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Meaning and Implication :
Women in politics
the Chilean case
May 2007
Paula Pereda candidate PhD
Victoria University of We...
Women in politics

2
Presentation Structure
• Bourdieu’s theoretical framework- key

concepts

• Chile’s history - women’s history in the

publ...
Bourdieu’s theory I
Reproduction and production of social practices
• Symbolic Domination :misrecognition of the
relations...
Bourdieu’s theory II
History
Phenomenology
Subjectivism

Masculine
e Order

ic
ox enc
D ri
e
xp
e

Embodied schemes of
per...
Chilean President Michelle
Bachelete

6
Women in politics

7
History - Pre Pinochet (until 1973)
• Women always in public realm
• Presence does not disrupt ‘natural social order’
•

E...
History - Pinochet (from 1973 to 1989)
•

Pinochet regime actively sought to strengthen
women’s traditional roles
• Extend...
Recent history – post-Pinochet
from 1989 to 2007

•

Women were often key to the
democratisation processes

•

Some increa...
Process of democratisation
• Structure of the political system legacy

from dictatorship period

• Recent memory of dictat...
Why women at the top?
• 17 years of ‘democracy’ but little

advancement for women

Women in work force 36%
Women earn 68% ...
Why? Back to Bourdieu I
Strategy
Oriented to maintain power in politics
•

Coalition needed renew their image

•

Scandal ...
Why? Back to Bourdieu II
Symbolic Power
• Symbolic efficacy – Political representation
produces and reproduce groups. “Rea...
Why? Back to Bourdieu III
Production and reproduction of social practises
• The paradox of doxa – Naturalisation of
mascul...
From here . . . Work in progress
•

The big picture of the thesis

•

Systematic history and structure of society (done
to...
The end
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Meaning and Implications: Women’s participation in Chilean politics

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Seminar presentation: ‘Meaning and Implications: Women’s participation in Chilean politics’ presented at Postgraduate Seminar Series, Victoria University of Wellington, Faculty of Humanity and Social Science, School of Social and Cultural Studies.

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Meaning and Implications: Women’s participation in Chilean politics

  1. 1. Meaning and Implication : Women in politics the Chilean case May 2007 Paula Pereda candidate PhD Victoria University of Wellington
  2. 2. Women in politics 2
  3. 3. Presentation Structure • Bourdieu’s theoretical framework- key concepts • Chile’s history - women’s history in the public sphere • Applying Bourdieu’s theory to the Chilean case 3
  4. 4. Bourdieu’s theory I Reproduction and production of social practices • Symbolic Domination :misrecognition of the relations of domination. • Doxa :natural attitude in a phenomenological sense. • Masculine Domination :embodiment of the masculine order in the form of unconscious schemes of perception and appreciation. • Habitus :system of durable dispositions that produces collective and individual practices and representations. • Strategy : capacity to manoeuvre and improvise
  5. 5. Bourdieu’s theory II History Phenomenology Subjectivism Masculine e Order ic ox enc D ri e xp e Embodied schemes of perception and appreciation Bodies Gender Habitus Structuralism Functionalism Objectified sexual divisions Institutions Practices Gendered Practical sense Common sense Objectified sense 5
  6. 6. Chilean President Michelle Bachelete 6
  7. 7. Women in politics 7
  8. 8. History - Pre Pinochet (until 1973) • Women always in public realm • Presence does not disrupt ‘natural social order’ • Example: women’s activism not aimed at extending political but at protecting ‘women’s natural role’. • Never ‘feminist movements’ always ‘feminine’ 8
  9. 9. History - Pinochet (from 1973 to 1989) • Pinochet regime actively sought to strengthen women’s traditional roles • Extending public sphere roles • Women active in terms of economic and human rights areas • Developing organisations to face the economic crisis 9
  10. 10. Recent history – post-Pinochet from 1989 to 2007 • Women were often key to the democratisation processes • Some increased awareness of gender issues in part due to CEDAW • Further extensions public sphere activity by women • Political expediency in wooing women voters 10
  11. 11. Process of democratisation • Structure of the political system legacy from dictatorship period • Recent memory of dictatorship so people want political stability • Complicates bringing women’s issues to the fore 11
  12. 12. Why women at the top? • 17 years of ‘democracy’ but little advancement for women Women in work force 36% Women earn 68% as much as men Women in the congress • 5.2% senate • 16% parliament • Suddenly ‘women come to the top’ in politics 2000 onwards under Lagos 2006 elections - President and cabinet 12
  13. 13. Why? Back to Bourdieu I Strategy Oriented to maintain power in politics • Coalition needed renew their image • Scandal and corruption in politics • Clean-sweep – space for women to get in • A step towards real democracy and progress • It is NOT a sign of a disruption of gender order 13
  14. 14. Why? Back to Bourdieu II Symbolic Power • Symbolic efficacy – Political representation produces and reproduce groups. “Real existence of women” as a group. • Political symbolic domination – ‘women are there representing women’ BUT tokenism; jeopardise coalition and her position; no women’s organisations outside. • Masculine domination – objective gender divisions changing, but cultural system keep gendered cognitive schemes. 14
  15. 15. Why? Back to Bourdieu III Production and reproduction of social practises • The paradox of doxa – Naturalisation of masculine order. Reflection on what women’s in politics mean in real terms. • Habitus – Internalizes masculine order, and reproduces it through practices. • Own instruments of representation ‘feminine habitus’ 15
  16. 16. From here . . . Work in progress • The big picture of the thesis • Systematic history and structure of society (done today to some extent) • Demographic/statistical overview • Interviews – self-perceptions • Mass media analysis – ‘societal’ perceptions • Understand women in politics in Chile • And contribute to operationalising Bourdieu’s work 16
  17. 17. The end

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