Week 8 Architectual Styles


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  • Week 8 Architectual Styles

    1. 1. Architectural Styles Genres Architecture of Learning Environments E19.2017
    2. 2. Architectural Styles <ul><li>In software architecture, a style is a set of design rules that identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The kinds of components and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationships & communications between components that form the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose a style based on the purpose, the type of task or the type of problem . </li></ul>
    3. 3. Software Architecture Styles <ul><li>Examples of Architectural Styles </li></ul><ul><li>There are many common ways of designing computer software components and their communications: </li></ul><ul><li>Blackboard </li></ul><ul><li>Client-server </li></ul><ul><li>Database-centric architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed computing </li></ul><ul><li>Event Driven Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer </li></ul><ul><li>Plugin </li></ul><ul><li>Search-oriented architecture </li></ul>
    4. 4. Blackboard Architectural Style <ul><li>Three Major Components: </li></ul><ul><li>The Knowledge Sources (KS) are modules that provide specific expertise needed by the application. </li></ul><ul><li>The blackboard, a shared workspace and dynamic &quot;library&quot; of contributions to the current problem </li></ul><ul><li>The control shell, which controls the flow of problem-solving activity in the system. </li></ul>Useful for brainstorming style of interactions between diverse users www.piffe.com ww.physics.utoronto.ca/.../blackboard.jpg
    5. 5. “ Peer to Peer” Architectural Style <ul><li>A peer-to-peer (P2P) style: </li></ul><ul><li>Network formed by diversely connected participants </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on the cumulative bandwidth of network participants rather than centralized resources </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for file-sharing- e.g. Napster, Limewire </li></ul>Server-Based Network Peer-to-peer Network
    6. 6. Information Architecture… Genres <ul><li>In the context of the web, there’s a similar need to identify the style of the information architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>In IA, have the emergent idea of Genres , “metadata genres” or “document genres” </li></ul><ul><li>Genres help to identify the content and how it will be used. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Genres… <ul><li>What are common genres in print media ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters, newspapers, flyers, brochures, guidebooks, encyclopedias, coffee-table art books, the grant proposal, reports, legal briefs, others? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common genres in film and video ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentaries, broadcast news, romantic comedies, film noir, others? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Definition: Genres <ul><li>Orlikowski and Yates*: </li></ul><ul><li>A genre is &quot;a distinctive type of communicative action , </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a socially recognized communicative purpose & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a common aspects of form&quot; . </li></ul></ul>*JoAnne Yates and Wanda J. Orlikowski, &quot;Genres of Organizational Communication: A Structurational Approach to Studying Communication and Media, Academy of Management Review, 17 (April 1992), 299-326.
    9. 9. Definition: Genres <ul><li>Genres emerge as a response to a purpose : </li></ul><ul><li>the advertising brochure emerged as a genre because of a need to quickly and easily distribute information about businesses and services. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Genres, on the web… <ul><li>… the style and genre issue impacts both the design of the site structure and the information (information design). </li></ul><ul><li>What does a genre communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>Not just the content , but how it can be used, and how the content will be delivered . </li></ul>
    11. 11. Genres on the Internet <ul><li>From physical form to virtual form: </li></ul><ul><li>On the web, we don’t have physical forms that give us cues about genres. So we have to convey the genre through the information design and site structure . </li></ul>http:// www.norcalblogs.com/watts/images/newspaper.jpg http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2007-10-25-BloggingheadsonNYT.JPG
    12. 12. Let’s look at some sites <ul><li>What is the genre? </li></ul><ul><li>New, internet-specific genres: search engines, the search page </li></ul>
    13. 13. Different kinds of sites: <ul><li>MOMA is different from Fresh Direct, why? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Or PC vs Mac? <ul><li>Genres also convey a narrative . Does the Apple site represent a genre? What is its narrative? </li></ul>http://www.fark.com/
    15. 15. Real world architecture: <ul><li>The Government Office Genre </li></ul><ul><li>The White House: what does this structure convey about the contents, the function? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Real world architecture: <ul><li>Compared to Mayor Bloomberg's office: </li></ul><ul><li>What does this style say about his site, his company, and the way he governs the city? </li></ul>