Nanotechnology4 all 15.10.08


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Presentation given in 2008 as a result of inventory how Nanotechnology is being handled in the Netherlands

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Nanotechnology4 all 15.10.08

  1. 2. Survey on good practices in handling nanoparticles. - Survey in 37 companies in Netherlands- Paul Borm, Remko Houba, and Fenneke Linker.
  2. 3. Current survey of use of Nanomaterials - study questions <ul><li>Use of nanomaterials in NL and number of exposed workers? </li></ul><ul><li>Measures to prevent exposure and risk (RI&E)? </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for non-intervention? </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of best-practices? </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacy of best-practices and methods? </li></ul><ul><li>How to disseminate best-practices? </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of data on toxicity of nanomaterials in the value chain? </li></ul><ul><li>Specific waste-management or recycling? </li></ul>
  3. 4. 122 companies approached 60 companies relevant for survey 37 companies participated (62%) 49 no nanomaterials 8 no applications in NL 5 other 10 non-responders 6 convinced: ‘no risk’ 7 other
  4. 6. Number of exposed workers <ul><li>37 companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>41.000 employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently approx. 400 exposed workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total: 1% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small companies: up to 35% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large companies: 0.5% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Main type of nanomaterials <ul><li>Nanosilver </li></ul><ul><li>Metal-oxides (Al, Fe, Ti, Sn, Zn, Sb, Ce) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon black </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotubes (CNT) </li></ul><ul><li>Clays </li></ul><ul><li>Silica, amorphous </li></ul><ul><li>Fullerenes (C 60 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Underlined: used in largest quantities (kg/tons) </li></ul>
  6. 8. Risk assessment within companies <ul><li>34 (92%) specific risk-assessment for nanoparticles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 on application level (project) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 no risk with current control measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 risk assesment inconclusive yet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 on company level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific company policy for nanomaterials (see later) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Occupational hygiene strategies by approach
  8. 10. Other factors <ul><li>Type and number of control measures mainly determined by the physical form </li></ul><ul><li>No differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of company (research, private) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of nanoparticles used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the company </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Validation of risk assessement <ul><li>29 companies (78%): not supported by any exposure measurements </li></ul><ul><li>8 companies (22%): some kind of exposure measurements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 gravimetric only (nanoparticles?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 chemical analyses of specific component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 meas. with condensation particle counter (CPC) and/or air sampling analyzed with SEM/TEM </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Poor information exchange within the chain <ul><li>Information exchange on nanoparticles (from suppliers and to customers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19 (51%) no information exchange at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18 (49%) at least some information exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 7 (19%) active support by suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 12 (32%) active communication to customers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Company policies for nanomaterials <ul><li>Defined by 9 companies (24%) </li></ul><ul><li>3 most important elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-emptive choice on specific nanoparticles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling all nanomaterials as toxic substances (safety principle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choices on the physical form of nanoparticles </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>Awareness of potential risk within companies </li></ul><ul><li>Companies try to do their best to cope with the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Safety strategy and control measures differ by company and highly depends on physical form </li></ul><ul><li>Validation of risk assessment is often lacking </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant information is often not available and not communicated within the chain </li></ul>
  13. 15. 15.10.2008
  14. 16. Nano2Life 1953 Krebs Staudinger Zernike Citric acid Polymers Phase cycle Contrast Microscope Watson Description of DNA structure (Nature 171:737) “ No chemistry”