Reading in elementary school chapter 9

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Reading in elementary school chapter 9

  1. 1. Teaching reading in today’s elementary schools<br />Chapter 9 – Major approaches and Materials for Reading Instruction<br />
  2. 2. Basal reading series<br />For many years, basal reading series have been the most widely used materials for teaching reading in the elementary schools<br />Provide anthologies of stories<br />Include a teacher’s manual with detailed lesson plans<br />Many include workbooks and masters skills sheets<br />Some series offer suggestions for differentiating instruction<br />
  3. 3. Uses and misuses of basal materials<br /><ul><li>Teachers should assess skill mastery and determine if additional practice is needed
  4. 4. Strategy instruction should be planned to fit the needs of their class
  5. 5. Discussion of completed workbook pages should follow completion
  6. 6. Provide additional enrichment activities to stimulate critical thinking
  7. 7. Do not have to follow all suggestions in the manual- provide students with a variety of reading materials
  8. 8. Basal instruction is a good as the teacher using it
  9. 9. Should be looked at as a total reading program
  10. 10. Basal series will not provide appropriate instruction for all students</li></li></ul><li>Types of basal reading programs<br /><ul><li>Linguistic series- linguistics (study of human speech) has been applied to many basal series.
  11. 11. Beginning readers should be presented with material that uses only a single sound for a letter at a time
  12. 12. Irregularly spelled words should be avoided in beginning reading material
  13. 13. Word attack skills are taught with minimally contrasting spelling patterns
  14. 14. Sounds should not be isolated from words
  15. 15. Intensive phonics series- synthetic phonics approach, strong emphasis on decoding
  16. 16. Literature based-quality literature selections in their entirety</li></li></ul><li>Instructional procedures with basal series<br /><ul><li>DRA- directed reading activity, used to extend and strengthen a student’s reading ability.
  17. 17. 5 components to DRA
  18. 18. Motivation and development background-activating schema
  19. 19. Directed story reading-teacher provides purpose, and directs reading
  20. 20. Strategy or skill building activity-direct instruction
  21. 21. Follow up-practice strategies and skills- worksheet, games
  22. 22. Enrichment activities- connect the story with music, art, or creative writing</li></li></ul><li>Guided reading<br />Involves matching students with books that provide an appropriate level of challenge and familiarity to support reading strategies<br />Guided reading groups are flexible<br />During reading the student’s miscues guide strategy instruction<br />After reading there is a discussion of the book<br />Extension activities- re-read, read new book, writing, vocabulary exercises<br />
  23. 23. Directed reading-thinking activity DRTA<br /><ul><li>Focuses on student control rather than teacher guidance
  24. 24. 5 steps
  25. 25. Making predictions from title clues
  26. 26. Making predictions from picture clues
  27. 27. Reading the material
  28. 28. Assessing the accuracy of predictions, adjusting predictions
  29. 29. Repeating the procedure until all parts of the lesson have been covered
  30. 30. Teacher selects points in which to pause for students to make new predictions</li></li></ul><li>Literature – based approaches<br /><ul><li>Places emphasis on connecting stories to students’ personal background knowledge, analyzing stories and selections for particular elements, and on monitoring students’ understanding of the reading materials.
  31. 31. Foundation of a literature based approach is trade books
  32. 32. Reading skills and strategies are taught within the context of the material that students are actively reading
  33. 33. Can be hard to assess that all needed strategies and skills are being covered
  34. 34. Sustained Silent Reading</li></li></ul><li>Whole class reading of a core book<br />Teachers select books based on quality of material, fit in overall curriculum, related to topics.<br />Every student has a copy of the same book<br />Rereading activities used to activate prior knowledge, introduce vocabulary, essential questions, purpose for reading<br />During reading activities- pauses for discussion to evaluate comprehension, literary analysis, reader responses<br />Postreading activities- elaborate ideas, retelling, apply information, create presentations<br />When using a whole class book- modifications will be necessary<br />
  35. 35. Literature circles<br />Teacher chooses several books for which multiple copies are available<br />Four or five groups of no more than 6 students each <br />Each group reads a different book<br />Groups may be heterogeneous<br />Groups meet two to five times a week <br />Student leader conducts discussion of book<br />Reading response journals or literature logs allow for collections of the reactions<br />Books may be chosen by theme, genre, setting, author<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Thematic literature units<br />Structured around themes based on topics like homes, families, survival, social studies or science topics, authors.<br />Allows students to delve more deeply into ideas and thus develop deeper understandings and connections<br />Enhances metacognition<br />Promotes positive attitudes toward reading and writing<br />Time is less fragmented – teacher can embed instruction from one subject into another<br />Can use a single book as a focus or read aloud multiple books of the same topic<br />
  38. 38. Individualized reading approach<br /><ul><li>Encourages each student to move at her or his own pace through self-chosen reading materials
  39. 39. Self selection- students choose material
  40. 40. Self-pacing- each student reads at his or her own pace
  41. 41. Strategy and skill instruction-teacher helps as needed
  42. 42. Recordkeeping-teacher keeps individual records of student’s progress
  43. 43. Student-teacher conferences- one or two times a week teacher meet with each student
  44. 44. Sharing activities-each week students share books that they have read
  45. 45. Independent work-students do a great deal of work at their seats instead of in a group with the teacher</li></li></ul><li>Literature based programs and English Language learners<br />Read alouds, literature circles, book talks, retellings, and other literature response activities help support ELL students<br />In selecting books- consider the students’ maturity levels, cultural background, interests, and current reading ability<br />Picture books make great choices<br />Books with themes such as moving, being different, family concerns<br />Books that offer survival vocabulary <br />Nonfiction trade books can be useful in scaffolding learning from content textbooks<br />
  46. 46. Language experience approach LEA<br /><ul><li>Interrelates the different language arts, uses the students’ experiences as the basis for reading materials
  47. 47. Consistent with the schema theory
  48. 48. Works well with students who have a variety of learning styles
  49. 49. Kindergarten-children see the transformation from oral language to print, students dictate stories and teacher records, class edits
  50. 50. Primary grades- after students have participated in shared experience they compose a group story. Teacher records title, students contribute content
  51. 51. Higher grades- group comparison charts use of technology to present information</li></li></ul><li>Programmed instruction and computer use<br />Programmed instruction offers individualized instruction<br />Follow up reinforcement for instruction<br />Does not lend itself to complex comprehension instruction<br />CAI- computer aided instruction, READ 180, Expert 21, Reading Plus<br />
  52. 52. ECLECTIC APPROACHES<br />Combine the desirable aspects of a number of different methods rather than strictly sticking to a single one<br />An effective teacher integrates material and methods as is appropriate to meet students’ needs<br />Effective teacher are eclectic<br />Requires teachers who are adaptive decision makers<br />
  53. 53. Summary chapter 9<br />Basal reading series are the most widely used materials for teaching reading in the elementary schools in this country. DRA is the teaching strategy presented in many basal manuals. An alternative to DRA is guided reading-matching students to reading material in leveled books. Literature based reading approaches include whole class reading of a core book, literature circles, thematic literature units, and individualized reading approach. The LEA interrelates the different language arts and uses students’ experiences. CAI individualizes skill based instruction. An eclectic approach combines desirable aspects of a number of different methods.<br />

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