Review of Analysis and Learning For the Critical Review Module 3 Paula Nottingham 10/11/11
Introduction <ul><li>This is the 7 th week of the semester (12 weeks total). </li></ul><ul><li>The due date for the Critical Review and the Professional Artefact are the 9 th January (two months away) Presentations will be the 30 th or 31 st of January - you can state a preference now for these dates in am/pm slots. </li></ul><ul><li>Drafts of your Critical Review and outlines of your Professional Artefact should be ready for your adviser if you are submitting in January . Individual advisers are negotiating dates for these drafts (Paula had suggested 14 th Nov – would 21 st be better?) </li></ul><ul><li>Board of studies event 22 nd November </li></ul>
Stages and steps to completing module Where are you now in the planning process – what do you need to do to complete the process?
Part 1: A Critical Review <ul><li>Introduction - relevant to the context of the inquiry and how it relates to your workplace or community of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the Inquiry Process - practitioner research tools used (observation, surveys, interviews, focus groups), the literature review, the ethical implications and other activities undertaken as a part of the process (e.g. performances, workshops, trying out new strategies, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: your findings (what you found out from the data you gathered) and your analysis of the findings compared to your literature and earlier perceptions of the topic, conclusion of this stage, what implications/benefits/impact did your inquiry have? Did you conduct any activities/events/interventions that used what you found out in your practice?, and possible further inquiry topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Reflection - a critical self-analysis of the learning journey based on your learning journal </li></ul>
The Critical Review structure <ul><li>Title Page </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction – 500 words Indicative </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the Inquiry Process – 2500 words </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the Findings – 2500 words </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Reflection – 500 words </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography and Appendices </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Evidence could consist of appendices including: blog texts, visual evidence, blank consent form, blank questionnaires, interview questions, observation grids, etc. Please note: each appendix should be cited (e.g. Appendix 1) in the Critical Review. Any online materials must be accessible (compatible format) or available for download (dated prior to submission date). A digital version of this document should be sent to the WBL Administrator, with your Academic Adviser cc’d. </li></ul>
Analysis of Findings: possible points to consider What did the data indicate about your topic, research question or hypothesis? What did you find out? The professional inquiry has been a way to gather data about something, a phenomenon or event or development or change. Often the findings are of great interest because they relate to how things actually are in your work environment. The inquiry tools that you used should have provided you with the evidence that you need for your inquiry . If not… why not?
Analysis of Findings: possible points to consider How do your findings relate to your literature i.e. earlier perceptions of the topic or critical arguments about the topic/issues/phenomenon? Use examples from your literature. Did the activities/events/interventions relate to your findings? Conclusion of this stage - what implications/benefits/impact did your inquiry have to your professional practice? Your workplace? Your community of practice? What additional knowledge and understanding do you have about your professional practice? Possible further inquiry topics?
Tools that were used for the Professional Inquiry Make sure to thoroughly discuss the one you used in your analysis. Literature Observation Survey Interview Focus Groups Don’t forget other gathering data tools like participant observation from your private journals, the gathering of documents while doing interviews, workshops, etc. You may have gathered visual or audio-visual materials that you need to consider for anonymity (this depends on the consent issues you agreed with your participants).
Analysing Observations (revisited) The data is gathered and displayed as descriptions, quotes, diagrams to show relationships, quantitative charts/displays to show quantitative data, audio, audio-visual, and photographic evidence, etc. Your observations record what has happened sensitively and appropriately to issues of ethics, permission and confidentiality. You need to report an understanding of the context for the event or meeting that was observed in order to draw conclusions from the data.
Analysing the survey/questionnaire data (revisited) The framework for data analysis of replies determined in advance. Coding your questionnaire: There are five steps involved in the coding process (Survey Monkey can export this data): 1. Develop the coding frame for both pre-coded (closed) and open questions. 2. Create a codebook and coding instructions. 3. Code the questionnaires. 4. Transfer the values to a computer (as in an Excel spreadsheet). 5. Check and clean the data (you can make simple graphs with the data). Interpretation involves identifying significant results, trends, patterns, similarities and differences and offering an explanation for them. This can be expressed in the form of numbers or words in your findings.
Analysing interviews (revisited) The analysis of data collected from interviews can be complex. It has been collected within a certain context or a variety of different ones and must be analysed with that in mind. The qualitative researcher can categorise (code) data that has emerged into themes. Quotes can be selected because they typify the data (common responses) or there might be some statements that are significant though only said once (significant). The data is organised so that comparisons, contrasts and evaluations can be made with the aim of finding the meaning of the evidence presented.
Managing data from interviews/focus groups (revisited) <ul><li>Generally the interview data is transcribed into written findings but it can be in an audio of audio-visual format (depending on what has been agreed). </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes should be written as they are spoken, and you can add in non-verbal responses to the text like pauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethically, this data is kept in a secure place that you describe in your writing up, and is only viewed by the original researcher although in some cases academic advisors may need to check this process. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, transcriptions and tapes should be kept until the end of the programme. </li></ul>
Harvard citation and bibliography The use of citation for words and images – any ideas that are quoted or paraphrased – you must reference these in a Bibliography, Review university guidelines on copyright. Use Harvard referencing – WORDS and PICTURES Advice on Harvard Referencing is in the Programme Handbook and under the Writing Tab for the BAPP Libguide
Supporting Evidence as Appendices <ul><li>Supporting Evidence could consist of appendices including: blog texts, visual evidence, blank consent form, blank questionnaires, interview questions, observation grids, etc. Please note: each appendix should be cited (e.g. Appendix 1) in the Critical Review. </li></ul><ul><li>Any online materials must be accessible (compatible format) or available for download (dated prior to submission date). A digital version of this document should be sent to the WBL Administrator, with your Academic Adviser cc’d. </li></ul>
Critical Reflection <ul><li>Critical Reflection - a critical self-analysis of the learning journey based on your learning journal </li></ul><ul><li>Have your acquired new knowledge and understanding about yourself? Your job? Your workplace? Your community of practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? explain by </li></ul><ul><li>Your learning journey has been continuous since the 1. beginning of the course and 2. this module… what has changed? How has the work you have done on the BA (Hons) affected your performance and progression? How has your professional practice been affected? </li></ul>
Q&A from Module 3 BAPP <ul><li>The questions that you ask in the interview survey, should you comment on each answer? (i.e. the Interview has 14 questions and the Survey has 24 questions). How many graphs do you put in? </li></ul><ul><li>Often there is not space to look at every response, so you may want to focus on the most significant findings and the ones that most participants used (more common) – in some cases these might be the same BUT in the interviews only a few might have brought up important issues that you want to talk about. You can use your appendices to show findings that you were unable to spend much time on in your analysis and refer the reader when needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Put in the number of graphs (data) or quotes (data) that relate to your main points of analysis. </li></ul>
Q&A from Module 3 BAPP <ul><li>2. Does it matter if the information you’ve gathered is rubbish as long as you comment that it is rubbish? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult one… in this process you try to ask the right interview/survey etc. questions to gather the data that you need to address your research questions or hypothesis. However, there might be some of the questions that did not lead to data that you expected or that was useful as findings. In this case, you rely on the data that has been useful and comment within the evaluation and perhaps in the critical learning sections about the process BUT some unexpected data is genuine so should be reported as a part of the inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>Think this through – if your inquiry process has not allowed you to explore the specific issues in your inquiry topic using primary evidence from other people and literature, you need to discuss this with your adviser. </li></ul>
Q&A from Module 3 BAPP <ul><li>3. What does the literature review in the Evaluation section cite? </li></ul><ul><li>The literature review covers the sources you have used, the people and theories examined as knowledge and understanding mainly from written sources BUT also videos, audio tapes, etc. Investigating your topic by looking at what others have said about it allows you and the reader to understand the context of your inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>You can quote and paraphrase from your literature to describe this context and theorise your findings in your analysis – to compare the findings to the debates in your field, back up certain findings, use larger data sets that discuss your indicative findings, give a historical setting, etc. </li></ul>
Q&A from Module 3 BAPP <ul><li>4. How much do we mention the Professional Artefact in the Critical Review? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, it is appropriate to mention the Professional Artefact in your Critical Review, especially in your analysis or critical reflection. You might also consider an explanatory section to your artefact– we discussed the addition of a cover or written insert often found in CDs to show what they are about and give credits. </li></ul><ul><li>The final ‘shape’ of the artefact and how it is explained is up to you, but it would make sense to cover this explanation somewhere in the work you submit. </li></ul>
Q&A from Module 3 BAPP <ul><li>5. What is the difference between the inquiry and the professional artefact? </li></ul><ul><li>The inquiry is the process you have used for exploring a research question or hypothesis – the topic area that you have focused on during the module. Your inquiry might include a workshop or teaching intervention, but the process of questioning and exploring the topic would have informed your practice in order for you to do that activity. The activity is integrated into the inquiry process. </li></ul><ul><li>The professional artefact exhibits the knowledge and understanding from the inquiry findings, like the critical review, but will be some type of product or ‘work in progress’ you have made for a professional audience. As Adesola has pointed out, it is not the next step but represents an output that has a professional focus. </li></ul>