OZONEWater Sanitation Technology for Healthier Pool EnvironmentsCopyright 2011
zone Technology was discovered in themid 1840’s by Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist. The Tfirst drinking water treatment plant was built in Oudshoom, Netherlandsduring Americas’ “Depression of 1893”.In 1906, the first municipal water treatment facility was built in Nice,France specifically to use ozone as a disinfectant. By 1977, there wereover a thousand ozone drinking water treatment plants in Europe.The market for it’s oxidation power spread from France, Germany,Netherlands and other European countries making it into the pool andspa industry in the early 1950’s and in the United States since about1975.In 2001, the FDA officially allowed the use of ozone as an antimicrobialdirect food additive and as a surface disinfectant in the food chain.Today, 2011, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have draftedchanges within the Model Aquatic Health Codes (MAHC), a guideline forimproving the safety and efficacy of sanitation for public swimmingvenues, identifying ozone as an approved secondary disinfection systemthat will help to achieve this goal.
Since 1961, when the U.S. Public Health Service published a modelordinance governing the sanitation of public pools with chlorine, it has beenthe standard water treatment chemical in much of our industries. Whilechlorine is effective in reaching certain water quality standards, scientistsare learning more about its limitations and hazards.Soon, the MAHC will include a section on the importance of supplementaldisinfections systems (SDSs). In the present draft only two recommendedSDS technologies are listed : ozone and ultraviolet light (UV). Why the addition? Chlorine, reigning as the standard indisinfectants on the market over 100 years, is known to be toxic to marinelife, cause serious health problems (some carcinogenic), and be hazardousto the environment. It is dangerous to handle, store, extremely flammableand costly.In swimming pools this caustic and corrosive chemical attacks organicwaste turning them into highly toxic chloro-organic compounds (combinedchlorine) that can accumulate to very high concentrations. Obvious signs ofthis are red eyes and skin rashes and should be considered signals of amuch more serious risk in human health. “Chlorine may just be the greatest crippler and killer of modern times!” Dr. Robert Carlson, Unv. Of Minnesota
“Does your pool water have you upside down?”Contamination in pools are caused primarily by the bathers themselveswho introduce pollution in the form of urea, sweat, body oils, cosmeticproducts, saliva, lotions, some shampoos and soaps. Reacting with the poolchemicals substances (by products) form called “Chloramines” and“Trihalomethanes” (THMS).
Chlorine Pool Pollutants Chloramine and Trichloramine (THMS), chlorine substances such as these contribute to many of today’s swimming pool problems. Chloramines are responsible for the so-called "chlorine smell", or ammonia odor. Corrosion in and around the pool are likely due to the production of these two chlorine by-products. Chloramines in the air can cause significant damage to anything metallic when they condense on metallic surfaces. These chloride forms are a harmful substance that will corrode metals, including stainless steel. Chloraminated water can also cause rubber parts in plumbing, pumps, filters and water heaters to degrade more quickly. Chloramine-resistant replacement parts may be available. Both can cause health problems to the skin, eyes, sinuses, mucous membranes, and throat in the pool water and in the air above the water. These are very potent irritants, having been known to actually cause asthma in workers working in an enclosed environment, in swimming pools. COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS IN HIGH-CHLORINE POOLS HAVE INCREASED RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS. Cryptosporidiosis (Crypto) is Chlorine tolerant. A disease that can exist in pool water and generally affects the health of small children and elderly. Ozone kills it. People are hospitalized each year due to sanitation problems within swimming venues.
Chloramine formation can be Prevention of By- Products: accelerated by: Swimmers not properly showering Change the air circulation system to before entering pool. include more fresh air introduction and Urination in the pool. better turnover or more efficient closed system circulation and Swimmers doing a high level of dehumidification. aerobic activity and sweating in the water. (Yes, swimmers sweat in the Evaluate the type and brands of pool during exercise.) chemicals being used to treat the pool water for both chlorine and pH control. Residues from ammonia based cleaning products that are used on Evaluate the pool filtration system decks or in shower rooms. Check the labels on all cleaning Residues from nitrogen based products to make sure they do not fertilizers used on landscaping. These contain ammonia or are not nitrogen residues get tracked in on shoes. enriched. Poor air circulation and lack of fresh air Install an activated carbon filter to introduction into the pool building. remove chloramines from the city Over use of “shocking” the pool for water that is used to fill or add water to maintenance purposes. the pool. Improper use of chemicals not suitable Consider installing an Ozone or Ultra for conditions specific to a geographic Violet (UV) water treatment system area. that cuts down on the amount of Chloramines added to the municipal chlorine used. tap water and used to fill pools. Wash down equipment and surroundings of pool with Ozone Mobile Sanitizer Unit.
Ozone vs UV TWO COMPLETE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES,Ozone is a gas that is dissolved in water to kill microorganisms, destroyorganics, and break down chloramines by oxidation. This occursimmediately at the ozone gas injection point and continues as the side-stream remixes with the main return.UV light inactivates microorganisms and breaks down chloramines withlight energy. With UV, this chloramine breakdown only happens while thewater is in the UV chamber, and as long as the water has no turbidity.While both Ozone and UV provide very effective Crypto reduction asdocumented by third-party testing and validation, there are distinctdifferences between the two technologies when it comes to other areas ofconcern for commercial aquatics designers and operators, with clearadvantages to Ozone over UV.Either system is in general used in combination with a small amount ofchlorine dosing; not so much for crypto control, but to provide a “residual ofchlorine in the pool water” as required under State Health Regulations.
Ozone is the most powerful oxidizer and disinfectant that can be used safely to purify air and water . 50% stronger oxidizer than Chlorine and acts over 3,000 times faster. Scientifically proven as an affective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent in deactivatingbacteria, viruses, molds, spores, cysts, yeast, mildew and fungi. 100% Natural Biodegradable.
Today’s Technology for Tomorrow’s Future Bromine and Chlorine have been A century old technology, Ozone the standard chemicals used in sanitation is on the rise as the sanitizing applications and most industries engineers, architects, commonly used in both private pool builders and designers and commercial pool water become more familiar with it’s treatments for several reasons, powerful, environmentally safe not all for the good. and healthy properties. With better educated consumers it Plenty of new technology is raising is driving the demand for changes interest within a vast amount of in the sanitation systems and marketplaces and consumers; sales are increasing, many are claiming a cleaner, healthier, more retrofitting and opting for cost effective way to sanitize. alternative systems such as Ozone and UV. Diving into a healthier swimming pool tomorrow begins with the chemicals and methods of treating the water we use today. “This Is Not New Technology!”
Since 1984 all swimming pools selected for the Olympic Games, are Gamespurified with ozone. Private, public, commercial, water park and hotel /motel pools have switched to ozone technologies.Thanks to its high oxidation power ozone destroys quickly and definitivelybacteria, viruses and algae ensuring microbiological safety in all types ofapplications without foaming. Elite level competitive swimmers believe they can swim faster in an ozonated pool.
Key Benefits of Ozone Produces crystal clear water that smells fresh, feels softer and is more refreshing Dramatically improves the sanitation of the pool Eliminates oils and other contaminants in water Greatly reduces the need for harsh, costly chemicals Eliminates eye and skin irritation and hair damage Saves maintenance, time and money Helps to simplify aquatics management, less hands on Eliminates chemical odors Prolongs equipment life
Ozone has been used in Olympic training pools, Nikeworld campus swimming pools, EPA headquarters,the Pentagon, luxury Resorts and many more. Use of ozone as opposed to chlorine in swimming pools and spas is gaining popularity worldwide as people become more concerned about chlorine and chlorinated byproducts.
Negative Side to Ozone Disadvantage is higher cost to adapt / install the initial system.Unfortunately, the high cost of ozone generators in the past has impeded itsgrowth into the market. If you consider that there have been severalgenerations of engineers / technicians who have been taught chemicalprocesses as a matter of course, it is not easy to persuade them thatswitching to this "new" (to North America) technology is the way to go. Asthis superior alternative to swimming pool disinfection becomes moreprevalent, expect to see more expertise at the local pool builder or poolmaintenance companies that will help you create a better environmentallysafe and healthy system for years to come. . “ISN’T IT TIME TO MOVE AWAY FROM OVER-DEPENDENCE ON CHLORINE”.
Ozone Sanitation in Everyday Life In Germany, ozone therapy has been In the pool and spa industry, ozone widely used since 1959. There have has been used for more than 65 been 10,000 German doctors using years as the most powerful oxidizer ozone therapy for close to 10 million that can be safely used in a swimming patients for treating various diseases. pool or spa. Safe for mammals and marine life, The Metropolitan Water District (MWD) ozone is used worldwide in zoos and located in Los Angeles,California,has commercial aquariums (see the one of the largest municipal ozone Special Projects for examples). water treatment plants in the world.world 1986, Los Angeles completed its first filtration plant. Using ozone and rapid The International Bottled Water rate deep bed filters, the $146 million Association (IBWA) bottled water Los Angeles Filtration Plant treats up specification regarding ozone has to 600 million gallons of water each been in use since 1982.Ninety percent day. It is the largest direct filtration (90%) of bottled water is treated with plant in the U.S. and the second ozone. largest ozone plant in the world. As technology leaders continue to push for alternatives to Chlorine, acceptance of the technology will be more favorable.
Imagine a truly refreshing oasis, crystalclear, perfectly pure water with theunmatched power of mother-nature,right in your own backyard. With OzoneTechnology, you can enjoy the beautyand comfort of some of the cleanest,purest water youll find anywhere. Why?Because ozonation is a natural processthat not only sanitizes the water in yourpool, it purifies it.
Study Says Ozone Technology Sales to Exceed $August 2011A BCC Research technology market research report indicates that total worldwidesales revenues for ozone technology were $469 million in 2007, and are expected toincrease to more than $800 Million in 2015, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR)of 8.1%.The largest ozone technology segments in 2009 were water/wastewater applications.These will increase from $356 million in 2007 to nearly $600 million in 2015, acompound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.4%.Sales of ozone technology in Air and gas treatment, medicine will experiencemoderate growth. This market segment was worth $113 million in 2007 and willincrease at a 6.9% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach a value of $183million in 2015.
Cost factorsA properly sized and installed Ozone system will provide reliable sanitation orsecondary disinfection for years. Compared to UV, in particular, ozone ismaintenance free, and the typical reductions in chemical demand simplifyroutine measurement, dosing and testing of water (and produces healthier,fresher water  ). Since ozone is generated as needed on site, there is no needfor storage, inventory or logistics management.Ozone sanitation systems are safe and effective as well as cost effective.As a rule, ozone and UV technologies are comparatively priced. Each costsapproximately $30,000 for a 100,000-gallon pool, with the ozone system havingthe larger footprint. Operational cost will vary with the local price of electricity foreither technology. However, ozone does not entail the same maintenance costsas UV. With savings from labor and reduced chlorine usage, a system can payfor itself in three to six years on a 100,000-gallon pool, depending on batherload, some are seeing returns within as little as 12 months  .These units generally run in combination with a chlorine dosing system to provide a “residual ofchlorine in the pool water” as required under State Health Regulations.
Mobile Ozone Surface Sanitation Antimicrobial ozone-enriched cold water can be sprayed directly on: Shower stalls Toilet stalls Locker rooms Pool decks Play features Equipment Any water proof surface Ozone-Compatible Materials: Plastics: ECTFE, PTFE, PVC, PVDF Gaskets: FPM (Viton), EPDM Metals: 304/316 SS Pump seals: FPM (Viton) All painted surfaces, concrete, wood
Mobile Ozone Unit A self-contained mobile ozone sanitation system can provide ozone-enriched cold water on demand for hard surface sanitation in and around the pool for an Ultimate Ozone Clean Environment. OZONE
Hot Springs Swimming Pool: Glenwood Springs, CO.  The quality of water after ozone technology was applied has shown astriking change in color from green to dark blue; and even though the pool issituated outdoors, algae control has been excellent. This system has nowbeen in operation for 15 years.The total volume of this outdoor pool is 1,072,300 gallons, occupying a totalarea of 30,195 ft². The average number of people visiting the poolthroughout the year is between 1,000 and 1,300 per day, which sometimesrises as high as 3,000 people during holidays.Before: Chlorination After: OzonationPrior to ozonation treatment, this hot spring BiOzone ozonation technology combined withswimming pool in Glenwood Springs, multimedia filtration was applied to treat theColorado was treated with chlorine and sand pool water.filtration only.
 SAVINGS SHOWN WITH OZONE IN 1ST YEAR Installation of ozone for end process disinfection provided a 1 year return on investment, In water treatment plant, due to ever increasing material investment and transportation costs associated with chemical treatment for disinfection, ozone disinfection represents real savings in operating costs over chemical disinfection. In 2006, Petro Stopping Centers, LP in Kingman Arizona implemented ozone disinfection instead of chlorine in order to reduce costly chemical fees and found that a one year return on investment, along with a vast array of other benefits was achieved. The following details the disinfection results achieved and the cost savings after one year of successful operation. Other benefits include improvements in water quality as well as reduction in the handling and storage of chemicals. Ozone also resulted in the elimination of hazardous chemicals handling by plant personnel. Freight costs were significantly reduced. Maintenance supplies and plant labor for chemical dosing pumps were reduced. Onsite lab labor and supplies for testing was reduced.
Petro #15 Ozone Cost Comparison First Year CostsAnnual ChlorinationDe-Chlorination $70,224.00 Chemical 45,600.00 Freight 7,200.00 Power 132.00 Maint. Supplies 1,392.00 Direct Labor 15,120.00 Onsite Lab Supp. 780.00 Ozone Equipment Purchase 0.00Annual OzoneDisinfection Process $62,980.00 Chemical 0.00 Freight 0.00 Power 2,076.00 Maint. Supplies 636.00 Direct Labor 1,896.00 Onsite Lab Supp. 0.00 Ozone Equipment Purchase 58,372.00 Additional years will only increase the plant return on investment. R. G. Rice (1997)”Applications and current status of ozone for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment: a literature review”, Imperial College Center for Environmental Control & Waste Management, The role of ozone in wastewater treatment.
Choosing a Ozone System When properly sized and installed, a corona discharge ozone generation system should result in easier to maintain, less costly and better smelling, better tasting, and better quality pool water.
As life support for aquatic mammals and fish in commercial aquariums, its major health benefits in hospitals and rehabilitation centers, cleaning the air in hotel rooms, to treating our drinking water, its no wonder Ozone technology is becoming the new standard of treating our spas, aquatic centers and swimming pools alike.The best pools have their water quality in compliance with the standards for drinking water supplies. SHOULDN’T YOU?
Special Projects Bejing National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) - Bejing, China Home to the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, housing three pools. The Water Cube has an advanced water filtration system which takes into account Beijings need to conserve limited water resources. The water filtration system runs the backwash water through a two-stage filtration system before returning it back to the pool. Engineers installed a unique breeze system that runs gently across the water to remove any trace of disinfectant aromas. Recirculation of the pool’s water is controlled using a computer that also reduces the amountof water used by more than 50 percent compared with other facilities. The facade of the water cube became so popular that there is now a one-to-one copy near the ferry terminal in Macau – the Casino Oceanus by Paul Steelman. Bejing Aquarium - Bejing, China Opened in 1999, it is the largest inland aquarium in the world, To help keep the water healthy enough to support this life, the designers specified DEL Ozone Aquatics sanitation systems. A total of 10 ozone generators ranging from 25 grams/hour to 500 grams/hour capacity were installed in a custom-designed system to sanitize both fish and marine mammal exhibits. DEL engineering invented and applied innovative ozone flow-splitting techniques that could direct ozone flows to different tanks as needed, although the method has now become a best practice in the industry. Atlantis, Paradise Island, Bahamas & Atlantis The Palm, Dubai The Atlantis Resorts installations utilize more than 18,000 grams/hour of ozone with multiple ozone systems. To put this into perspective, a typical single ozone generator for a commercial on-premise laundry might produce just 7 grams/hour. The size and complexity of the installation reflects the extensive demands of the various pools, treatments, spas and sprays that are part of the complexes.
Sydney Australia Aquatics Center - Sydney, Australia Opening in 1994, home to the 2000 Olympics, it’s venue’s extensive high quality leisure facilities include a 10-lane 50 x 25 meter competition pool; a 33 x 25 meter utility pool including facilities for water polo, diving, synchronized swimming and synchronized diving; an 8-lane 50 x 18.2 meter training pool; leisure pools, garden, spa, sauna and steam room. A fully automated two-vessel ozone system provides world-class water filtration and sanitization, using chlorine levels three times lower than conventional pools. Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre - Canada Class III Water Treatment Plant. Disinfection is accomplished with ozone, UV light, and sodium hypochlorite. Total water on site in displays and reservoirs is 9690 cubic meters. The water in the complex is continually re-circulated from reservoir - to animal tanks - to filters - and back to reservoirs. The total volume of water is re-circulated through filters every 125 minutes. This equates to a total volume of 111,059 cu. meters pumped in 24 Hrs. The Metropolitan Water District (MWD) - Los Angeles,California One of the largest municipal ozone water treatment plants in the world. 1986 Los Angeles completed its first filtration plant. Using ozone and rapid rate deep bed filters, the $146 million Los Angeles Filtration Plant treats up to 600 million gallons of water each day. It is the largest direct filtration plant in the U.S. and the second largest ozone plant in the world. The Dolphin Center at Dolphin Adventure - Nuevo Vallarta, Mexico Built in 1996, the seawater pools are larger than the limits given by the US, European and Mexican Fisheries departments. Each pool holds over 2 million gallons of seawater that has been purified with sand filters and ozone generators.
Ozone In The NewsJapanese Goverment Supplemental Coverage Approves Ozone for Ballast Water Treatment When it comes to supplementalJune 2011 disinfection, many operators think UV. But there’s another poorly understoodMitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. (MOL) announced alternative that’s worth learning morethat an ozone-based ballast water treatment about — ozone.system earned a certificate of compliance By Beth Hamil, DEL Ozone | April 2010from the Japanese government. As aquatics facility operators and officials look to increase the safety and health of our public recreational waters, it is clear that supplemental disinfection systems will offer strong protection. Several states have already mandated the use of SDSs for their high-risk swimming venues such as interactive spray parks, and it is likely more states will rapidly adopt the MAHC for these as well as all public aquatics facilities. With this in mind, operators and officials are wise to learn about the power of ozone sanitation.
ConclusionOzone (O3), also known as "Active Oxygen", is acolorless gas with a characteristically clean, but strongodor. Ozone is the safest and second most powerfuloxidant known to human, neutralizes contaminants orchemically alters them, so that they can be more easilyeliminated. Today, it is the most valuable and powerfultool in air and water purification, food preservation, andbody detoxification.“We forget that the water cycle and the life cycle are one”. JaquesCousteau
Healthier Pool Environments Begin With O ZON E