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Corrections in America - State and Local Prison Systems

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In the USA there are over 1,410,000 adult male prisoners, which are located in more than 1,600 adult state and local prisons in the nation.

http://www.inmatecountyjail.com

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Corrections in America - State and Local Prison Systems

  1. 1. CORRECTIONS IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 1 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Chapter 10: State and LocalChapter 10: State and Local Prison SystemsPrison Systems Corrections in AmericaCorrections in America An IntroductionAn Introduction Eleventh EditionEleventh Edition Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen
  2. 2. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 2 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Annual Costs Of PrisonsAnnual Costs Of Prisons 86% 13.5% Other States 4% 3% 16%77% Federal Bureau of Prisons New York City Cook County Phil. Prison System $42,939,742,000.00
  3. 3. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 3 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 OffendersOffenders  Over 1,410,000Over 1,410,000 adult male prisonersadult male prisoners  In more than 1,600In more than 1,600 adult state and localadult state and local prisons in the nationprisons in the nation (16%-State Prisons)(16%-State Prisons)  93% of all prison93% of all prison populationspopulations
  4. 4. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 4 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 PennsylvaniaPennsylvania  26 State Correctional Institutions  1 Motivational Boot Camp  13 Community Corrections Facilities  50 Private Community Corrections Facilities  15,000 employees  45,300 inmates  63 County Prisons http://www.cor.state.pa.us/portal/lib/county/countyst
  5. 5. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 5 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 ClassificationClassification  Process by which inmates areProcess by which inmates are assigned to appropriate securityassigned to appropriate security and treatment facilities inand treatment facilities in accordance with theiraccordance with their characteristics and needs, whichcharacteristics and needs, which determines the institution todetermines the institution to which an inmate will be assignedwhich an inmate will be assigned
  6. 6. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 6 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Classification:Classification: cont.cont.  Some institutional needsSome institutional needs occasionally take precedenceoccasionally take precedence over an individual’s needsover an individual’s needs  Is an ongoing process that isIs an ongoing process that is reviewed as neededreviewed as needed (“reclassification”)(“reclassification”)
  7. 7. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 7 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Sentenced Male Prisoners,Sentenced Male Prisoners, 20032003 AgeAge TotalTotal WhiteWhite BlackBlack HispanicHispanic 18-19 26,300 7,500 13,100 5,100 20-24 219,400 63,800 104,100 48,500 25-29 245,300 68,700 116,700 57,300 30-34 238,200 77,500 106,500 51,000 35-39 228,200 82,700 99,200 41,000 40-44 197,900 78,500 83,900 30,400 45-54 190,800 80,200 78,600 26,600 55 or older 60,300 33,300 17,900 7,500 TotalTotal 1,409,2801,409,280 493,400493,400 621,300621,300 268,100268,100
  8. 8. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 8 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Male Incarceration Rates byMale Incarceration Rates by GroupGroup (rate per 100,000)(rate per 100,000) 465 3,405 1,231 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 White Black Hispanic
  9. 9. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 9 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Educational AttainmentEducational Attainment  70% had not70% had not received a highreceived a high school diploma orschool diploma or GEDGED  U.S population 36%U.S population 36%
  10. 10. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 10 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marital StatusMarital Status  At the time of the last national surveyAt the time of the last national survey of prisoners:of prisoners:  About 1 in 6 was married (15%)  6 in 10 had never been married (60%)  The others were separated, divorced, or widowed (25%)
  11. 11. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 11 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Drug AbuseDrug Abuse  More than 8 in 10 inmates report they have used illegal drugs in their lifetime  Almost 1 in 3 report using those drugs at the time of their instant offense
  12. 12. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 12 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Alcohol AbuseAlcohol Abuse  Is widespread among male prisoners  More than 8 in 10 reported they consumed alcohol  4 in 10 reported drinking at least a fifth of liquor in a single day (“binge drinking”)
  13. 13. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 13 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Alcohol Abuse:Alcohol Abuse: cont.cont.  More than 3 in 10 report they were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their instant offense  Most had participated in at least one alcohol/drug abuse program while under correctional supervision
  14. 14. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 14 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Criminal HistoryCriminal History  At the time of their currentAt the time of their current offense, almost half of the maleoffense, almost half of the male inmates in state prison had someinmates in state prison had some prior criminal justice status:prior criminal justice status:  1 in 4 was on parole  1 in 5 was on probation  1% had escaped from confinement
  15. 15. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 15 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 RecidivismRecidivism  The latest survey of state prisonersThe latest survey of state prisoners found that:found that:  Almost half were violent recidivists  Another 3 in 10 were non-violent recidivists  Less than 1 in 4 had no previous sentence
  16. 16. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 16 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Prison PopulationPrison Population Growth:Growth:  Building costs are high  Averaging $74,000 per bed  Lower security units are less expensive (about $30,000/bed)  Maximum security units are more expensive (about $80,000/bed)  Per diem incarceration cost: $70/inmate (house, feed, control, and care for state inmates)
  17. 17. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 17 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Inmates By SecurityInmates By Security LevelLevel (in percent)(in percent) 10% 12% 36% 35% 7% Protective Maximum Close Medium Minimum Other
  18. 18. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 18 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 City Operated PrisonsCity Operated Prisons  Cook CountyCook County  New York CityNew York City  Washington D.C.Washington D.C.  PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia  110 adult prisons110 adult prisons  Over 30,000 adult offendersOver 30,000 adult offenders
  19. 19. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 19 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Military PrisonersMilitary Prisoners Approximately 2200 TotalApproximately 2200 Total 25.8% 0.3% 21.2% 19.7% 39% Army Air Force Coast Guard Navy Marine Corps
  20. 20. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 20 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Prisoners in the U.S.Prisoners in the U.S. TerritoriesTerritories  All five U.S. territories andAll five U.S. territories and commonwealths reported prisoners incommonwealths reported prisoners in 2003 (16,494 inmates)2003 (16,494 inmates)  The rate of incarceration per 100,000The rate of incarceration per 100,000 adults in these jurisdictions was aboutadults in these jurisdictions was about the same as two-thirds of the mainlandthe same as two-thirds of the mainland statesstates  Puerto Rico had the most prisonersPuerto Rico had the most prisoners (15,046)(15,046)
  21. 21. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 21 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Cruel and UnusualCruel and Unusual PunishmentPunishment  1970’: state and federal courts1970’: state and federal courts were asked to examine thewere asked to examine the operations and policies ofoperations and policies of correctional facilities to ensurecorrectional facilities to ensure compliance with the 8compliance with the 8thth AmendmentAmendment
  22. 22. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 22 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Cruel and UnusualCruel and Unusual PunishmentPunishment  By February 1983:By February 1983:  The entire prison system was declaredThe entire prison system was declared unconstitutional in: Alabama, Florida,unconstitutional in: Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, RhodeLouisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Michigan (allIsland, Tennessee, Texas, Michigan (all the male institutions)the male institutions)  At least one or more facilities in anotherAt least one or more facilities in another 21 states were operating under a court21 states were operating under a court order or consent decreeorder or consent decree
  23. 23. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 23 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Cruel and UnusualCruel and Unusual PunishmentPunishment  Civil Rights Law of 1871Civil Rights Law of 1871  Provides citizens deniedProvides citizens denied constitutional rights by the state mayconstitutional rights by the state may sue in the federal courtssue in the federal courts  Designed to protect newly freedDesigned to protect newly freed slavesslaves  1964 Cooper v. Pate1964 Cooper v. Pate  Prisoners may seek relief in federalPrisoners may seek relief in federal court by way of the 1871 act.court by way of the 1871 act.
  24. 24. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 24 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Security Threat GroupsSecurity Threat Groups (STG)(STG)  Formerly known as “prisonFormerly known as “prison gangs,” are two or moregangs,” are two or more inmates acting togetherinmates acting together who pose a threat to thewho pose a threat to the security and safety ofsecurity and safety of staff/inmates, and/or arestaff/inmates, and/or are disruptive to programs anddisruptive to programs and the orderly management ofthe orderly management of the facilitythe facility
  25. 25. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 25 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Supermax PrisonsSupermax Prisons  Free-standing facilityFree-standing facility that provides forthat provides for management andmanagement and secure control ofsecure control of inmatesinmates officially designated asofficially designated as exhibiting violent orexhibiting violent or seriously aggressiveseriously aggressive behavior whilebehavior while incarceratedincarcerated
  26. 26. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 26 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Supermax PrisonersSupermax Prisoners  Violent, seriouslyViolent, seriously disruptive, assaultive,disruptive, assaultive, and escape-proneand escape-prone inmatesinmates  Including gangIncluding gang activists…activists… Who pose immenseWho pose immense challenges to prisonchallenges to prison security and custodysecurity and custody
  27. 27. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 27 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Supermax PrisonsSupermax Prisons  How are inmates selected?How are inmates selected?  How do inmates earn release?How do inmates earn release?  Cost?Cost?  LitigationLitigation  Sensory deprivationSensory deprivation  ClassificationClassification  Access to law libraries and attorneysAccess to law libraries and attorneys  Quality of mental health servicesQuality of mental health services  Excessive use of forceExcessive use of force
  28. 28. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 28 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 TrainingTraining  High School Diploma or GEDHigh School Diploma or GED  No record of prior felonyNo record of prior felony convictionconviction  Minimum age of 21Minimum age of 21  Valid driver’s licenseValid driver’s license SCSC: 2006 764 Corrections Officer TrSCSC: 2006 764 Corrections Officer Tr
  29. 29. CORRECTION S IN AMERICA An Introduction, 11/E by Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen 29 ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 SummarySummary  Most prison systems are overcrowdedMost prison systems are overcrowded  Prisoners have multiple problems thatPrisoners have multiple problems that contributed to their incarcerationcontributed to their incarceration  Some prisoners are dangerous andSome prisoners are dangerous and disruptivedisruptive  Security must be tight for high-riskSecurity must be tight for high-risk inmates (“supermax prisons”)inmates (“supermax prisons”)

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