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# Weight Management Spring 2006

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### Weight Management Spring 2006

1. 1. Managing Your Weight: Finding A Healthy Balance 10
2. 2. Agenda: <ul><li>Weight Management Concerns – Health Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism – How are your calories used? </li></ul><ul><li>How many calories do you eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Management Theories – Genetics, Lifestyle, Psychosocial Health </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Loss – 1-2 lbs./week (Calorie restriction) </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Gain – Increase consumption of calorie dense foods (i.e. shakes, supplements – Ensure, Boost) Careful with saturated fats </li></ul>
3. 3. Harris-Benedict Formula <ul><li>The Harris-Benedict equation is a calorie formula using height, weight, age and sex to determine basal metabolic rate (BMR). This equation does not take into account your lean body mass which creates some error to this equation. This equation will underestimate calorie needs for extremely muscular people and overestimate calorie needs for extremely overfat people. </li></ul><ul><li>Men: BMR = 66 + (13.7 x wt. in kg) + (5 x ht. in cm) – (6.8 x age in years) </li></ul><ul><li>Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 x wt. in kg) + (1.8 x ht. in cm) – (4.7 x age in years) </li></ul>
4. 4. Example using Harris-Benedict Equation to find BMR <ul><li>For a woman: </li></ul><ul><li>5’6’’, 174 lbs., 36 years young </li></ul><ul><li>Convert height to centimeters = 5’6” = 66”x 2.54=167.64cm </li></ul><ul><li>Convert weight to kilograms=174 lbs./2.2=79.1kg </li></ul><ul><li>Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 x 79.1kg) + (1.8 x 167.64cm) – (4.7 x 36 yrs. young) = 1547 calories </li></ul>
5. 5. Finding your Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) <ul><li>Now that you have your BMR, you can calculate your TDEE by multiplying your BMR by your activity multiplier from the chart below: </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary = BMR x 1.2 (little or no exercise, desk job) </li></ul><ul><li>Lightly active = BMR x 1.375 (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/wk) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately active = BMR x 1.55 (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/wk) </li></ul><ul><li>Very active = BMR x 1.725 (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/wk) </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely active = BMR x 1.9 (hard daily exercise/sports & physical job or 2x day training, i.e. marathon, contest, etc.) </li></ul>
6. 6. Example <ul><li>Woman who is moderately active (TDEE) = 1547 x 1.55 = 2398 calories </li></ul><ul><li>If this woman wants to lose weight (1-2 lbs. recommended) she needs to expend or reduce an additional 500-1000 calories/day. </li></ul>
7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>61% of Americans are overweight </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 lives are lost each year </li></ul><ul><li>Many health risks associated, e.g. diabetes, coronary heart disease, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>\$100 billion in medical expenses and lost productivity </li></ul>
8. 8. Table 10.2
9. 9. Body Image <ul><li>Determining the Right Weight for You </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Table 10.2 for Healthy Weight Ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redefining Obesity: Past Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity is defined as an accumulation of fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradient definitions of overweight and obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women have different expected amounts of fat </li></ul></ul>
10. 10. Body Image <ul><li>Too Little Fat? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum for men 3-4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women 8% – amenorrhea </li></ul></ul>
11. 11. Body Mass Index: Are You at a Healthy Weight? Figure 10.1
12. 12. Assessing Fat Levels <ul><li>Body Mass Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index of the relationship between height and weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI of 19-25 indicates healthy weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does have limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waist-to-Hip Ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight in abdominal region associated with more risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waistline greater than 40 inches men / 35 in women, risky </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. Assessing Fat Levels <ul><li>Measures of Body Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrostatic weighing technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinch and skinfold measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girth and circumference measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft-tissue roentgenogram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioelectrical impedance analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total body electrical conductivity </li></ul></ul>
14. 14. Risk Factors for Obesity <ul><li>Key Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy intake is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombarded with advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in working families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottle feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in sedentary lifestyle </li></ul></ul>
15. 15. Risk Factors for Obesity <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body type and genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity genes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hunger, Appetite, and Satiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive thermogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown fat cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between hunger, appetite, and satiety? </li></ul>
16. 16. Risk Factors for Obesity <ul><li>Developmental Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperplasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy </li></ul></ul>
17. 17. Risk Factors for Obesity <ul><li>Setpoint Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body has a set weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocrine Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food as reward </li></ul></ul>
18. 18. Risk Factors for Obesity <ul><li>Metabolic Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorie intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul>
19. 19. Risk Factors for Obesity <ul><li>Gender and Obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women more vulnerable to weight gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social physique anxiety (SPA) </li></ul></ul>
20. 20. Managing Your Weight <ul><li>Keeping Weight Control in Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person is different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss is not simple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting Realistic Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintainable lifestyle change </li></ul></ul>
21. 21. Managing Your Weight <ul><li>What is a Calorie? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit of measure of the amount of energy obtained from food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One pound of fat = 3,500 calories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resting metabolic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercising metabolic rate </li></ul></ul>
22. 22. Managing Your Weight <ul><li>Changing Your Eating Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What triggers your eating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selecting a Nutritional Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek help from reputable sources </li></ul></ul>
23. 23. Managing Your Weight <ul><li>“ Miracle” Diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ketosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trying to Gain Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat more calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement your diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul></ul>
24. 24. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense fear of fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% of adolescent girls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulimia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binge and then take inappropriate measures to lose calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3% of adolescent and young females </li></ul></ul>
25. 25. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Bulimia Nervosa (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males 1 for every 10 females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often at normal weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binge Eating Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often clinically obese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat excessive amounts without purging </li></ul></ul>
26. 26. Table 10.3
27. 27. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Who is at Risk? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often young people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessive-compulsive disorder/depression/anxiety all play a role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be women from middle to upper class families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male sufferers are increasing </li></ul></ul>
28. 28. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Treatments for Eating Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to stabilize the patient’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional approach </li></ul></ul>