Ppt lesson 04 adjusted


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Ppt lesson 04 adjusted

  1. 1. Unit 1—Computer BasicsLesson 4How a Computer Processes Data
  2. 2. Objectives  Identify computer system components.  Explain how the CPU works.  Differentiate between RAM and ROM.  Describe how data is represented. Computer Concepts BASICS - 2 -
  3. 3. Computer Systems  A computer system requires many components to do its job:  It requires some device or method to input data so it can be processed.  It requires circuit boards and programs to process the data.  It needs some type of output device to display the result of its processing.  It needs some mechanism for storing data. Computer Concepts BASICS - 3 -
  4. 4. Common System Components This figure shows several devices that are common components of a computer system. Computer Concepts BASICS - 4 -
  5. 5. System Motherboard  The motherboard contains the electronic circuitry of the computer.  Components found on the motherboard include  The primary processing chip (CPU)  The memory chips  Expansion slots for system interface cards Computer Concepts BASICS - 5 -
  6. 6. System Motherboard (cont.)  Components found on a motherboard (cont.)  Ports for connecting external devices  BIOS chips that control system startup  The circuitry that enables all of these components to communicate Computer Concepts BASICS - 6 -
  7. 7. Example of a Motherboard This figure shows the devices inside a PC case including the motherboard, the power supply, and some storage devices. Computer Concepts BASICS - 7 -
  8. 8. The Central Processing Unit  The CPU is the brains of a computer system.  The CPU is housed on a silicon chip that contains millions of switches and circuits. Computer Concepts BASICS - 8 -
  9. 9. The Central Processing Unit (cont.)  The CPU has two primary sections:  Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)  This section performs arithmetic and logical operations.  Control unit  This section is the boss of the CPU and coordinates all activity within the CPU.  It uses programming instructions to control what actions the CPU performs and when it performs them. Computer Concepts BASICS - 9 -
  10. 10. A CPU ChipThis figure shows a CPU chip fora small computer. The CPU determines which of the millions of switches that it contains should be turned on or off by processing program statements that tell it what to do. Computer programs are written in programming languages. Each program statement causes one or more actions to occur in the CPU. - 10 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  11. 11. Computer Memory  Data being processed by a CPU is stored in system memory.  Memory consists of addressable locations within the machine that the computer can access directly. - 11 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  12. 12. Computer Memory (cont.)  Data stored in memory is volatile.  If the power fails, everything in memory is lost.  Data must be stored on a disk or some other device when not being processed so it is not lost each time the computer shuts down. - 12 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  13. 13. Types of Memory  RAM—Random Access Memory  RAM is short-term memory in which data is processed while a program is running.  Data stored here can be accessed and modified as needed.  This type of memory loses any data it holds if the computer is shut down. - 13 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  14. 14. Types of Memory (cont.)  ROM—Read-Only Memory  ROM is memory placed on the motherboard by the manufacturer and contains instructions that tell the computer how to start itself.  This data cannot be accessed or modified by application programs.  The contents of this memory are not lost when the computer is shut down. - 14 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  15. 15. Computer System Controllers  A PC motherboard contains several controllers.  Controllers are devices that control the transfer of data between the computer and peripheral devices. - 15 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  16. 16. Computer System Controllers(cont.)  Common peripheral devices include a mouse, monitor, printer, keyboard, and so on.  Controllers usually are found on a single chip that can handle all common devices. - 16 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  17. 17. Ports  Serial and parallel ports are used to connect peripheral devices to the computer circuitry.  Serial devices (mice/monitors) transmit data one bit at a time.  Parallel devices (printers) transmit data several bits at time. - 17 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  18. 18. Ports (cont.)  USB is a newer, high-speed method of connecting devices and is beginning to replace serial and parallel ports.  USB can connect up to 127 external devices.  Firewire is another high-speed method.  Firewire can connect up to 63 external devices. - 18 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  19. 19. Expansion Slots  Expansion slots are electrical connections in the motherboard that can accept circuit cards to perform specific functions.  These commonly are used to plug in sound cards, video cards, scanners, and other devices. - 19 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  20. 20. A Typical Expansion Card Electrical prongs along the bottom are used to plug into the expansion slot and make an electrical connection to the main board. This port protrudes from the back of the PC case and is used to attach the device that this card controls. - 20 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  21. 21. Data Representation  Data is stored in a computer in binary format as a series of 1s and 0s.  Computers use standardized coding systems (such as ASCII) to determine what character or number is represented by what series of binary digits. - 21 Computer Concepts BASICS -
  22. 22. Data Representation (cont.)  Data is stored in a series of 8-bit combinations called a byte.  Every letter, number, punctuation mark, or symbol has its own unique combination of 1s and 0s. - 22 Computer Concepts BASICS -