirements of particular soil-crop situations. Aerial grade pellets of urea and ammonium nitrate have been recently developed for forestry use. improves the uniformity of application and reduces crown lodging. Coating fertilizers with S or other water resistant materials should slow the dissolution rate. 36
  37. 37. 2. Liquid and suspension fertilizers A wide variety of fluid fertilizers can now be formulated for forest trees. Some micronutrients and pesticides can be mixed with the fertilizer. Foliar application of fluid fertilizers has several advantages for forestry. It is a rapid method of correcting deficiencies reduce the possibility of leaching losses and water pollution. Sprinkler irrigation systems have been successful for the application of liquid fertilizers to tree nurseries and seed orchards. The use of irrigation systems for the dispersal of sewage effluents in forests hold promise. 37
  38. 38. Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) aims at the maintenance or adjustment of soil fertility and of plant nutrient supply to an optimum level for sustaining the desired crop productivity through optimization of benefit from all possible sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner. 38
  39. 39. Scope of IPNS in forestry Nourishing the seedlings in the nursery could produce healthy and vigorous seedlings. in the main field, integrating all the possible sources support the immediate requirement of nutrients through fertilizer sources; slow and steady release of nutrients from organic sources and supporting nutritional requirements through bio-fertilisers. the nursery period has been considerably reduced for many of the species viz., Casuarina, Simaruba, Neem etc. IPNS advocate to encourage recycling of organic wastes and their effective utilization. Tree litter itself could support the trees via their nutrient return to the soil. 39
  40. 40. CONCLUSION 40
  41. 41.  plantation forestry should emphasis on enhancing production qualitatively and quantitatively. Addition of inorganic fertilisers to replace nutrient losses, but fertiliser efficiency to be increased. The high cost of fertilisers (estimated at 35–40% of establishment and management cost) can be reduced by their application at optimal levels. complement fertiliser use by appropriate management practices (such as residue retention, to minimise losses of nutrients from the site.) considerable research to determine silvicultural practices that will minimise any negative effects (due to Recognition of the fragility of the soils and the potential for nutrient depletion.) 41
  42. 42. REFERENCE1. Fundamentals of forest soil (2008)- Mani, A. K. et al.2. Principles of forest fertilisation - illustrated by New Zealand experience (1996)- I.R. Hunter & W. Smith3. Encouraging industrial forest plantations in the tropics- Report of a global study (2009)- ITTO.4. Management of soil, nutrients and water in Tropical Plantation Forests (1997) - E.K. Sadanandan Nambiar and Alan, G. Brown 42
  43. 43. READING MATERIALS1. Prediction of mineral nutrient status of trees by foliar analysis - r. Van Den Driessche (Botanical Review, 1974).2. Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Plantation Forests (2008) - E.K. Sadanandan Nambiar ( Editor) Proceedings of Workshops in Piracicaba (Brazil) 22-26 November 2004 and Bogor (Indonesia) 6-9 November 2006 43
  44. 44. THANK U…….. 44

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