Learning Objectives•   Review anatomy of the heart•   Formation of the Heart•   Congenital heart defects•   Clinical Anato...
Blood Flow Heart  Lungs  Heart  Body
Vena Cava -   AORTA -   vein        artery                AtriaVentricles
UNoxygenated blood enters theatrium on the rightside of the heart.  Unoxygenated  blood comes infrom the top of the body t...
While theunoxygenatedblood is in the  right atrium,  the tricuspidvalve is closed   to keep the   blood from flowing down ...
The   atriumcontracts  and the tricuspid   valve  opens,  forcingthe blooddown into     theventricle.
The tricuspid  valve closes again so that blood cannot move back upinto the atrium.
The ventricle  contracts. This forces      theunoxygenatedblood through      the  pulmonaryvalve and into      the  pulmon...
The right pulmonary  artery takes theunoxygenated blood  to the right lung. The left pulmonary  artery takes theunoxygenat...
In the lungs, the carbondioxide in the    blooddiffuses into the alveoli.The oxygenin the lungsdiffuses into the blood.   ...
Oxygenated blood from thelungs enters theheart through the   left atrium. The mitral valveis closed to keep  the blood fro...
Oxygenated blood from the right lungreturns to the heart  through the right   pulmonary vein. Oxygenated blood  from the l...
The left atrium  contracts. This forces      the oxygenatedblood through  the mitralvalve into theLeft ventricle.
The mitralvalve closesagain. This keeps theoxygenated blood frommoving back up into the   atrium.
Oxygenatedblood is forced into the aorta  to be carried  to the rest of    the body.
Oxygenated blood is carriedto all body cells  where oxygendiffuses into thecells and carbondioxide diffuses into the blood...
And the cyclebegins again.
Meanwhile…  While the blood is  moving oxygen and    carbon dioxide   around, it is also   moving nutrients,     other was...
How doesthe HeartForm?
Formation of the Heart• Mesoderm divides into two layers   • Mesoderm = one of the primary germ     cell layers in the ear...
Formation of the Heart• These cells differentiate into the  endocardium and myocardium   • Endocardium = innermost layer t...
• The heart tube begins to bulge into  primitive heart chambers and  undergoes right ward looping• Followed by proper valv...
What isCyanosis?
CYANOSIS a physical sign causing bluish  discoloration of the skin and mucous  membranes. caused by a lack of oxygen in ...
• The blue discoloration of cyanosis is seen  most readily in the beds of the fingernails  and toenails, and on the lips a...
Congenital Heart Defects• Abnormalities in heart present at birth• Affects 8:1000 live births• Examples:   • Ventricular S...
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)• Most common congenital cardiac  anomaly• There is a hole between the two  ventricles• Hol...
Remember:
o Small VSDs may close on their own and usually  does not cause major problems.   o These are the kinds that can close at ...
VSD Signs and Symptoms•    Heart murmur•    Difficulty maintaining weight•    Increased breathing rate•    Lower energy an...
• Some of the infants may show poor  weight gain, shortness of breath or even  bluish discoloration of the lips, nails or ...
Heart lecture 1
Heart lecture 1
Heart lecture 1
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Heart lecture 1

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Dr. Bautista's General Anatomy class :)

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Heart lecture 1

  1. 1. Learning Objectives• Review anatomy of the heart• Formation of the Heart• Congenital heart defects• Clinical Anatomy - Cardiac Disorders
  2. 2. Blood Flow Heart  Lungs  Heart  Body
  3. 3. Vena Cava - AORTA - vein artery AtriaVentricles
  4. 4. UNoxygenated blood enters theatrium on the rightside of the heart. Unoxygenated blood comes infrom the top of the body through the superior vena cava. Unoxygenated blood comes in from the lower body though theinferior vena cava.
  5. 5. While theunoxygenatedblood is in the right atrium, the tricuspidvalve is closed to keep the blood from flowing down to the ventricle.
  6. 6. The atriumcontracts and the tricuspid valve opens, forcingthe blooddown into theventricle.
  7. 7. The tricuspid valve closes again so that blood cannot move back upinto the atrium.
  8. 8. The ventricle contracts. This forces theunoxygenatedblood through the pulmonaryvalve and into the pulmonary arteries.
  9. 9. The right pulmonary artery takes theunoxygenated blood to the right lung. The left pulmonary artery takes theunoxygenated blood to the left lung. THE PULMONARYARTERIES ARE THE ONLY ARTERIES THAT CARRYUNOXYGENEATED BLOOD.
  10. 10. In the lungs, the carbondioxide in the blooddiffuses into the alveoli.The oxygenin the lungsdiffuses into the blood. This is called gas http://www.webmd.com/hw/health_guide_atoz/tp10237.asp exchange.
  11. 11. Oxygenated blood from thelungs enters theheart through the left atrium. The mitral valveis closed to keep the blood from going into the ventricle.
  12. 12. Oxygenated blood from the right lungreturns to the heart through the right pulmonary vein. Oxygenated blood from the left lungreturns to the heart through the left pulmonary vein.THE PULMONARY VEINS ARE THEONLY VEINS THAT CARRY OXYGENATED BLOOD.
  13. 13. The left atrium contracts. This forces the oxygenatedblood through the mitralvalve into theLeft ventricle.
  14. 14. The mitralvalve closesagain. This keeps theoxygenated blood frommoving back up into the atrium.
  15. 15. Oxygenatedblood is forced into the aorta to be carried to the rest of the body.
  16. 16. Oxygenated blood is carriedto all body cells where oxygendiffuses into thecells and carbondioxide diffuses into the blood.Blood carryingcarbon dioxidethen returns to the heart.
  17. 17. And the cyclebegins again.
  18. 18. Meanwhile… While the blood is moving oxygen and carbon dioxide around, it is also moving nutrients, other wastes, hormones, and antibodies at the same time.
  19. 19. How doesthe HeartForm?
  20. 20. Formation of the Heart• Mesoderm divides into two layers • Mesoderm = one of the primary germ cell layers in the early embryo• Heart precursor cells come from one of those two mesoderm layers (cardiogenic mesoderm)• Heart precursor cells form a single heart tube by day 22 of embryogenesis
  21. 21. Formation of the Heart• These cells differentiate into the endocardium and myocardium • Endocardium = innermost layer that lines the heart chambers and valves valves • Myocardium = the muscular layer of the atria and ventricles• The heart tube grows and elongates• Primitive heart begins to form around day 22‐ 23
  22. 22. • The heart tube begins to bulge into primitive heart chambers and undergoes right ward looping• Followed by proper valve positioning and chamber formation
  23. 23. What isCyanosis?
  24. 24. CYANOSIS a physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes. caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood. associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung diseases, and smothering. It is seen in infants at birth as  a result of heart defects, defects  respiratory distress syndrome,  or lung and breathing problems.
  25. 25. • The blue discoloration of cyanosis is seen most readily in the beds of the fingernails and toenails, and on the lips and tongue.• It often appears transiently as a result of slowed blood flow through the skin due to the cold. As such, it is not a serious symptom.• However, in other cases cyanosis is a serious symptom of underlying disease.
  26. 26. Congenital Heart Defects• Abnormalities in heart present at birth• Affects 8:1000 live births• Examples: • Ventricular Septal Defect • Atrial Septal Defect • Coarctation of the Aorta • Tetralogy of Fallot • Transposition of the Great Arteries
  27. 27. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)• Most common congenital cardiac anomaly• There is a hole between the two ventricles• Hole can vary in size and location• Oxygenated blood forced through hole from left ventricle to right ventricle then returns to the lungs even though it already carries oxygen• Consequences • Volume load causes enlargement of both ventricles and the pulmonary artery and exposes right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to high pressures
  28. 28. Remember:
  29. 29. o Small VSDs may close on their own and usually does not cause major problems. o These are the kinds that can close at any time during childhood. o A membranous VSD is found in the upper portion of the interventricular septum. o A muscular VSD is found in the lower part of the septum.o Medium and large sized VSDs are unlikely to close spontaneously. o Surgery or other interventional procedures may be required to close these defects. Inlet and Outlet VSDs are less common types and are present where the blood enters or leaves the ventricles.
  30. 30. VSD Signs and Symptoms• Heart murmur• Difficulty maintaining weight• Increased breathing rate• Lower energy and easy tiring Ventricular Septal Defect - Animation http://www.medindia.net/animation/Ventricular_Septal_Defec
  31. 31. • Some of the infants may show poor weight gain, shortness of breath or even bluish discoloration of the lips, nails or skin.• Most of the small VSDs may go unnoticed.• A murmur can be heard with a stethoscope when the baby is a few weeks old.• Untreated moderate to large VSDs may lead to severe complications in a child.• Heart failure may result from the constant overload of the right ventricles.• Arrhythmias and Pulmonary hypertension can also be an outcome of the high volume of blood flowing through the right ventricle.• It is rare that these defects can go unnoticed and so complications are rather rare.

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