Today - our biggest problem with drugs are our legal drugs.
Drug Use, Abuse And Misuse 2004
Drug Use, Abuse and Misuse
Health 11 – Principles of Healthful Living
Categories of Drugs
1. Prescription Drugs (need doctor approval)
2. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs (self-diagnose)
3. Recreational Drugs (alcohol, tobacco, caffeine)
4. Illicit (illegal) drugs (stimulants, depressants,
hallucinogens, designer drugs, marijuana & oils)
5. Herbal preparation (lack of FDA regulations)
6. Commercial preparations (cleansers, tar, nail
polish, industrial by-products)
Public Health Campaign on
The “War on Drugs”, “Just Say No”, “Hugs Not Drugs”
“DARE”, “Mothers Against Drunk Drivers”, “Drug Czar”
When you have politicians serving the public as “health
educators” this is the result. The cost to benefit ratio is
outrageous and We – the taxpayers – are paying for it. We
spend 500 million each year for a “drug-free” America. It’s
time to let everyone do their own jobs. Health educators
should be educating the public and the politicians should be
serving in the best interest of the public.
The Effects of Drugs
1. Physiological Factors – chemical effects
based on type of drug – stimulants vs.
depressants vs. hallucinogens– effects
on central nervous system
2. Psychological Factors – environmental
effects (Set vs. Setting)
Receptor Site Theory
The Receptor Site Theory answers the question as to how
chemicals are utilized by the body. The cells in your body
maintain your existence. Cells utilize nutrients, oxygen, hormones
and neurotransmitters to provide for your energy and repair. Cells
are also specialized – meaning that they have different functions,
“job titles” in the body that they are responsible for completing.
The receptor sites on the cells provide the “toll-booth” for cells.
Thereby only allowing certain chemicals to enter the cell. Once
these chemicals enter the cell they are metabolized and
eventually the waste products of their metabolism is excreted.
The analogy of putting together pieces of a puzzle or the “lock and
key” example describes how receptors only allow certain
nutrients, drugs, hormones, neurotransmitters, etc. to enter the
Main Effects of Drug Use
Depending on your drug of choice: Stimulant, Depressant,
Hallucinogenic (Your personality has a lot to do with this)
The “positive” effect that your are looking for from the drug
(the high, the low, the gone, the flow, the here, the there,
the happy, the sad).
Once you develop a tolerance, the body will need more for
the same effect. This contributes to the escalating need for
more drug, more often, more time spent using, more money
and obviously more energy spent involved with this
An addiction takes time from your schedule. Addictions
leave less time for work, school, travel, reading, learning,
meeting new people, going to parties, conferences, leisure
Side Effects of Drugs
Chronic diseases (CVD, Cancer, COPD)
Nausea, Vomiting, Coughing
More colds, flu, absent from work, school
Lower GPA in school
Family problems, divorce, violence, rape
Accelerates the aging process
Eventually will lose independent living
We do not use drugs for these reasons – but
these are the consequences of our decisions.
Drugs are immediate!
Everything else takes time. Such
as exercise, relaxing to music,
calming effects of candles, sex.
History of Alcohol in U.S.
1600’s – 1700’s – no alcohol problem
1700’s – 1800’s – alcohol problems begin –
family violence on the rise
1800’s – 1900’s – Doctor’s begin to define
alcoholism – see problems in society
There are approximately 295
million Americans in the U.S.
Who is at risk for becoming an alcoholic?
1. 1 in 10 Americans
2. 1 in 4 if one parent is an alcoholic
3. 1 in 2 if dad or grandfather
Alcohol and All Other Drugs
do Two Things:
They are agents of change.
1. They change the way you think (mental).
2. They change the way you feel (emotional).
By default – you will behave differently.
Successful Treatment for Drug
Use, Abuse and Misuse
1. The Individual – 5 levels
Mental, Physical, Emotional, Social, Moral
2. The Environment (Society)
Hetero-, Homo-, Politics, Economics, Religion,
3. Genetics – enzymes, genes
Do you send people to jail if they
drink alcohol or if they smoke
tobacco or use marijuana?
Why do we put people in jail?
What is an addiction versus a
An unhealthy continued involvement with a mood-altering
object or activity that creates harmful consequences.
Signs of an addiction are (1) obsession/compulsion (2)
loss of control (3) negative consequences (4) denial (5)
escalation (6) tolerance (7) withdrawal symptoms.
A healthy continued involvement with an object or activity
that contributes to your growth in all six dimensions of
1. Low self-esteem
2. External focus of
4. Post-traumatic stress
2. Abusive home
3. Peer norms
4. Life events
1. Early exposure
4. Genetic predisposition
Signs of Work Addiction
Need to control
Difficulty relaxing and
Memory loss due to
Perception of Alcohol Use &
Behavior – before prohibition
Substance – during prohibition
Person – after prohibition
History of Drug Control
Prohibit it – 18th
Where’s the education?
amendment – repealed prohibition –
Franklin D. Roosevelt trying to boost economy
after the Depression 1929-1933.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
1935 – AA formed by Dr. Bob and Bill W.
Dr. Jellinek defines alcoholism as a disease
for the first time!
We have 20 billion brain cells
1. Cells communicate electrically and
What is one drink?
1. Beer – 12 oz. (4-6%)
2. Wine – 3-4 oz. (12-15%)
3. Distilled liquors – 1 oz. (50-75%)
Proof = twice the percentage
How Alcohol Passes through
1. Mouth – Esophagus – Stomach –
Duodenum – Blood stream – circulates
through all the organs – brain, heart,
pancreas, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands,
2. The body can remove approximately 1
drink per hour.
Effects of Alcohol
1. Loss of inhibitions
4. Slow reactions
5. High blood pressure
6. Memory impairment
Long Term Effects
2. Skin problems
3. Loss of muscle tissue
4. Sexual impotence
5. Frequent infections
6. Heart, lung, liver and
How Drugs Are Scheduled
Schedule I – high potential for abuse and addiction, no
accepted medical use (amphetamine, heroin, PCP, marijuana)
Schedule II – high potential for abuse and addiction, restricted
medical use (cocaine, methadone, morphine, opium)
Schedule III – some potential for abuse and addiction,
currently accepted medical use (prescription drugs and over the
Schedule IV – low potential for abuse and addiction, current
medical use (anti-seizure meds, minor tranquilizers)
Schedule V – lowest potential for abuse and addiction,
medical use (over-the counter drugs)
When do prescription drugs
become over-the-counter drugs:
1. Doctors feel they are safe without a
2. The drug(s) have been on the market
for at least 3 years and are on the safe
and effective list (GRAS/GRAE)
3. There appears to be a high demand for
drugs to be over-the-counter
The first 3 days presents the greatest
risk for death
Physiological and psychological issues
Not as easy as saying “Just Say No”
In fact, with some drugs if you stop
suddenly there may be severe side
effects – even death. Careful when you
try to give advise to others.
How do you feel?
Depressed Normal Bliss
Bottom line…We have needs!
We want to be happy
We want to feel good
We want to be successful
We want to be loved
We want to feel
We want to have energy
We want friends
We want to be
We want to be relaxed
We want to feel “high” –
We want to relieve
We want to be less
We want to try something
new, take risks – be
We want to discover the
meaning of life
If your needs are not being met…
You will self-medicate!