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Sports in Jamaica: Opinion Polls

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Sports in Jamaica: Opinion Polls

  1. 1. Paul Andrew Bourne & Conroy Julian Emerging themes in Sports: The views of Jamaicans
  2. 2. Emerging themes in Sports: The views of Jamaicans Paul Andrew Bourne & Conroy Julian © Bourne and AMP, 2013 How to cite document: Bourne, P.A., & Julian, C. (2013). Emerging themes in sports: The views of Jamaicans. Kingston: Association of Media Professionals. 2
  3. 3. CONTENTS Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Methodology…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 Findings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11 Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………76 3
  4. 4. Introduction Sports has been big business in developed countries for many decades and Jamaica’s performance at the last three Olympics and World Championships has proven to be the catalyst for the development of sports as a viable industry in Jamaica. Despite Jamaica’s prowess in track and field and some negatives that have emerged, particularly doping of some top international track and field athletes, the issue of opinion sports poll is lacking in sports discourse. Information on sports are not singly the views of athletes, commentators, journalists and pundits, as the viewers (or followers) have a part to the play in the discourse of sports in the sporting arena. In the sporting arena, there is a paucity of information from the public on sporting issues, the views of the public are void in the academic literature and opinion polling. In the caribbean, many institutions, agents and individuals have assisted in framing policies, yet the views of the public are lacking on sports policy as well as general sporting issues. The country’s (Jamaica) first sports policy goes back to to 1994 out of which came the Sports Development Foundation (SDF), which has been providing funds for infrastructural development. In addition, the SDF has been providing assistance to national sporting organisations with recurrent expenditure. Like the newness of Jamaica’s sports policy, sports poll is ever newer and close to non-existence on the very sports policy. The discussions on sports policy have been fragmented in Jamaica, with many of them occurring in the bars, verandah, on the air, among colleagues and associates. The populace’s views on sports, sports policy and sports governance in the Caribbean, 4
  5. 5. particularly Jamaica, are unknown except from the vantage points of the fragmented constructions and perspectives. Is there a modified sports policy following in one in 1994? Another sports policy was drafted in 2009, which had sports research and innovation as one of the 10 pillars. Did it say ‘Sports research’? The other pillars are: Healthy Lifestyles; Sports Economy & Cultural Enrichment, Sports Tourism; Governance and Management of Sports; Doping Control, Athletes Development and Welfare; Sports Public Facility and Infrastructure; Sports as a Tool for Conflict Management; and Sports for Community and Youth Development. Although among the pillars of the drafted Sports policy was ‘sports research’, national opinion surveys on sports issues are lacking and even non-existence in Jamaica. The other tenets of the sports policy are more advance than ‘sports research’and this should not be the case as we a holistic perspective on this critical industry in the Caribbean, especially in Jamaica. Is it platitude that there we are serious about sports and sports development in the Caribbean region, particularly in Jamaica, that does not have a national sports policy? The latest development in the National Sports Policy was recently tabled ( ) in Parliament as a White Paper by the Minister Without Portfolio in the Office of the Prime Minister with responsibility for sports, Natalie Neita Headley. It was against this background and great level of interest showed by sports fans to sporting issues and results in the local medica which motived the Associaiton of Media Professionals (AMP) to conduct this scientific sports poll. The time has finally come that sees the general opinion 5
  6. 6. of Jamaicans on sporting issues. This is a move in the right direction as sports is more than the constructions and perspectives of gatekeepers, journalists, commentators, politicians and the athletes. A scientific study on sports from the vantage point of the views, sports lovers and sports haters. The probability sample survey on the opinions of Jamaicans on sports that was commissioned by AMP was conducted between December 2012 and January 10, 2013. The survey questions and findings over at least seven of the 10 pillars of the sports policy, which provides the views of populace on sports from a broad perspective.1 In the survey conducted by polling director, Dr. Paul Andrew Bourne, and Conroy Julian, the findings will be forwarded in this papers alongside 1) the methodology and method employed, and 2) a copy of the Survey Instrument (Appendix I). A post-positivism theoretical framework was employed to carrying out this research, which are comprehensively presented below and the findings of the research are in keeping with this theoretical underpinning. Like Crotty opined, the “theoretical perspective lies behind the methodology in question”(p. 2) and offers and explanation for findings of a research. 1 Aspects of this survey were published in the Jamaica Gleaner for February 17, 2013 and beyond. 6
  7. 7. Methodology This study employed a post-positivistic methodology. Post-positivism is a reform of logical positivism allowed for the examination of many issues without having to fulfill the assumptions of logical positivism while the inquiry was still in keeping with scientific perspectives (Brown, McGee and Anderson, 1992). The reformed logical positivistic perspective (post-positivism) made some adjustments to positivism while adhering to the basic assumptions of logical positivism: 1) realism, 2) objective truth, and 3) experimental methodology. Owing to the reflexivity of people, post-positivism was more in keeping with the social science as people with more social dynamics (changeable behaviour) unlike subjects in the natural sciences. The modified logical positivistic perspective allowed for the ethical issues in the inquiry of social phenomena as well as constructions and reductions, which were criticisms of logical positivism. Survey Research Survey research is well documented in the social sciences as a methodology which comes from positivism (or post-positivism) – (Crotty, 2005, 5). This methodology requires conceptualization and measurement of phenomenon as it seeks precision, objectivity and sometimes the forecasting of results (Blalock, 1982). According to Blalock (1982), “Conceptualization involves a series of processes by which theoretical constructs, ideas, and concepts are classified, distinguished, and given definitions that make it possible to reach a reasonable degree of consensus and understanding of the theoretical ideas we are 7
  8. 8. trying to express” (p. 11). Suggesting that survey research can be used to formulate and construct theories and/or laws, extensively evaluate issues and understand general issues. Blalock (1982) noted that “By measurement, we refer to the general process through which numbers are assigned to objects in such a fashion that it is also understood just what kinds of mathematical operations can legitimately be used” (p. 11). Hence, survey research is built around conceptualization, measurement and objectivity before it can be used to establish laws and/or theories. Crotty (2005, 6) aptly summarizes the research process using objectivistic epistemology in a diagrammatic manner highlighting the rationale for conceptualization and measurement in survey research: Objectivism Positivism Survey research Statistical analysis Figure 3.2: Four elements of objectivistic epistemology There is no denial that objectivism can be used to formulate social theories and/or laws, which can be accommodated by way of survey research and sometimes advanced multivariate statistical techniques. The present study seeks to generally understand a phenomenon in attempting to 1) test hypotheses, 2) generalize, 3) use scientific proposition 8
  9. 9. and 4) guide policy formulations; hence, the use of conceptualization and measurements, sampling, data analysis, and document reviews. Embedded in Crotty’s objectivistic schema is survey methodology, which is widely used by social scientists. Survey research allows for the falsification of propositions, generalization and theorizing because of its emphasis on 1) conceptualization, and 2) measurement (Kuhn, 1996; Blalock, 1982; Rosenberg, 1985). Rosenberg’s opined that “A proposition is scientific if and only if it is falsifiable” (Rosenberg, 1985, 1), suggesting a schema, gradual development of issues and a systematization in the study of any science. Sampling design and survey administration The finalized survey instrument comprised of twenty-five items, and administered to a stratified random sample of 300 respondents. A detailed questionnaire was developed to probe the perception of Jamaicans on particular sporting issues. The items include: • Sociodemographic questions, • Media and sports show, and • Sporting issues – sportsman, et cetera. • A multistage sampling approach was used to design the sample (Table 0) and data were collected using face-to-face interviews. Field workers were trained and assigned sampling quotas of 25 people per cluster. Within clusters, each was stratified by percentage of parish as it relates to the population of Jamaica and people were randomly selected for interview. 9
  10. 10. Table 0: Sampling design Parish Population Sampling Clarendon 247,109 (17.5%) 52 (17.5%) Kingston and St. Andrew 667,778 (47.2%) 142 (47.2%) St. Catherine 499,532 (35.3%) 106 (35.3%) Total 1,414,532 (52.4%) 300 Jamaica 2,698,810 Percentage Male 49.3 46.0 The data were collected over a one week period from Monday, January 14, 2013 to Sunday, Janaury 20, 2013, the response rate for the survey was 91.7%, with a sampling error of ± 6.0% at a 95% confidence level. 10
  11. 11. Findings Table 1 presents the socio-demographic characteristics on the sampled population. The sampled population consist of 275 Jamaican who were in the Kingston Metropolitan Area and Clarendon between Monday, January 14, 2013 and Sunday, Janaury 20, 2013. Fourteen out of every 25 respondents were females, with the others being males (11/25 respondents). Seventy-seven percentage points of the sample (n = 211) indicated being religious, with the average age of the sample being 29 years and 11 months and 39.3 percentage points being students. The mean age of males in the sample was 30.3 years ± 13.3 years, 95% CI: 27.9 – 32.6 compared to 25.9 years ± 11.0 years for females, 95%CI: 24.1 – 27.7 years old. Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of sample, n = 275 Characteristics n % Gender Male 126 46.0 Female 148 54.0 Employment status Student 106 39.3 Self-employed 71 26.3 Employed 71 26.3 Housewife 8 3.0 Unemployed 14 5.2 Subjective social class Lower (working) class 59 26.5 Lower-Middle class 75 27.4 Middle-Middle class 125 45.6 Upper-Middle class 10 3.6 Upper class 5 1.8 Religious status Yes 211 77.0 No 63 23.0 Age, Mean±SD 27.9 yrs ± 12.3yrs; 95% CI: 26.4 – 29.3 yrs. Min. 14 yrs. 11
  12. 12. Max. 74 yrs. 12
  13. 13. Table 2.1.1 summarizes the respondents’choice on the most populatior sports show aired on radio in Jamaica. Of the sampled respondents (n= 275), the response rate to this question was 97.5 percentage points. On the ‘Score Board – sports desk’aired on KLAS had the highest listenership (27.2%) followed by ‘What’s the Score’aired on Irie FM (26.1%). Table 2.1.1: Most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica, n = 268 Characteristics N Percentage Score Board-&-Sports desk (KLAS) 73 27.2 Sports Nation – Power 106 42 15.7 Sports Grill – Hits 92 FM 59 22.0 What’s the Score, Irie FM 70 26.1 In the stands, New Talk 93FM 24 9.0 TOTAL 268 100.0 13
  14. 14. Figure 1a(i): Most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica 14
  15. 15. Of the sampled respondents, 85 percentage points were sports fans. Figure 1a(ii) depicts information on the most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica by Sports Fan (or not). Of those who indicated that they were sports fans, the highest percentage points listened to ScoreBoard-&-Sports Desk (28.1 percentage points) followed by ‘What’s the score on Irie FM’(25.4 percentage points). Figure 1a(ii): Most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica by Sports Fan (or not) 15
  16. 16. Table 2.1.2: Most popular sports show aired on radio by subjective social class, n = 268 Most popular sports show aired on radio Subjective Social Class Total Lower Lower-Middle Middle-Middle Upper-Middle Upper Score Board-&-Sports Desk 19 (33.9%) 12 (16.2%) 38 (30.4%) 1 (12.5%) 3 (60.0%) 73 (27.2%) Sports Nation-Power 106 6 (10.7%) 13 (17.6%) 22 (17.6%) 1 (12.5%) 0 (0.0%) 42 (15.7%) Sports-Grill-Hits 92FM 7 (12.5%) 20 (27.0%) 30 (24.0%) 1 (12.5%) 1 (20.0%) 59 (22.0%) what's the score, Irie FM 17 (30.4%) 22 (29.7%) 25 (20.0%) 5 (62.5%) 1 (20.0%) 70 (26.1%) In the stands, News Talk 93.5FM 7 (12.5%) 7 (9.5%) 10 (8.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 24 (9.0%) Total 56 74 125 8 5 268 χ2= 21.947, P = 0.145 16
  17. 17. Table 2.1.3: Most popular sports show aired on radio by gender, n = 268 Most popular sports show aired on radio Gender Total Male Female Score Board-&-Sports Desk 38 (30.6%) 35 (24.3%) 73 (27.2%) Sports Nation-Power 106 14 (11.3%) 28 (19.4%) 42 (15.7%) Sports-Grill-Hits 92FM 28 (22.6%) 31 (21.5%) 59 (22.0%) what's the score, Irie FM 33 (26.6%) 37 (25.7%) 70 (26.1%) In the stands, News Talk 93.5FM 11 (8.9%) 13 (9.0%) 24 (9.0%) Total 124 144 268 χ2= 3.876, P = 0.424 17
  18. 18. Table 2.1.4: Most popular sports show aired on radio by employment status, n =264 Employment status Most popular sports show aired on radio Total Student Self-Employed Employed Housewife Unemployed Score Board-&-Sports Desk 21 22 23 2 1 69 20.0% 32.8% 32.9% 25.0% 7.1% 26.1% Sports Nation-Power 106 18 10 11 3 0 42 17.1% 14.9% 15.7% 37.5% 0.0% 15.9% Sports-Grill-Hits 92FM 24 13 16 2 4 59 22.9% 19.4% 22.9% 25.0% 28.6% 22.3% what's the score, Irie FM 32 14 16 1 7 70 30.5% 20.9% 22.9% 12.5% 50.0% 26.5% In the stands, News Talk 93.5FM 10 8 4 0 2 24 9.5% 11.9% 5.7% 0.0% 14.3% 9.1% Total 105 67 70 8 14 264 χ2= 18.990, P = 0.269 18
  19. 19. People who listen to sports shows aired on radio in Jamaica differ based on age cohorts (χ2 = 30.103, P = 0.003). Listeners to Score Board-sports desk are more likely to be older people (41 years old) compared to younger ages (less than 40 years old). Of people less than 20 year old, only 21.2 percentage points of them listened to Score Board-sports desk and 23.6 percentage points of those 21 to 40 years old. More information is provided in Table 2.1.5 (or Figure 1b). Table 2.1.5: Most popular sports show aired on radio by age cohort, n =267 Most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica by Age cohort Age Group Total Less than 20 years old 21 to 40 years old 41 to 60 years old 61 to 80 years old Score Board-&-Sports Desk 21 30 18 4 73 21.2% 23.6% 51.4% 66.7% 27.3% Sports Nation-Power 106 14 27 1 0 42 14.1% 21.3% 2.9% 0.0% 15.7% Sports-Grill-Hits 92FM 23 29 6 0 58 23.2% 22.8% 17.1% 0.0% 21.7% what's the score, Irie FM 30 33 7 0 70 30.3% 26.0% 20.0% 0.0% 26.2% 93.5FM 11 8 3 2 24 11.1% 6.3% 8.6% 33.3% 9.0% Total 99 127 35 6 267 19
  20. 20. Figure 1b presents information on the most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica by age cohort. Figure 1b: Most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica by Age group 20
  21. 21. Whether the respondents indicated that they were religious or not, there was a high listenership of sports programmes aired on radio in Jamaica (χ2 = 1.419, P = 0.841). Eighty- seven and seven tenth percentage points of listeners to the score board indicated that they were religious compared to 79.2 percentage points of those who listened to ‘What’s the Score on Irie FM’ (see Figure 1c). 21
  22. 22. Figure 1c: Most popular sports show aired on radio in Jamaica by Religious status Three out of every 4 respondents indicated that Captain Horace Burrell was the most popular sports administrator in Jamaica (See Figure 2) followed by Lynden Wright 8.4 percentage points. Figure 2a: Most popular sports administrator in Jamaica 22
  23. 23. Age group of respondents did not make a difference in how people saw the most popular sports administrator in Jamaica (χ2 = 16.358, P = 0.175). The minimun percentage points of respondents who indicated that Captain Horace Burrell was the most popular sports administrator was 70.8, which was age group 21 to 40 years old with the maximum being 88.3 percentage points of those 41 to 60 years old (Figure 2b). 23
  24. 24. Figure 2b: Most popular sports administrator in Jamaica by Age Group 24
  25. 25. Figure 2c depicts a graphical display of the most popular sports administrator in Jamaica by gender of respondents. Eighty-one percentage points of males indicated that the most popular sports administrator in Jamaica was Captain Horace Burrell compared to 69.6 percentage points of females. Figure 2c: Most popular sports administrator in Jamaica by Gender 25
  26. 26. Of the sampled population (n = 275), the response rate for the question ‘Who is your favourate Jamaican Coach’was 98.2 percentage points. Of those who responded to the aforementioned question, Glen Mills atop the listing of candidates with 37.0 percentage points followed by Neville Bell with 32.6 percentage points (See Figure 3). Figure 3a: Favourite Coach in Jamaica 26
  27. 27. Respondents’views on ‘Favourite Coach in Jamaica’ differ based on their gender (χ2 = 10.5, p = 0.033; Figure 3b). Almost two times the number of females indicated that Glen Mills was their favourite coach in Jamaica compared to males. Figure 3b: Favourite Coach in Jamaica by gender 27
  28. 28. More older people (61+ age group) indicated that Steven Francis was their favourite coach in Jamaica compared to those in younger age, which was not the case for Glen Mills (Figure 3c). Figure 3c: Favourite Coach in Jamaica by Age group 28
  29. 29. . 29
  30. 30. Figure 4 shows a summary of respondents’ choices on their favourite sport. Five and nine tenth percentage points more respondents indicated football over track and field (29.67%). Figure 4a: Favourite Sports 30
  31. 31. People’s choices on their ‘Favourite Sports’ differ based on gender of respondents (χ2= 30.495, P < 0.0001; Figure 4b). Forty-seven percentage points of males indicated that their favourite sports is football compared to 25.9 percentage points of females. Three times more males choice horce racing as their favourite sports compared to females and 12.8 times more females choice netball compared to males. 31
  32. 32. Figure 4b: Favourite Sports by gender 32
  33. 33. Figure 4c displays the favourite sports of respondents by age group. Cricket and other sports are more middle-to-elderly sports compared to football as well as netball which is younger people game. The only sport that is marginal differences across the age cohort is Track and Field, and in fact share the same percentage points of elderly-lovers as in Other sports and Cricket. Figure 4c: Favourite Sports by age group 33
  34. 34. Figure 4d: Favourite Sports by Sports show aired on Jamaican radio Figure 4d: Favourite Sports by Sports show aired on Jamaican radio 34
  35. 35. Table X(i): Sports show aired on Jamaican radio by Favourite sports Score Board-sports desk Sports Nation- Power 106 Sports-Grill-Hits 92FM what's the score, Irie FM 93.5FM n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Cricket 18 (24.7) 4 (9.5) 11 (18.6) 5 (7.1) 6 (25.0) Football 20 (27.4) 17 (40.5) 21 (35.6) 29 (41.4) 7 (29.2) Track and Field 22 (30.1) 13 (31.0) 17 (28.8) 24 (34.3) 5 (20.8) Netball 2 (2.7) 3 (7.1) 5 (8.5) 5 (7.1) 0 (0.0) Horse Racing 1 (1.4) 1 (2.4) 1 (1.7) 1 (1.4) 0 (0.0) Other 10 (13.7) 4 (9.5) 4 (6.8) 6 (8.6) 6 (25.0) Total 73 42 59 70 24 35
  36. 36. Table x (ii): Favourite sports by Sports show aired on Jamaican radio Cricket Football Track and Field Netball Horse Racing Other Score Board-Sports Desk 18 (40.9) 20 (21.3) 22 (27.2) 2 (13.3) 1 (25.0) 10 (33.3) Sports Nation-Power 106 4 (9.1) 17 (18.1) 13 (16.0) 3 (20.0) 1 (25.0) 4 (13.3) Sports-Grill-Hits 92FM 11 (25.0) 21 (22.3) 17 (21.0) 5 (33.3) 1 (25.0) 4 (13.3) what's the score, Irie FM 5 (11.4) 29 (30.9) 24 (29.6) 5 (33.3) 1 (25.0) 6 (20.0) 93.5FM 6 (13.6) 7 (7.4) 5 (6.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (20.0) Total 44 94 81 15 4 30 36
  37. 37. Thirteen out of every 20 respondents indicated that they support the transfer of athletes from one school to another (See Figure 5a). Figure 5a: Support (or not) for the transfer of athletes from one high school to another 37
  38. 38. Figure 5b displays the support (or not) for the transfer of athletes from one high school to another by gender of respondents. When the figure was disaggregated by gender of respondents, 59.9% (n = 88) of females supported the transfer of student athletes from one high school to another compared to 70.4% (n=88) of males, with there being no significant statistical association between ‘support (or not) for student athletes from one school to another’and gender of respondents (χ2 = 3.284, P = 0.070; Figure 5b). Figure 5b: Support (or not) for the transfer of athletes from one high school to another by gender 38
  39. 39. Seventy-one percentage points of those age 41-60 years old supported the transfer of athletes from one high school to another compared to 50.0 percentage points of those 61+ years old, and 66.7 percentage points of those less than 21-40 years old. Figure 5c: Support (or not) for the transfer of athletes from one high school to another by Age group 39
  40. 40. The majority of the respondents indicated that a losing team in a game of footbal can play a better game than a winning team (71%, n = 193). The mean age of those who indicated yes was 28.4 years ± 14.0 years compared to those who responded no being 27.7 years ± 28.4 years (t-test = 0.581, P = 0.692). Sixty-eight percentage points ( n = 100) of females indicated yes to statement ‘In the game of football: Can a losing team plays better than a winning team’ compared to 73.8 percentage points of males (n = 93), with there being no signficant statistical relationship between a yes or no response for the question In the game of football: Can a losing team plays better than a winning team? and gender (χ2 = 1.095, P = 0.295). Figure 6a: Can a losing team in a game of footbal play a better than a winning team 40
  41. 41. In the game of football: Can a losing team play better than the winning team by gender of respondents revealed that 73.8 percentage points of males indicated yes compared to 68.0 percentage points of females (χ2 = 1.095, P = 0.181). Figure 6b: In the game of football: Can a losing team play better than the winning team by gender 41
  42. 42. Figure 6c depicts information on ‘In the game of football: Can a losing team play better than the winning team’ by Age group. The majority of the elderly respondents (83.3 percentage points) indicated yes compare to those 41-60 years old (57.1 percentage points) and 67.3 percentage points of those less than 20 years old. Figure 6c: In the game of football: Can a losing team play better than the winning team by Age group 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. Table 3 presents a summary of respondents’choices on their current favourite males and female sprinters in the world. Atop the listing of sprinters in the world was Usain Bolt (54.0 percentage points) and Shelly-Ann Fraser (67.4 percentage points). A statistical association existed between gender of respondents on male sprinters in the world (χ2 = 7.935, P = 0.047), with 59.5 percentage points (n= 75) of males indicated Usain Bolt compared to 49.3 percentage points of females (n = 72). Similarly a significant statistical relationship existed between respondents’choice of current female world sprinter and gender of respondents (χ2 = 10.491, P = 0.033), with 74.1 percentage points (n = 109) of female respondents indicated Shelly-Ann Fraser compared to 59.5 percentage points of males (n = 75). Table 3: Currently favourite Sprinter Details n % Details n % Male Female Yohan Blake 105 38.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser 184 67.4 Usain Bolt 147 54.0 Veronica Campbell 70 25.6 Tyson Gaye 7 2.6 Carmelita Jeter 12 4.4 Justin Gatlin 3 1.1 Allyson Felix 3 1.1 Other 10 3.7 Other 4 1.5 TOTAL 272 100.0 273 100.0 44
  45. 45. When the respondents were asked who is currently their favourite male sprinter 54 percentage points indicated Usain Bolt followed by Yohan Blake (38.6 percentage points), Justin Gatlin (4.8 percentage points) and lastly Tyson Gaye (2.8 percentage points) – Figure 7. Figure 7: Currently, Favourite Male Sprinter 45
  46. 46. Figure 8 shows a graphical presentation on who is currently respondents’ favourite female sprinter. Of the sampled-respondents, 67.4 percentage points of them indicated Shelly-Ann Fraser-Brown followed by Veronica Campbell-Brown (25.6 percentage points), and in distant third is Carmelita Jetta (4.4 percentage points). Figure 8: Currently, Favourite Female Sprinter 46
  47. 47. Ten and two-tenths percentage points more males than females indicated that Usain Bolt is currently their favourite male sprinter, while 3.9 percentage points more females than males indicated Yohan Blake and other comparison are highlighted in Figure 9. 47
  48. 48. Figure 9: Currently, Favourite Male Sprinter by gender 48
  49. 49. Seventy-five percentage points of females indicated that their current favourite female athlete is Shelly-Ann Fraser-Brown compared to 59.5 percentage points of males. On the other hand, more males indicated that Veronica Campbell-Brown is currently their favourite female sprinter (31.8 percentage points) compared to 20.4 percentage points of females. Furthermore, substantially more males as well as females indicated that currently their favourite female sprinter is Shell-Ann Fraser compared to any other female sprinter (Figure 10). Figure 10: Currently, Favourite Female Sprinter by gender 49
  50. 50. Substantially more respondents’ ages 41-to-60 years old indicated that Usain Bolt is currently their favourite male sprinter compared to the other age cohorts, and more people in all ages range declared that Usain Bolt is currently their favourite male sprinter than for the other sprinters (Figure 12). Figure 12: Currently, Favourite Male Sprinter by Age group 50
  51. 51. Figure 13 is a graphical display of respondents’views on ‘Who is currently their favourite female sprinter’ by age groups. The least 66 percentage points in each age cohort declaired that Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce is currently their favourite female sprinter, which is at least twice the percentage points of aged people in who chose different female sprinters (Figure 13). Figure 13: Currently, Favourite Female Sprinter 51
  52. 52. Table 4 presents information on respondents’choices as to whether Lionel Messi (ie. Messi) of Argentina is a great football player and this is disaggregated by gender of participants. The response rate to the question ‘Do you think Lionel Messi of Argentina is a great football player?’ was 99.3 percentage points (n = 273). Two in every 3 respondents indicated yes ( n = 181), with 61.2 percentage points of females stating yes compared to 72.2 percentage points of males. Table 4: Lionel Messi (ie. Messi) of Argentina is a great football player Details Gender of respondent Total n (%)Male Female Yes 91 (72.2) 90 (61.2) 181 (66.3) No 20 (15.9) 26 (17.7) 46 (16.8) Not Sure 15 (11.9) 31 (21.1) 46 (16.8) Total 126 147 273 χ2 = 4.766, P = 0.092 52
  53. 53. Figure 14: Lionel Messi (i.e. Messi) of Argentina is a great football player by gender 53
  54. 54. One in every 2 individuals age 61-to-80 years indicated that Messi is a great football compared to 59.7 percentage points of those 21-to-40 years old, 71.3 percentage points of those less than 20 years old and 77.8 percentage of people age 41-to-60 years old (Figure 15). Meaning that elderly people (60+ years old) are least likely to believe that Messi is a great football player compared to younger people, particularly those 41-to-60 years old. Figure 15: Lionel Messi (i.e. Messi) of Argentina is a great football player by age groups 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. Four in every 5 people in the affluent social class indicated that Messi is a great football player compared to 7 out of 10 of those in the upper-middle class and the least being among those in the working class (7 out of 13) – Figure 16. Figure 16(i): Lionel Messi (i.e. Messi) of Argentina is a great football player by subjective social class 56
  57. 57. Figure 16(ii) show a graphical display of Lionel Messi (i.e. Messi) of Argentina being a great football player by the Sports show aired on Jamaican radio. Three in four listener to Score Baord-&-Sports Desk indicated that Lionel Messi is a great footballer player with only one in every two of those who listened to 93.5FM. Figure 16(ii): Lionel Messi (i.e. Messi) of Argentina is a great football player by subjective social class 57
  58. 58. When the respondents were asked ‘Would you put Lionel Messi in the same class as: Pele, Maradona and Zidanne?’ 49.1 percentage points indicated yes, with 19.8 percentage points being unsure. A significant statistical associated emerged between ‘Lionel Messi being a great football players compared to Pele, Maradona and Zidanne’ and the gender of respondents (χ2 = 7.212, P = 0.027), with more males stating yes (54.4 percentage points) than females (44.6 percentage points). Table 5: Lionel Messi (ie. Messi) compared to Pele, Maradona and Zidanne by gender Details Gender of respondent Total n (%)Male Female Yes 68 (54.4) 68 (44.6) 134 (49.1) No 41 (32.8) 44 (29.7) 85 (31.1) Not Sure 16 (12.8) 38 (25.7) 54 (19.8) Total 125 148 273 χ2 = 7.212, P = 0.027 Figure 17: Lionell Messi compared to Pele, Maradona and Zidanne by gender 58
  59. 59. When the sampled respondents were asked ‘Did you support the Jamaican government’s decision to give cash incentive to athletes who represented the country at the London Olympics?’, the majority indicated yes (71.1 percentage points; Figure 18a) with there being no statistical relationship between the previously mentioned question and gender of respondents (χ2 = 1.905, P = 0.386). Sixty-eight and seven tenth percentage points (n = 101) of females indicated yes compared to 73.8 percentage points of males (n = 93) – Figure 18b. Figure 18a: Cash Incentives for Olympians in 2012 London Olympics 59
  60. 60. Figure 18b: Cash Incentives for Olympians in 2012 London Olympics by the government by gender 60
  61. 61. Figure 18c shows ‘Cash Incentives for Olympians in 2012 London Olympics’ by Age group. Eighty-three percentage points of those 41-60 years old indicated that the altheles should have been given cash incentives compared to 73.9 percentage points of those 21-40 years old and 65.4 percentage points of those 61-80 years old. Figure 18c: Cash Incentives for Olympians in 2012 London Olympics by Age group 61
  62. 62. Figure 19a and Table 6 show a gender perspective of respondents on the issue of ‘whether Usain Bolt should run the 400m at the next World Championships’. Of the sampled respondents (n = 275), the response rate was ninety-eight and nine tenth percentage points. Seventy-seven percentage points of those who responded to the question indicated yes, with 80.1 percentage points of females stating yes compared to 72.2 percentage points of males (χ2 = 3.194, P = 0.203). Figure 19a: Perception as to whether Usain Bolt should run the 400m at the next World Championships 62
  63. 63. Eighty-three and three-tenth percentage points of those 61+ years old would like to see Usain Bolt run the 400m compared to 81.2 percentage points of those less than 20 years old, 68.6 percentage points of the 41-to-60 years old and 74.4 percentage points of those ages 21-to-40 years old (Figure 19b). Figure 19b: Perception as to whether Usain Bolt should run the 400m at the next World Championships by Age group 63
  64. 64. Table 6: Should Usain Bolt run the 400m in the next World Campionships by gender Details Gender of respondent Total n (%)Male Female Yes 91 (72.2) 117 (80.1) 208 (76.5) No 34 (27.0) 29 (19.9) 63 (23.2) Not Sure 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) Total 126 146 272 χ2 = 3.194, P = 0.203 64
  65. 65. Figure 20 and Table 7 show a gender perspective of respondents on the issue of ‘Gov’t and Kingston Cricket Club ensure Floodlights installation at Sabina Park ’. Of the sampled respondents (n = 275), the response rate was ninety-nine and three tenth percentage points. Eighty-seven and five tenth percentage points of those who responded to the question indicated yes, with 82.9 percentage points of females stating yes compared to 92.9 percentage points of males (χ2 =6.450, P = 0.040). Figure 20: Gov’t and Kingston Cricket Club ensure Floodlights installation at Sabina Park by gender 65
  66. 66. Table 7.1.1: Gov’t and Kingston Cricket Club ensure Floodlights installation at Sabina Park by gender Details Gender of respondent Total n (%)Ensure Male Female Yes 117 (92.9) 121 (82.9) 238 (87.5) No 9 (7.1) 24 (16.4) 33 (12.1) Not Sure 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.4) Total 126 146 272 χ2 = 6.450, P = 0.040 66
  67. 67. Table 7.1.2 presents information on whether government and the Kingston Cricket Club ensure that floodlights are installed at Sabina Park. The perception of people in sample as it relatest to government and the Kingston Cricket Club ensuring floodlights installation at Sabina Park did not differ irrespective of the individual’s social class (χ2 = 4.764, P = 0.783). Meaning respondents had a strong belief that the government and the Kingston Cricket Club should ensure the installation of floodlights at Sabina Park irrespective of the subjective social class the individual identified himself/herself in. Table 7.1.2: Gov’t and Kingston Cricket Club ensure Floodlights installation at Sabina Park by subjective social class Subjective Social Class Ensure Floodlights installation at Sabina Park Total Lower Lower-Middle Middle-Middle Upper-Middle Upper Yes n 50 66 110 8 4 238 87.7% 88.0% 88.0% 80.0% 80.0% 87.5% No n 6 9 15 2 1 33 10.5% 12.0% 12.0% 20.0% 20.0% 12.1% Not sure n 1 0 0 0 0 1 1.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% Total 57 75 125 10 5 272 χ2 = 4.764, P = 0.783 67
  68. 68. Table 7.1.3 presents information on the Perception of respondents on government and Kingston Cricket Club ensuring the installation of floodlights at Sabina Park by Religious belief. Of the 87.5 percentage points of respondents who support the government and Kingston Cricket Club ensuring the installation of floodlights at Sabina Park, 88.0 percentage points were religious compared to 85.7 percentage points who were not religious, with there being no significant association between the tested variables (χ2 = 0.239, P = 0.625). Table 7.1.3: Perception of respondents on government and Kingston Cricket Club ensuring the installation of floodlights at Sabina Park by Religious belief , n= 272 Details Religious people Total No Yes n (%) n (%) n (%) Support of floodlights At Sabina Park No 9 (14.3) 25 (12.0) 34 (12.5) Yes 54 (85.7) 184 (88.0) 238 (87.5) Total 63 209 272 χ2 = 0.239, P = 0.625 68
  69. 69. When the respondents were asked ‘Should the Jamaica Athletics Administrative Association enquire into the release the findings into the performance of hurder Melanie Walker at the 2012 London Olympics?’, the majority of the said yes (71.6 percentage points, n = 194), See Figure 21a. Figure 21a: Investigation of Melanie Walker’s performance at the London Olympics, 2012 69
  70. 70. An examination of the data for the aforementioned question and gender of the respondents revealed no statistical association between the variables (χ2 = 1.819, P = 0.403), with 74.5 percentage points of females indicated yes compared to 68 percentage points of males (see Figure 21b). Figure 21b: Investigation of Melanie Walker’s performance at the London Olympics, 2012 by gender 70
  71. 71. Irrespective of the age group of respondents, they believed that there should be an investigation of Melanie Walkers’performance (or lack of) at the 2012 London Olympics and that the findings should be make public (χ2 = 2.116, P = 0.909). In fact, 72 percentage points of those less than 20 years old indicated that the matter should be investigated and made public compared to 69.5 percentage points of those 20 to 40 years old; 74.3 percentage points of those 41 t0 60 years old and 83.3 percentage points of those 60 to 80 years old (Figure 21c). Figure 21c: Investigation of Melanie Walker’s performance at the London Olympics, 2012 by Age group 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. When the respondents were asked ‘Who would you vote for as sportsman of the Year (2012)?’, the majority indicated Usain Bolt (70.9 percentage points) – See Figure 22. On disaggregating the figures by gender, 71.6 percentage points of females indicated Usain Bolt compared to 69.8 percentage points of males (see Table 8 and Figure 23). Figure 22: Choice of sportsman of the year 73
  74. 74. Figure 23: Choice of sportman of the year (2012) by gender 74
  75. 75. Table 8: Choice of sportsman of the year (2012) by gender Choice of sportsman of the year (2012) Gender Total Male Female Usain Bolt 88 (69.8%) 106 (71.6%) 194 (70.8%) Nicholas Walters 15 (11.9%) 12 (8.1%) 27 (9.9%) Yohan Blake 14 (11.1%) 21 (14.2%) 35 (12.8%) Marlon Samuels 3 (2.4%) 4 (2.7%) 7 (2.6%) Chris Gayle 6 (4.8%) 5 (3.4%) 11 (4.0%) Total 126 148 274 χ2 = 1.883, P 0.757 75
  76. 76. The majority of the respondents indicated that Shelly-Ann Fraser is their choice of sportswoman of the year for 2012 (71.3 percentage points) – Figure 24, with no significant statistical association existed between respondents’choice and their gender (χ2 = 4.530, P = 0.333). However, a picturograph of the disaggregated results can be seen in Figure 25. Figure 24: Choice of sportswomen of the year (2012) 76
  77. 77. Figure 25: Choice of sportswoman of the year (2012) by gender of respondents 77
  78. 78. The views of the respondents on the choice of sportsman of the year (2012) did not differ based on their gender (χ2 = 3.416, P = 0.491) – Table 9. Table 9: Choice of sportsman of the year (2012) by sport (or not) fans, n= 275 Details Sport fan Total n (%)Yes n (%) No n (%) Usain Bolt 168 (72.1) 27 (64.3) 195 (70.9) Nicholas Walters 22 (9.4) 5 (11.9) 27 (9.8) Yohan Blake 27 (11.6) 8 (19.0) 35 (12.7) Marlon Samuels 7 (3.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (2.5) Chris Gayle 9 (3.9) 2 (4.8) 11 (4.0) Total 233 42 275 χ2 = 3.416, P = 0.491 78
  79. 79. The views of the respondents on the choice of sportswoman of the year (2012) differ based on their gender (χ2 = 9.648, P = 0.047) – Table 10. Table 10: Choice of sportswoman of the year (2012) by sport (or not) fans, n= 275 Details Sport fan Total n (%)Yes n (%) No n (%) Shelly-Ann Fraser 171 (73.4) 25 (59.5) 196 (71.3) Veronica Campbell 31 (13.3) 13 (31.0) 44 (16.0) Alia Atkinson 27 (11.6) 3 (19.0) 30 (10.9) Stephanie Taylor 2 (0.9) 1 (2.4) 3 (1.1) Keliese Spencer 2 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.7) Total 233 42 275 χ2 = 9.648, P = 0.047 79
  80. 80. Of the sampled respondents (n=275), 98.9 percentage points responded to this question. Seventy- two and one tenth percentage points of respondents indicated that they agreed with government providing funding more twenty four more tennis courts islandwide (ie. Jamaica; Table 11 or Figure 26). Table 11: Government should provide funding for twenty four more tennis courts in Jamaica, n = 272 Details n Percentage points Strongly agree 102 37.5 Agree 94 34.6 Disagree 53 16.5 Strongly disagree 23 8.4 Total 272 100 80
  81. 81. Figure 26: Government should provide funding for twenty four more tennis courts in Jamaica 81
  82. 82. Table 12 presents a summarize of respondents choices as it relates to ‘Local sports organization should reserve a Chair on their Board of Directors for Jamaican Own Firms registered overseas’. Seventy-eight and one tenth percentage points of the respondents at least agreed with the aforementioned statement (or Figure 27). Table 12: Local sports organization should reserve a Chair on their Board of Directors for Jamaican Own Firms registered overseas, n = 270 Details n Percentage points Strongly agree 87 32.2 Agree 124 45.9 Disagree 43 15.9 Strongly disagree 16 5.9 Total 270 100 82
  83. 83. Figure 27: Local sports organization should reserve a Chair on their Board of Directors for Jamaica own firms registered overseas. 83
  84. 84. Sixty-five and two tenth percentage points of respondents at least agree with the statement that Government ought not to give direct funding to individuals athletes/sportsmen who show great potential but give the funds to the governing body for the sport instead’ (Table 13). Table 13: Government ought not to give direct funding to individuals athletes/sportsmen who show great potential but give the funds to the governing body for the sport instead, n = 273 Details n Percentage points Strongly agree 98 35.9 Agree 80 29.3 Disagree 62 22.7 Strongly disagree 33 12.1 Total 273 100 84
  85. 85. The majority of the sample was religious (84.7 percentage points; Table ). Table : Religious belief (or not) of respondents, n = 275 Details n Percentage points Yes 233 84.7 No 42 15.3 Total 275 100 85
  86. 86. Appendix One SPORTS ISSUES SURVEY, 2013 ©AMPS and BOURNE, 2013. All rights reserved INSTRUCTIONS This survey is to probe Jamaicans’ VIEWS on current sporting issues. Please read each question carefully and indicate your response by placing a check mark or writing your answer in the space provided. In order to maintain confidentiality, no marks or name should be placed on the paper that can be used to identify the response back to you. If at any time in the process you care uncomfortable, you may withdraw and return the instrument. SECTION ONE: Demographic data 1. What is your age at last birthday?_________________________ 2. What is your gender? [ 1 ] Male [ 2 ] Female 3. What is your employment status [ 1 ] Student [ 2 ] Self-Employed [ 3 ] Employed [ 4 ] Housewife [ 5 ] Unemployable 4. What best represents your current social class? Lower (working) class [ 1 ] Lower-Middle class [ 2] Middle-Middle class [ 3] Upper-Middle class [ 4 ] Upper class [ 5] 5. Are you religious? [ ] Yes [ ] No 86
  87. 87. SECTION TWO: Sporting issues 6. Name the most popular sports show on radio in Jamaica 1. Score Board-Sports Desk [ ] 2. Sports Nation-Power 106 [ ] 3. Sports Grill- Hits 92.fm [ ] 4. What’s the Score, Irie Fm [ ] 5. In the Stands, 93FM [ ] 7. What is the most popular Sport Administrator in Jamaica 1. Captain Horace Burrell Football [ ] 2. John Bailey of Tennis [ ] 3. Steven Jones of Boxing [ ] 4. Warrington Dixon of Volley Ball [ ] 5. Lynden Wright of Cricket [ ] 8. Who is your favourite Coach 1. Steven Francis [ ] 2. Glen Mills [ ] 3. Neville Bell [ ] 4. Theodore Whitmore [ ] 5. Junior Bennett [ ] 9. Which is your favourite Sport 1. Cricket [ ] 2. Football [ ] 87
  88. 88. 3. Track and Field [ ] 4. Netball [ ] 5. Horse Racing [ ] 6. Other------------------- [ ] 10. Do you support the Transfer of Athletes from one High School to another? Yes [ ] No [ ] 11. In the game of football: Can a losing team play better than a winning team? Yes [ ] No [ ]. 12. Currently who is your favourite Male Sprinter 1. Yohan Blake [ ] 2. Usain Bolt [ ] 3. Tyson Gaye [ ] 4. Justin Gatlin [ ] 13. Currently who is your favourite female Sprinter 1. Shelly-Ann Fraser [ ] 2. Veronica Campbell-Brown [ ] 3. Carmelita Jeter [ ] 4. Allyson Felix [ ] 5. Other_________________________ [ ] 88
  89. 89. 14. Do you think Lionel Messi of Argentina is a great football player? 1. Yes [ ] 2. No [ ] 3. Not sure [ ] 15. Would you put Lionel Messi in the Same Class as: Pele, Maradona, Zidanne? 1. Yes [ ] 2. No. [ ] 3. Not sure [ ] 16. Did you support the Jamaican Government Decision to give cash incentive for athletes who represented the Country at the London Olympics? 1. Yes [ ] 2. No. [ ] 3. Not sure. [ ] 17. Should Usain Bolt Run the 400 Meters at this year’s World Championships. 1. Yes [ ] 2. No [ ] 18. Should the Government and Kingston Cricket Club ensure that Sabina Park equipped with Floodlights this Year? 1. Yes [ ] 2. No. [ ] 19. Should the Jamaica Athletics Administrative Association enquire into and release the findings into the performance of Hurdler Melaine Walker at the 2012 London Olympics? 89
  90. 90. 1. Yes [ ] 2. No. [ ] 20. Who would you have voted for as sportsman of the Year? 1. Usain Bolt [ ] 2. Nicholas Walters [ ] 3. Yohan Blake [ ] 4. Marlon Samuels [ ] 5. Chris Gayle [ ] 21. Who would you have voted for as Sports Woman of the Year 1. Shelly-Ann Fraser [ ] 2. Veronica Campbell- Brown [ ] 3. Alia Atkinson [ ] 4. Stephanie Taylor [ ] 5. Keliese Spencer [ ] 22. There are only four public tennis courts in Jamaica; Government should provide funding for twenty- four more courts Islandwide. 1. Strongly Agree [ ] 2. Agree [ ] 3. Disagree [ ] 4. Strongly Disagree [ ] 23. Local sports organization should reserve a Chair on their Board of Directors for Jamaican Own Firms registered overseas. 1. Strongly Agree [ ] 2. Agree [ ] 90
  91. 91. 3. Disagree [ ] 4. Strongly Disagree [ ] 24. Government ought not to give direct funding to individual athletes/sportsmen who show great potential but give the funds to the governing body for the sport instead. 1. Strongly Agree [ ] 2. Agree [ ] 3. Disagree [ ] 4. Strongly Disagree [ ] 25. Are you a sport fan? 1. Yes [ ] 2. No [ ] ..END…Thank You 91

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