Second Life A New Space for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship ? Patrycja Rudnicka University of Silesia Katowice, Pol...
Background Technological Change in Education
<ul><li>Transition from e-learning 1.0 to 2.0 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user created content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soci...
Background Technological Change in Education (Rudnicka, 2008)‏
Background Challenges  of entrepreneurship education  <ul><li>” how to teach ”   rather  than   ” what to teach ” </li></u...
<ul><li>Analysis of psychological features of new methods and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Users' perceptions of emerging educa...
Short Overview Second Life Features in a Nutshell <ul><li>free 3D virtual world, massively multiplayer online (MMO) virtua...
Short Overview Second Life Education
Research Questions Second Life in teaching and learning entrepreneurship <ul><li>What are non-users’ perception of  SL  us...
<ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comprehensive literature studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exploration of web , m e...
Method SL's perception among non-users <ul><li>Cognitive representation of technological tool  (Penna & Stara, 2007)‏ </li...
Results SL's perception among non-users <ul><li>Web use patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experience > 5 years </li></ul></ul...
Results SL’s Perceptions - Content Analysis <ul><li>Two main c ategories derived from content analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>...
Results Institutional Readiness - K ey  F indings <ul><li>M ost popular teaching techniques are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>le...
Results Good practice examples <ul><li>From several programmes found most were addressed to primary or secondary education...
Summary T eaching methods  used in good practices examples <ul><li>group and team techniques </li></ul><ul><li>case studie...
Summary Final Remarks <ul><li>Goals of European entrepreneurship education should be reviewed in context of changing  expe...
Thank You! Contact information: [email_address] www.inpere.org
References Compeau, D. R. & Higgins, C. A. (1995). Computer self‑efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test.  MIS...
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Second Life. A New Space for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship?

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Rudnicka, P. (2009). Second Life. A New Space for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship? Paper presented at 14th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, May 13-16, 2009, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

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Second Life. A New Space for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship?

  1. 1. Second Life A New Space for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship ? Patrycja Rudnicka University of Silesia Katowice, Poland Santiago de Compostela May 13-16, 2009 14 th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology Symposium: Entrepreneurial Success and Innovation
  2. 2. Background Technological Change in Education
  3. 3. <ul><li>Transition from e-learning 1.0 to 2.0 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user created content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual worlds (e.g. Second Life)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>massively multiplayer educational gaming environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>m-learning (mobile phones, iPods)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different learning approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user-centred and action oriented learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative social learning or informal learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>t ransform ation of ways in which people work and learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological characteristic of new tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new competences (teachers & students)‏ </li></ul></ul>Background Technological Change in Education (Dickey, 2003; Jones & Bronack, 2006; Horizon Report, 2007; Rudnicka, 2008)‏
  4. 4. Background Technological Change in Education (Rudnicka, 2008)‏
  5. 5. Background Challenges of entrepreneurship education <ul><li>” how to teach ” rather than ” what to teach ” </li></ul><ul><li>low correlation of traditional educational methods with the development of entrepreneurial traits and attributes </li></ul><ul><li>need of multi-disciplinary collaboration, international cooperation and exchanges of ideas and experience </li></ul><ul><li>need of flexibility in course design (full time / part time / intensive courses / work placements)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>need of orientation on training / action-oriented / student-centred educational methods to provide learning by direct experience </li></ul><ul><li>need to shift to more interactive learning approaches </li></ul><ul><li>increasing need for remote education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wilson, 2006; EFER, 2004; EC Report, 2008) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Analysis of psychological features of new methods and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Users' perceptions of emerging educational environments : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of user experience measure </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration to find good practices, examples for further exploration </li></ul>Project Overview Emerging E-learning Environments
  7. 7. Short Overview Second Life Features in a Nutshell <ul><li>free 3D virtual world, massively multiplayer online (MMO) virtual environment </li></ul><ul><li>kind of Web 2.0 environment (user-generated content, social networks and media sharing)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>global community of over 15 million registered users </li></ul><ul><li>innovative marketplace with flourishing economy (Linden Dollars (L$) exchangeable for real world currencies)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>innovative educational space (~200 real-life HEIs presented)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>several unique psychological features (avatars, immersion -feeling of presence, virtual teams / activities / environment)‏ </li></ul>
  8. 8. Short Overview Second Life Education
  9. 9. Research Questions Second Life in teaching and learning entrepreneurship <ul><li>What are non-users’ perception of SL use in education? </li></ul><ul><li>What features of SL are important in context of demands of entrepreneurship education at university level? </li></ul><ul><li>What are examples of SL ’s use in teaching entrepreneurship at the university level? </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comprehensive literature studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exploration of web , m essage boards, virtual environments , server statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus group interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>case studies examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>questionnaire creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>web based survey </li></ul></ul>Method
  11. 11. Method SL's perception among non-users <ul><li>Cognitive representation of technological tool (Penna & Stara, 2007)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus grup interviews: 1-1 . 5h </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sample: N = 30 (8 0% females, 20% males )‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>third year students, blended learning freshmens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C ontrolled variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web use patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Self-Efficacy (Compeau & Higgins, 1995; Rudnicka, 2007)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T echnology A cceptance - Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use of E-learning (based on Davis TAM , 1989)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Results SL's perception among non-users <ul><li>Web use patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experience > 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>everyday use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average time 2-4h/day, 7-14h/week </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Self-Efficacy (Compeau & Higgins, 1995; Rudnicka, 2007 )‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M = 72.53, SD = 14.54, n.s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T echnology A cceptance (based on Davis TAM , 1989)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived Usefulness (M = 19.84, SD = 4.42) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived Ease of Use (M = 22.31, SD = 4.84)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Results SL’s Perceptions - Content Analysis <ul><li>Two main c ategories derived from content analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Tool advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gaining new skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovative experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simulation and virtual teamwork as a good sup p lement of traditional education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges and barriers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SL activities redundant for RL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of control of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>risk of enormous involvement and avatar's manipulation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Results Institutional Readiness - K ey F indings <ul><li>M ost popular teaching techniques are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lectures, case studies, project teams (EC Report, 2008; EFER, 2006)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rarely use of computer based simulation, mixed interest in developing online courses (EFER, 2006)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>L ow level of knowledge about e-learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only 9 out of 42 HEIs listed in EC raport provide web based support for teaching entrepreneurship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly education 1.0 tools: message boards, web textbooks, internet sites, databases, presentation tools, video lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only one institution mentioned collaborative Web 2.0 tools (JADE: More clips – less text , p. 194)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely low representation of university entrepreneurship educational programmes in the Internet and SL </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Results Good practice examples <ul><li>From several programmes found most were addressed to primary or secondary education pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Two SL programmes for university students identified : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Entertainment and Society class at Nanyang Polytechnic in Singapore used Second Life to explore the gaming industry and develop a business model (Gonzalez, 2007)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship, E-commerce course at Iowa State University provide SL based workshop (Mennecke et all., 2008)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Summary T eaching methods used in good practices examples <ul><li>group and team techniques </li></ul><ul><li>case studies </li></ul><ul><li>business planning workshops </li></ul><ul><li>inviting guest speakers </li></ul><ul><li>business simulations </li></ul><ul><li>undertaking some practical entrepreneurial activity and creativity exercises </li></ul>Summary T eaching methods used in good practices examples are consistent with EC Report (2008) recommendations
  17. 17. Summary Final Remarks <ul><li>Goals of European entrepreneurship education should be reviewed in context of changing expectations of net generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low representation of entrepreneurship educational initiatives using new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outdated education 1.0 approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ More clips – less text ” a s an unfulfilled expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change agents are needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>p roper and reliable promotion of SL in education is worthwile </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Thank You! Contact information: [email_address] www.inpere.org
  19. 19. References Compeau, D. R. & Higgins, C. A. (1995). Computer self‑efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19 (2), 189-211. Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13 (3), 318‑340. Dickey, M. D. (2003). Teaching in 3D: Pedagogical Affordances and Constraints of 3D Virtual Worlds for Synchronous Distance Learning. Distance Education 24(1), 105-121. EC Report. (2008). Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, Especially in Non-business Studies . Final Report of the Expert Group . EC: Brussels. EFES. (2004). European Entrepreneurship Education Survey . EFER: Hilversum. Gonzalez, D. (2007). Second Life® for Digital Entertainment Technology Education . Paper presented at Second Life Community Convention, August 24-26, 2009, Chicago. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from: http://www.simteach.com/slccedu07proceedings.pdf Mennecke, B., Hassall, L., Triplett, J. (2008). The Mean Business of Second Life: Teaching Entrepreneurship, Technology and e-Commerce in Immersive Environments. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 339-348. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from: http://jolt.merlot.org Horizon Report. (2007). The Horizon Report 2007 Edition. The New Media Consortium & Educase Learning Initiative. Jones, J.G. & Bronack, S.C. (2006). Rethinking cognition, representations, and processes in 3D online social learning environments. In D. Gibson, C. Aldrich. & M. Prensky (Eds.), Games and simulations in online learning (p.89-114). Hershey, PA: Idea Publishing Group. Penna, M. & Stara, V. (2007). The failure of e-learning: should we use a learner centred design. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 3 (2), 127-135. Rudnicka, P. (2007). Psychological Mechanisms of Internet Activity Regulation . Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Silesia: Katowice. Rudnicka, P. (2008). Psychology, Education and Web 2.0 . presented at New Media Days Conference, November 20-22, 2008, Katowice. Wilson, K. (2006). Entrepreneurship Education at European Universities and Business Schools . EFER: Hilversum.

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