Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11


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Joy Kreeft Peyton's presentation on LESLLA as Bilingual and Multilingual Learners

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  • One of my passions – language diversity
  • There are over 300 languages other than English spoken in the United States. Many of these can be considered “heritage languages” of individuals and communities. What do you call “heritage languages”? HANDOUT – QUESTIONS TO THINK ABOUT READ HANDOUT SILENTLY – 2 MINUTES – THINK ABOUT DURING THE OVERVIEW, AND WE’LL DISCUSS AT THE END
  • The centerpiece of our work is documenting heritage language programs in K-12 and community-based settings. Our goal is to have every program in the country in the database (possibly over 8,000).
  • We can search the collection by language, program type, and location and learn about program contacts and information about program schedules, funding, instructional materials and assessments used, students, and teachers. Here is the result of a search for Spanish programs. Escuela Bolivia, founded by Emma Violand Sanchez of Arlington Public Schools.
  • Here is the result of a search for Chinese programs.
  • We select specific languages and programs to feature in Heritage Voices, to give them life and visibility online. Heritage Voices feature Spanish, French, German, and less commonly taught languages (including Chinese, Croatian, Czech, etc.).
  • Here is a Heritage Voice about French.
  • French in the past was a European language spoken in the United States. As you know, French language instruction in public and private schools is declining. At the same time, heritage French programs are being established in New York City and Miami with students from Algeria, Congo, France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Ivory Coast, and Senegal.
  • A Heritage Voice about German is written by the founder of the German School of Connecticut.
  • Focus for a second on the student, Henry, a 10 th grade student and a participant in the German School of Connecticut since he was a young child. In the 10 th grade he scored in the 95 th percentile on the AATG test of German and can enroll in university classes with native German speakers. This is all done outside of the school system. When he enrolled in Spanish in school, he found the classes to be much less intense and realized that there was no way he could reach the levels of proficiency in Spanish that he had in German.
  • We also develop spotlight pages on specific languages, where we talk about the language and provide resources and links. Each language spotlight page seeks to provide a rich, up-to-date set of resources for those working with the language. Here is a spotlight on Chinese, with specific papers about Cantonese and Mandarin.
  • We also have language spotlight pages on Hindi and Urdu.
  • Heritage briefs are syntheses of information and research on key topics in the field.
  • We are developing a series of briefs on, we hope, every heritage language in the United States – the history and current status of programs. Here is the one on Chinese programs. What would it look like if you published a set of briefs about the languages in your country and the opportunities to learn and develop them?
  • CAL NEWS CARD We connect with the field and announce new programs and resources on the Web site through the Alliance News Flash , which is published quarterly. Sign up to receive the Alliance News Flash and keep in touch with us. Fill out a CAL News card.
  • BRIEF – RESEARCH-BASED PRACTICE Now let’s switch gears for a few minutes and talk about the role of students’ native or “heritage” languages and cultures in instruction. In the US, we have a pretty rocky profile when it comes to use of the native language in instruction. In the 1970s and 1980s when we were accepting refugees from Southeast Asia, there was a strong focus on native language materials. Now this is much less prevalent. In Hawaii, it is now possible to move from Preschool to a PhD program in Hawaiian. At the same time, I was recently told by a colleague recently that some of her colleagues in state and federal agencies believe that, “If you speak with an accent, you think with an accent.” Still, with recent US government interest in evidence that supports instructional practice, the question of evidence for native language use in instruction is there.
  • There is some evidence that use of students’ native language during instruction can promote learning.
  • Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11

    1. 1. Working With Adult Learners as Bilingual and Multilingual Individuals 2011 LESLLA Symposium Minneapolis, Minnesota September 29-October 1, 2011 Joy Kreeft Peyton Center for Applied Linguistics Washington, DC
    2. 2. Session Plan <ul><li>Richness, diversity and promise of languages other than the majority language in the lives of individuals, communities, countries, and educational programs </li></ul><ul><li>Research on using/building on languages other than the language of instruction in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for practitioners and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Language Wealth, Opportunities, and Benefits <ul><li>If we define heritage languages as languages other than English that have relevance to the learners, we find schools devoted to teaching these languages, developing literacy, and promoting education through these languages among indigenous, colonial, and immigrant groups throughout this country’s history. </li></ul><ul><li>(Joshua Fishman, 2001, p. 81; writing about heritage languages in the United States) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Alliance for the Advancement of Heritage Languages www.cal.org/heritage
    5. 5. Alliance Goals <ul><li>The Alliance is committed to advancing language development for heritage language speakers in the United States as part of a larger effort to educate members of our society who can function in their personal and professional lives in English and in other languages. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Alliance Activities <ul><li>Document heritage language development efforts in K-12 and community-based settings </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight interesting, dynamic programs and individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Develop resources for, and build connections among, those working in the field of heritage language education and research </li></ul>
    7. 7. Heritage Language Program Profiles www.cal.org/heritage
    8. 8. Heritage Language Programs: Spanish – Search Results www.cal.org/heritage
    9. 9. www.cal.org/heritage Heritage Language Programs: Chinese – Search Results
    10. 10. Heritage Voices Collection
    11. 11. Heritage Voices: French Language
    12. 12. Heritage Voices: French Heritage Language Program
    13. 13. Heritage Voices: German Language
    14. 14. Heritage Voices: German Heritage Language Program
    15. 15. Chinese Language Spotlight www.cal.org/heritage/chinese.html
    16. 16. Hindi Language Spotlight www.cal.org/heritage/sa/hindi.html
    17. 17. Heritage Briefs
    18. 18. Heritage Brief: Chinese Heritage Language Schools in the United States
    19. 19. Alliance News Flash
    20. 20. Contact the Alliance <ul><li>Visit our website www.cal.org/heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Contact the Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joy Peyton, [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Evidence in Education: United States <ul><li>U.S. Department of Education,1990s </li></ul><ul><li>System of education based on a body of scientifically based research findings </li></ul><ul><li>Involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting criteria for scientifically based research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining evidence-based practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining which instructional practices are supported by research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing papers for educators about those practices </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Evidence in Education <ul><li>“ People now accept that rigorous methods can be applied to education problems, that scientific methods can be applied to education and should be.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Eric A. Hanushek, Chair of the National Board for Education Sciences; Education Week , October 19, 2010, speaking about broadening of the “What Works” Clearinghouse definition of evidence) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Efforts to Determine Evidence <ul><li>What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), 2002 (http:ies.gov/ncee/wwc) </li></ul><ul><li>IES Practice Guides (IES) (Institute of Education Sciences, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>National Literacy Panel (NLP) (August & Shanahan, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Promising literacy interventions for adult ESL literacy students (PLI) (Condelli & Wrigley, 2004 a, 2004b) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Identifying Promising Literacy Interventions for Adult ESL Literacy Students (PLI) <ul><li>Part I: ABE and adult ESL research (1983-2003); WWC criteria; experimental design with randomized subject assignment, quasi-experiments with comparison groups, regression discontinuity designs; 17 studies </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Second language acquisition and related research </li></ul><ul><li>(Condelli & Wrigley, 2004a, 2004b) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Evidence in Education <ul><li>What counts as evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the evidence supporting the approach?: Use of students’ languages in instruction </li></ul><ul><li>What do we still want to know? </li></ul><ul><li>What are challenges and considerations? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we learn about evidence of effectiveness and implement effective practices? </li></ul>
    26. 26. Use the Native Language - Research <ul><li>NLP – No indication that use of the native language in instruction impeded academic achievement in the native language or in English. Some studies found significant differences in learning outcomes, favoring students who received instruction in the native language. </li></ul><ul><li>PLI – One study found positive gains in reading and oral English communication skills of students when teachers used the native language to clarify concepts, introduce new ideas, or provide explanations </li></ul><ul><li>(SLA literature: Condelli & Wrigley, et al., 2003) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Use the Native Language - Research <ul><li>“ Using learners’ native languages, or giving them opportunities to interact in their native languages, can enhance students’ sense of competence and self-worth and possibly “free up cognitive resources for dealing with the learning asks at hand.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Condelli & Wrigley, 2004, p. 38) </li></ul>“ If you learn something in one language, you either already know it in another language (e.g., transfer it to another) or you can more easily learn it in another language.” (Goldenberg, 2008, p. 15)
    28. 28. Use the Native Language - Practice <ul><li>It is not always possible for teachers to use students’ native languages. </li></ul><ul><li>When possible, teachers might use the native language for clarifying concepts, introducing new ideas, or providing explanations </li></ul><ul><li>(Condelli, Wrigley, & Yoon, 2009) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Use the Native Language - Practice <ul><li>Use of the native language can support learning if students can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use their native languages in journal writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read books in their native language and discuss them in groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview family and community members in their native language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet in homogeneous groups to discuss concepts learned in class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Huerta-Macias, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Use the Native Language - Study Circle <ul><li>The Role of the First Language in Learning English: Asset or Barrier? </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Finn Miller </li></ul><ul><li>Research articles </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas for instruction </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ell-u.org/ </li></ul>
    31. 31. Student-Centered Language Instruction <ul><li>Builds on learners’ experiences and strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on learners’ needs, skills, and interests </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunities for learners to use the target language to negotiate meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunities for students to work in pairs, groups, or alone </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances students’ sense of competence and self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>(references in Peyton, Moore, & Young, 2010) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Connect Instruction With Learners’ Lives - Research <ul><li>At the same time, the NLP found little evidence to support the proposition that culturally compatible instruction enhances achievement of English learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies such as those with Hawaiian children, in which students were able to use in school interaction patterns used at home and their achievement-related behaviors increased, are methodologically weak (e.g., Au & Mason, 1981). </li></ul>“ For now, it appears that developing lessons with solid content and clearly structured instruction is more likely to produce gains in terms of student learning” [than culturally accommodated instruction]. (Goldenberg, 2008, p. 21)
    33. 33. Connect Instruction With Learners’ Lives - R esearch <ul><li>IES – Increase student motivation and engagement in literacy learning – “Teachers should make literacy experiences more relevant to students’ interests, everyday life, or important current events” (p. 26); “Look for opportunities to bridge activities outside and inside the classroom” (p. 28). ( Level of evidence – Moderate ) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult ESL – One study found that adults learning English as a second language learned more, as measured by scores on standardized tests, in classes where the teacher made connections between life outside the classroom and what was learned in the classroom, than in classes where teachers did not make such connections. </li></ul><ul><li>(Condelli, Wrigley, & Yoon, 2009) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Connect Instruction With Learners’ Lives - Practice <ul><li>Engage students in learning by starting with content and experiences they are familiar with </li></ul><ul><li>Bring authentic materials to class to use in tasks and other activities </li></ul><ul><li>Use topics and narratives from learners’ lives as the basis for curriculum development (Weinstein, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Use the language experience approach </li></ul><ul><li>(See, e.g., Condelli, Wrigley, & Yoon, 1999; National Center for Family Literacy & Center for Applied Linguistics, 2007) </li></ul>
    35. 35. Promote Interaction Among Learners - Practice <ul><li>Use group and pair work – students have more time practicing the language and they will “notice the gap” and push themselves to reach the next level and to be understood (e.g., Swain, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Promote student interaction through task-based and problem-based interactions (e.g., Ellis, 2003) </li></ul>
    36. 36. What do we still want to know? <ul><li>Use of specific instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction for specific populations (e.g., adults with limited formal schooling and limited literacy in their native language) </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction for specific purposes, in specific contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-program learning opportunities </li></ul>Value and impact of
    37. 37. What do we still want to know? <ul><li>If a specific practice is determined effective … </li></ul><ul><li>Is it more effective with some learners than with others? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it more effective in some settings than in others? </li></ul><ul><li>With what level of intensity and over what periods of time is it effective? </li></ul><ul><li>What level of skill does the teacher need (e.g., in learners’ first/primary languages) to be effective? </li></ul>“ Individual studies might point in certain directions, but we lack a body of solid studies that permit us to go beyond the general finding about the positive effects of primary language instruction on reading achievement in English.” (Goldenberg, 2008, p. 12)
    38. 38. How do we learn about evidence? <ul><li>Read research summaries and syntheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies on the WWC website, IES practice guides, NLP report, PLI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews and discussions of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., Huerta-Macias & Kephart, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAL research-to-practice briefs ( www.cal.org/adultesl ) </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. How do we learn about evidence? <ul><li>Read the original research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What works” for adult students of English as a second language (Condelli, Wrigley, & Yoon, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of a reading intervention for low-literate adult ESL learners (U.S. Department of Education, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work with others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss ideas and research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide up the work </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. How do we learn about evidence? <ul><li>In learning communities or study circles </li></ul><ul><li>Topic or focus of the study/synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Author of the study/synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical framework </li></ul><ul><li>Learner populations involved </li></ul><ul><li>Research methodologies used </li></ul><ul><li>How research methods align with criteria for scientifically-based research and evidence-based practice </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of the findings </li></ul>
    41. 41. What do we do with evidence? <ul><li>Consider the implications of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>for programs and instruction </li></ul><ul><li>What am I going to try in my classes? </li></ul><ul><li>What did I learn from this experience? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I want to know, read, investigate, or discuss now? </li></ul>
    42. 42. Discussion <ul><li>Is it useful to learn about learners’ languages and cultures? </li></ul><ul><li>What research on this issue is available? </li></ul><ul><li>How can this information be integrated into instruction? </li></ul><ul><li>What instructional approaches can we use to build on learners’ knowledge and language skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we want/need to do now? </li></ul>
    43. 43. References <ul><li>Au, K.H., & Mason, J.M. (1981). Social organizational factors in learning to read: The balance of rights hypothesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 17 , 115-152. </li></ul><ul><li>August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Executive Summary, www.cal.org/projects/archive/nlreports/executive_summary.pdf http://www.cal.org/resources/pubs/developliteracy.html ) </li></ul><ul><li>Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H. S. (2004a). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. </li></ul>
    44. 44. References (continued) <ul><li>Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004b). Real-world research: Combining qualitative and quantitative research for adult ESL. National Research and Development Center (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England. www.leslla.org/files/resources/RealWorldResearch.doc </li></ul><ul><li>Condelli, L., Wrigley, H.S., & Yoon, K.S. (2009).“What works” for adult students of English as a second language. In S. Reder & J. Bynner (Eds.), Tracking adult literacy and numeracy skills: Findings from longitudinal research (pp. 132-159). New York and London: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Condelli, L., Wrigley, H., et al. (2003). What works study for adult ESL literacy students. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. </li></ul>
    45. 45. References (continued) <ul><li>Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishman, J. (2001). 300-plus years of heritage language education in the United States. In J.K. Peyton, D.A. Ranard, and S. McGinnis. Heritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource (pp. 81-97). Washington, DC and McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems. (http://www.cal.org/resources/pubs/heritage.html) </li></ul><ul><li>Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English language learners: What the research does – and does not – say. American Educator, 32, 8-23, 42-44. http://www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/summer2008/goldenberg.pdf </li></ul>
    46. 46. References (continued) <ul><li>Huerta-Macías, A. G. (2003). Meeting the challenge of adult education: A bilingual approach to literacy and career development. J ournal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy , 47(3), 218-226. </li></ul><ul><li>Huerta-Macias, A., & Kephart, K. (2009). Reflections on native language use in adult ESL classrooms. Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journal, 3(2 ), 87-96. </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Education Sciences. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: IES practice guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/adlit_pg_082608.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>National Center for Family Literacy & Center for Applied Linguistics. (2008). The CAELA guide for adult ESL trainers. Washington, DC: Authors. http://www.cal.org/caela/scb/guide.html </li></ul>
    47. 47. References (continued) <ul><li>Peyton, J.K., Moore, S.C., & Young, S. (2010). Evidence-based, student-centered instructional practices. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. http://www.cal.org/caelanetwork/resources/studentcentered.html </li></ul><ul><li>Spark, S.D. (2010, October 19). “What works” broadens its research standards: Clearinghouse moved past “gold standard.” Education Week, October 19, 2010. www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/20/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Swain, M. (2005). The output hypothesis: Theory and research. In E. Hinkel (ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 471-483). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education. (2010, December). The impact of a reading intervention for low-literate adult ESL learners. Washington, DC: Author. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20114003/pdf/20114003.pdf </li></ul>
    48. 48. References (continued) <ul><li>Weinstein, G. (1999). Learners’ lives as curriculum: Six journeys to immigrant literacy. Washington, DC and McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems. http://www.cal.org/resources/pubs/learnerslives.html </li></ul><ul><li>What Works Clearinghouse. (2008). WWC procedures and standards handbook . http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/references </li></ul>
    49. 49. English Language and Literacy for Adults <ul><li>Visit our website for resources and information designed specifically for practitioners working with adult English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>This website also provides access to resources formerly on the CAELA and CAELA Network websites. </li></ul><ul><li>www.cal.org/adultesl </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    50. 50. Services <ul><li>CAL knows the challenges faced by teachers, trainers, and program administrators working with adult English language learners. We draw on our decades of experience to provide the technical assistance and professional development needed by practitioners seeking to improve the quality of instruction offered to adults learning English. </li></ul><ul><li>Our services include </li></ul><ul><li>Introductory Workshops In a 1/2- or 1-day workshop, teachers and administrators receive an overview of the key issues in the field of education for adults learning English, instructional approaches in use in the field and research studies and syntheses supporting those approaches, and resources and technical assistance available for promoting program improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop Series In a series of workshops focused on a specific topic (e.g., working with diverse learner populations, promoting transitions through and beyond adult education programs), participants explore a topic or series of topics, learn about instructional strategies related to the topic(s) and research supporting those strategies, apply what they have learned in their classes, and reflect together on what they have accomplished and their next steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with CAL </li></ul><ul><li>From building ongoing, responsive professional development methodologies to designing effective instruction, CAL can work with you to develop a plan for services that meet your needs and budget. </li></ul><ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><li>email: adultesl@cal.org </li></ul><ul><li>call: 202-362-0700 </li></ul>
    51. 51. Resources for Practitioners <ul><li>CAL offers a variety of publications, assessments, online digests and briefs, and other resources for professionals working with adult English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Many can be viewed in html format or downloaded as free PDFs from our website. Selected publications are also available in print for ease of use and reference. </li></ul><ul><li>www.cal.org/adultesl </li></ul>
    52. 52. Briefs and Digests <ul><li>CAL has been a leader for decades in providing evidence-based resources for practitioners working with adult English language learners. Resources include those from the National Clearinghouse for Literacy Education (NCLE) established in 1989 to the resources and training provided through the Center for Adult English Language Acquisition (CAELA) and, most recently, the CAELA Network. </li></ul><ul><li>CAL continues to focus on making evidence-based resources readily available to practitioners nationwide who work with this growing population of language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Our complete collection of briefs and digests is available online in html format with many also available as free downloadable PDFs. </li></ul>www.cal.org/adultesl
    53. 53. Join Our List <ul><li>Sign up for CAL News to receive monthly electronic updates about resources from CAL. </li></ul>Visit www.cal.org/join