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  1. 1. Twittering in the OECD’s “Participative Web”: Microblogging and New Media Policy by Tamara Shepherd Presentation by Paula Cunniffe
  2. 2. AUTHOR: Tamara Shepherd <ul><li>PhD student at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>No other publications </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke at two symposiums in Concordia University </li></ul><ul><li>TA at Concordia </li></ul>
  3. 3. JOURNAL: Global Media Journal-Canadian Edition <ul><li>Bi-lingual </li></ul><ul><li>Peer reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Published semi-annually </li></ul><ul><li>Guest editor on each edition </li></ul><ul><li>Articles on communication and media studies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Shepherd’s definition of user-generated content <ul><li>UGC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-professional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not typically have access to server space – use hosting sites for self-publishing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No monetary investment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. OECD definition <ul><li>UCC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publicly available content-published </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside of professional routines and practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No expectation of remuneration or profit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation includes connecting with peers, self-expression, fame or notoriety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many active creators and large supply of content – of potentially lower or more diverse quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to recognition </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why is UGC important? <ul><li> </li></ul>
  7. 7. Main points of article <ul><li>She looks at 2007 OECD report </li></ul><ul><li>Picks out language that shows report adheres to ‘digital myths’ </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Twitter as an example of UGC </li></ul><ul><li>Concludes that OECD need to legislate for users’ rights and not concentrate on business </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who are the OECD? <ul><li>http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=lE6dsMdUPR4 &feature=channel </li></ul>
  9. 9. Digital Myths <ul><li>Taken from book called ‘The Digital Sublime’ written by Vincent Mosco </li></ul><ul><li>Main myth she discusses is ‘End of Geography’ </li></ul>
  10. 10. ‘End of Geography’ <ul><li>Concept of global village </li></ul><ul><li>No borders </li></ul><ul><li>Space and time don’t matter on internet </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges to this myth include ‘digital divide’, language, culture, geolocation software tracking internet users </li></ul>
  11. 11. What she says about Twitter <ul><li>Open TOS (it’s now same as facebook ) </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen journalism - Iran election </li></ul><ul><li>BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter ‘ s h oring up consumption of celebrity’ </li></ul><ul><li>Only democratization is choosing which celebrity to follow </li></ul>
  12. 12. Trafigura Scandal in UK: example of democracy on Twitter <ul><li>http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=LOYo-GdXsqs & p=02B012068E6E090A & playnext=1 &index=46 </li></ul>
  13. 13. What she ignores from the OECD report <ul><li>They use much broader definition of UGC </li></ul><ul><li>They give varied examples of UGC-video,audio,text,photo </li></ul><ul><li>They are an ECONOMIC research institute </li></ul><ul><li>The report also advises governments to legislate to provide training and to support local content generation - not just for business </li></ul>
  14. 14. Concept of citizen-consumer <ul><li>Taken from Livingstone and Lunt study </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen interests:cultural and societal - ideas of democracy, culture, identity </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer interests: economic- buying goods, using services </li></ul>
  15. 15. Citizen-consumer continued <ul><li>She argues OECD report talks about ‘citizens’ and so should be legislating to protect citizen’s right to democracy, right to privacy etc </li></ul><ul><li>She says the report focuses on economic aspects and rights of businesses and consumers - intellectual property, copyright etc </li></ul>
  16. 16. Criticism of article <ul><li>Too much information! She tries to fit too much into one study </li></ul><ul><li>She devalues citizen journalism on Twitter by saying it is purely obsessed with celebrity </li></ul><ul><li>She is selective about what she takes from OECD report - leaves out a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Did she use Twitter because it was the best example? </li></ul><ul><li>Her anti-capitalist views are really obvious </li></ul>