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  1. 1. Principles of Multimedia Learning Modality & Redundancy By Paul Desmarais An EdTech 513 project
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Statement of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Modality Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Credits </li></ul>
  3. 3. Statement of Goals <ul><li>Students will be able to define, identify in practice, and apply the Modality & Redundancy principles of multimedia education in class discussion and during a written assessment at the end of the lesson </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modality <ul><li>Students learn better when graphics are explained by narration than they do when graphics are accompanied by printed text. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why is Modality Principle Important? <ul><li>Research shows that people have two channels for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual/pictorial & auditory/verbal. </li></ul><ul><li>Applying these principles gives students the best opportunity to learn. </li></ul>
  6. 6. An Ineffective Strategy
  7. 7. An Effective Strategy
  8. 8. Cognitive Overload
  9. 9. Adhering to the Principle
  10. 10. Redundancy Principle <ul><li>Students learn better when graphic lesson elements are accompanied by audio narration alone as opposed to instances where narration is accompanied by printed, on screen text. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Redundant Multimedia
  12. 12. Exceptions to the Princples <ul><li>The Modality Principle does not apply when there is no concurrent picture or graphic. </li></ul><ul><li>For complex problems, words should remain available for memory support. </li></ul><ul><li>Key words that identify steps in a procedure can be used to organize the student’s thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Directions to a problem. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Modality & Redundancy a brief review <ul><li>Modality applies when graphics and text (spoken) appear at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Use narration, not onscreen text, with graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>Using text with graphics overloads the visual processing channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use text and narration together in support of graphic learning elements </li></ul><ul><li>The Modality & Redundancy Principle are not absolute. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Assessment Instructions <ul><li>Based on the information in this multimedia presentation, answer the following six questions. Write your responses on a separate piece of paper, then check them against the answer key immediately following the assessment slide. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Assessment <ul><li>True or false? Using text and narration is the best method to support graphics in a multimedia environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the principle that governs the use of both text and narration in support of multimedia instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>What theory is the basis of the Modality & Redundancy principles of multimedia learning? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assessment <ul><li>4. Name the two ‘channels’ used to process multimedia learning elements. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The modality Principle of Multimedia Learning governs the relationships between what three elements of instruction? </li></ul><ul><li>6. True or False, students learn better from a verbal description of the graphics in a multimedia lesson than they d reading on screen text? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Answer Key <ul><li>False </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and Phonetic </li></ul><ul><li>Text, spoken words, and graphics </li></ul><ul><li>True </li></ul>
  18. 18. Credits & Citations <ul><li>Concepts & principles: E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Colvin & Mayer (2008). </li></ul><ul><li>All Graphics & Photography © Paul F. Desmarais Photography (2008). </li></ul>