G:\Lavc\Pe Health Classes\Health 11\Powerpoint\Health 11 Stress Lecture Fall 2005


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Stress management

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G:\Lavc\Pe Health Classes\Health 11\Powerpoint\Health 11 Stress Lecture Fall 2005

  1. 1. Managing Stress: Coping with Life’s Challenges
  2. 2. Body Systems <ul><li>Cardiovascular System </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous System (CNS/PNS) </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal System </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine System </li></ul><ul><li>Integumentary System </li></ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal System </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary System </li></ul><ul><li>Hematologic System </li></ul><ul><li>Immune System </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive System </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>What is Stress? </li></ul><ul><li>The Body’s Response to Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and Your Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mind/Body Connection (chemicals in brain – how do we trigger their release?) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Your Stress </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Challenges We Face Noise Dust Relocation Parking availability Classroom access Construction delays Allergies Detours Safety hazards Stressed students, faculty and staff Aesthetics Closed off areas
  5. 5. When did we start talking about stress? Rene Descartes Chinese medicine men Hippocrates Galen Robert Koch Rudolph Virchow Hans Selye
  6. 6. So, what is stress? Write down 10 things that “stress you out” This is your first class assignment to be collected
  7. 7. Your list of things that “stress you out” are actually STRESSORS Stressors can be external or internal to your body
  8. 8. STRESS <ul><li>The collective physiological and emotional responses to any stimulus that disturbs an individual’s homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words – stress is “your thing”. You are in control of your body and your actions or reactions. Your perception of the world around you and the world inside of you can help you deal with life pleasantly and effectively or in a bitter, cynical, ineffective manner. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How does your body respond to stress? Think of a stressful event that happened this week – write down 3 things you felt
  10. 10. Stressors give you the feeling like you just had a shot of espresso
  11. 11. Your body responds to the world around you and inside of you Stimulus/Response Your response keeps you alive Your 5 senses = touch, taste, hear, see, feel respond to your world However, excessive stimulus/response can create overload and long-term health problems Especially when your response does not match the stimulus (i.e. could of, would of, should of, what if)
  12. 12. The General Adaptation Syndrome Figure 3.1
  13. 13. The General Adaptation Syndrome: Alarm Phase Figure 3.2
  14. 14. Alarm Phase <ul><li>The cerebral cortex – region of brain responsible for higher mental functions – interprets nature of event (stressor). </li></ul><ul><li>The sympathetic nervous system is triggered. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus – interprets the body’s needs for more energy – triggers the pituitary gland to release ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH acts on the adrenal gland to release stress hormones – cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>These stress hormones trigger the muscles and liver to release glycogen (glucagon) into glucose (energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate, blood pressure and respiration increases </li></ul><ul><li>The body’s resources have to be prioritized! Activities of the body that are important – but not urgent are put on “hold”, such as digestion. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Resistance Phase <ul><li>The body is actively trying to reverse the actions that transpired during the alarm phase. During the resistance phase the body is under the control of the parasympathetic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>The body’s vital functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion, spleen function, vision, bladder function, glucose level, saliva and mucous, endorphins and hearing return to normal functioning. Remember – the body is trying to reach Homeostasis as a defense mechanism. The body wants to survive! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Exhaustion Phase <ul><li>Long term exposure to a stressor or stressors can result in overload. When the body is over-taxed and there are no recovery periods illness can result. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a depleted state that has been the result of an ineffective balance of the alarm and resistance phase. </li></ul>
  17. 17. So, Is stress bad? Yes or No?
  18. 18. Eustress
  19. 19. Distress
  20. 20. Stress and Your Health Short-term and long-term consequences
  21. 21. How do your feelings impact your health? <ul><li>Depressed Normal Bliss </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappy Euphoric </li></ul><ul><li>Distressed </li></ul>
  22. 22. Stress: Short-term (Immediate) consequences <ul><li>Physical Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>irregular heartbeat, palpitations </li></ul><ul><li>asthma or shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>sweaty palms or hands </li></ul><ul><li>cold hands or feet </li></ul><ul><li>skin problems (hives, eczema, psoriasis, tics, itching) </li></ul><ul><li>periodontal disease, jaw pain </li></ul><ul><li>reproductive problems </li></ul><ul><li>immune system suppression: more colds, flu, infections </li></ul><ul><li>growth inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>sleep disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>back, shoulder or neck pain </li></ul><ul><li>tension or migraine headaches </li></ul><ul><li>upset or acid stomach, cramps, heartburn, gas, irritable bowel syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>constipation, diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>weight gain or loss, eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>hair loss </li></ul><ul><li>muscle tension </li></ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>high blood pressure </li></ul>
  23. 23. Stress <ul><li>Emotional Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>nervousness, anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>depression, moodiness </li></ul><ul><li>“ butterflies” </li></ul><ul><li>irritability, frustration </li></ul><ul><li>memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>lack of concentration </li></ul><ul><li>trouble thinking clearly </li></ul><ul><li>feeling out of control </li></ul><ul><li>substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>phobias </li></ul><ul><li>overreactions </li></ul>
  24. 24. Long-term Consequences Chronic Diseases <ul><li>Cardiovascular Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Flu/pneumonia </li></ul>
  25. 25. ACSM GUIDELINES 2005 Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors <ul><li>Positive Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal blood pressure (>120/80) </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslipidemia </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired fasting glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Risk Factor </li></ul><ul><li>High serum HDL cholesterol > 60mg/dL (1.6mmol/L) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Contributing Factors for CHD <ul><li>Stress (hostile) or depressed </li></ul><ul><li>TG </li></ul>
  27. 27. Managing Your Stress Building Skills to Reduce Stress
  28. 28. Know Your Stressors – Then Develop Ways to Manage Them <ul><li>Major life changes </li></ul><ul><li>Daily hassles </li></ul><ul><li>College stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Job-related stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Social stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Current events and global problems </li></ul><ul><li>Are there future stressors this semester you can foresee and prepare for? What about your exams? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Techniques for Managing Stress <ul><li>Social support or Support groups </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive/Relaxation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Go to school or develop a trade (empower yourself with knowledge/talents) </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of Your Strengths and Weaknesses </li></ul>
  30. 30. De-stress Have fun
  31. 31. Coping Strategies <ul><li>Positive Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Eat right </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a vacation </li></ul><ul><li>Visit friends </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the movies/theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Take a bubble bath </li></ul><ul><li>Go to school </li></ul><ul><li>Travel the world </li></ul><ul><li>Visit the Spas in Chile </li></ul><ul><li>Change your profession </li></ul><ul><li>Change your environment </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Getting drunk </li></ul><ul><li>Having sex w/ anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Being isolated </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive risks </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsive Gambling </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsive Shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Starving (anorexia) </li></ul><ul><li>Binge eating </li></ul><ul><li>Workaholic </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsive exerciser </li></ul>
  32. 32. Managing Your Stress Self-Awareness – ahhhhh!
  33. 33. Know yourself! <ul><li>Your Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>External focus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Passivity </li></ul><ul><li>Post-traumatic stress disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Your Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Abusive home </li></ul><ul><li>Peer norms </li></ul><ul><li>Life events /oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Your Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Early exposure </li></ul><ul><li>ADD/Learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition </li></ul>
  34. 34. Is a pill dissolving in your stomach more effective than a healing thought dissolving in your mind?