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Anatomy and physiology


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Anatomy and physiology

  1. 1. Centrosome- area of the cytoplasm near thenucleus that coordinates the building andbreaking of microtubulesCytoplasm- gel-like substance of a cellexclusive of the nucleus and plasmamembrane.Endoplasmic reticulum-network of tubulesand vesicles in cytoplasm that contributes tocellular protein manufactures.Golgi Apparatus-organelle consisting of smallsacs stacked on one another near the pounds,combines with protein molecules.Lysosome- membranous organelle containingMitochondria-various enzymes that candissolve most cellular compounds.Nucleus- membranous organelle that containsmost of the genetic cell material of the cell;also, group of neuron cell bodies in the brainor spinal cord.Plasma Membrane-membrane that separatesthe contents of the cell from the tissuefluid, encloses the cytoplasm, and forms theouter boundary of the cell.Ribosome- organelle in the cytoplasm of cellsthat synthesizes the proteins sometimescalled “protein factory”(1)(pg 69)
  2. 2. Inorganic compounds: chemicalconstituents that do not contain bothcarbon and hydrogen. Water is the cradle of life.Water is the body’s most abundant andimportant compound. It makes up 70%of body weight.Properties of water: simple and stable-strong polarity-high specific heat-vaporization-cohesionOxygen and Carbon Dioxide importantin cellular respiration. Oxygen assists inthe decomposition reactions for therelease of energy from nutrientsburned in the cell. Carbon dioxide isthe exception to the definition that“inorganic compounds do not containcarbon”. Carbon is produced as a wasteproduct during cellular respiration tohelp maintain the acid-base balance inthe body.Electrolytes dissociate in a solution toform ions.
  3. 3. Acids are any substances that release hydrogen ions in a solution. “Proton donor” Bases have an increased number of hydroxide ions. “Proton acceptor” pH scale indicates whether a substance is acidic or basic. When hydrogen ions increase the pH goes down and the substance becomesacidic. When hydroxide ions increase the pH goes up and the substance becomes basic. Buffers maintain the pH levels andminimize change in concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in the body.Salts are an inorganic compound that results from a chemical reaction between acids and bases. (1)(page 44-47) C-3
  4. 4. An organic compound always contains carbon. Many organic molecules consist of subunits, called monomers, that are joined together to form what are referred to as polymers Four major kinds of organic molecules, Examples: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids[C-6]
  5. 5. Cell MembraneMLA Citation:Davidson , Micheal. "plasmamembrane." Molecular Expressions.optical Microscopy, 2004. Web. 15Sep 2012.<>.
  6. 6. The plasma (cell) membrane is the boundary between the extracellular fluid (fluid that is not contained within the cells) and the intracellular fluid (the fluid inside a cell). Hydrophobic fatty acid tails face the interior of the membrane because they are a non-polar substance meaning they don’t like water. The hydrophilic polar heads face the inside and outside of the membrane because they are polar substances meaning they are attracted to water. There are two types of proteins, integral (trans membrane) andperipheral proteins. Integral proteins pass through the entire membraneand peripheral proteins only stay near the intracellular face of the membrane. Some of the time there are Carbohydrate chains attached to the phospholipids and integral proteins which form glycolipids and glycoproteins.
  7. 7. Roles played by Proteins in the Cell Membrane: 1. Act as channels or active transport molecules to selectively transport of substances across the phospholipid bilayer2. Function as receptors and provide information for molecules, such as hormones, communicate by sending signals of the information obtained to the interior of the cell. 3. Show enzymes catalyze reactions related to the plasma membrane.4. There are also proteins which pull membrane proteins to cause cell movement, called motor molecules. (They are usually peripheral proteins.) 5. 5. Glycoproteins identify cells. 6. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) bind one cell to another. 1. 7. There are also carrier proteins which are integral proteins that bind to specific molecules and transport them to the other side of the membrane
  8. 8. Note: The picture above shows thesecond messenger systemMessenger proteins are also importantin activating the second messengersystem.The steps to this process is below
  9. 9. 1. A messenger, such as a hormone, binds to a receptor site. 2. The receptor then releases a G protein. 3. G protein may bind to a membrane-bound enzyme. 4. Enzyme then converts to ATP to cyclic AMP or cAMP (the second messenger)5. cAMP activates kinase, an enzyme that adds phosphate groups to other cytosolic enzymes. 6. As a result, it activates some and deactivates others leading to an alteration in various metabolic activities.