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  1. 1. • Tuberculosis (TB), is a disease with chronic or acute bacterial infection that primarily attacks the lungs, but which may also affect the kidneys, bones, lymph nodes, and brain . • In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared TB to be a global emergency, the first such designation ever made by that organization. According to WHO, someone becomes infected with the bacteria that cause TB every second.
  2. 2. • One-third of the world’s population is infected with the bacteria, and as many as one in ten of those infected will develop active symptoms of tuberculosis at some point in their lives. People living with HIV are at much greater risk than others.
  3. 3. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body, but most commonly occurs in the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis). Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB as well. • General signs and symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue. Significant finger clubbing may also occur.
  4. 4. • Pulmonary • If a tuberculosis infection does become active, it most commonly involves the lungs. Symptoms may include chest pain and a prolonged cough producing sputum. About 25% of people may not have any symptoms. Occasionally, people may cough up blood in small amounts, and in very rare cases, the infection may erode into the pulmonary artery, resulting in massive bleeding (Rasmussen's aneurysm).
  5. 5. • Extrapulmonary • In 15–20% of active cases, the infection spreads outside the lungs, causing other kinds of TB. These are collectively denoted as "extrapulmonary tuberculosis".[13] Extrapulmonary TB occurs more commonly in immunosuppressed persons and young children. Notable extrapulmonary infection sites include the pleura, the central nervous system ,the lymphatic system, the genitourinary system , and the bones and joints ,among others.
  6. 6. • Signs and symptoms of active TB include: • • • • • • • Cough Unintentional weight loss Fatigue Fever Night sweats Chills Loss of appetite
  7. 7. • What organs are affected? • • • • Tuberculosis usually attacks your lungs. Signs and symptoms of TB of the lungs include: Coughing that lasts three or more weeks Coughing up blood or sputum Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body, including your kidneys, spine or brain. When TB occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine may give you back pain, and tuberculosis in your kidneys might cause blood in your urine.
  8. 8. CAUSES • The main cause of TB is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a small, aerobic, nonmotile bacillus.[9] The high lipid content of this pathogen accounts for many of its unique clinical characteristics.[18] It divides every 16 to 20 hours, which is an extremely slow rate compared with other bacteria, which usually divide in less than an hour.[19] Mycobacteria have an outer membrane lipid bilayer.
  9. 9. Transmission • When people with active pulmonary TB cough, sneeze, speak, sin g, or spit, they expel infectious aerosol droplets 0.5 to 5.0 µm in diameter. A single sneeze can release up to 40,000 droplets. Each one of these droplets may transmit the disease, since the infectious dose of tuberculosis is very low.
  10. 10. • People with prolonged, frequent, or close contact with people with TB are at particularly high risk of becoming infected, with an estimated 22% infection rate. A person with active but untreated tuberculosis may infect 10–15 other people per year. Transmission should only occur from people with active TB - those with latent infection are not thought to be contagious.
  11. 11. Treatment • Antibiotic Resistance and the Importance of Finishing the TB Medicine • People who do not take all the required medicines can become sick again and spread TB to others. Additionally, when people do not take all the prescribed medicines or skip times when they are supposed to take them, the TB bacteria evolve to outwit the TB antibiotics. Soon those medicines no longer work against the disease. If this happens, the person now has drug-resistant TB. Additionally, some people with TB do not get better with treatment because their disease is caused by a strain of the TB bacterium that is already resistant to one or more of the standard TB drugs.
  12. 12. Treatment for Drug Resistant TB • Treatment for drug-resistant TB often requires the use of special TB drugs, all of which can produce serious side effects. People with MDR TB may have to take several antibiotics, at least three to which the bacteria still respond, every day for up to two years. Even with this treatment, however, between 4 and 6 out of 10 patients with MDR TB will die, which is the same rate seen with TB patients who are not treated. Because XDR TB is resistant to first-line and secondline drugs, patients are left with limited treatment options that are much less effective.
  13. 13. Infection Control • Hospitals and clinics take precautions to prevent the spread of TB, which include identifying patients with suspected TB and using ultraviolet light to sterilize the air, special filters, and special respirators and masks. By having an infection control plan in place, healthcare settings can ensure the prompt detection and treatment of persons who have suspected or confirmed TB disease.
  15. 15. • Protect your family and friends If you have active TB, keep your germs to yourself. It generally takes a few weeks of treatment with TB medications before you're not contagious anymore. Follow these tips to help keep your friends and family from getting sick: • Stay home. Don't go to work or school or sleep in a room with other people during the first few weeks of treatment for active tuberculosis. • Ventilate the room. Tuberculosis germs spread more easily in small closed spaces where air doesn't move. If it's not too cold outdoors, open the windows and use a fan to blow indoor air outside.
  16. 16. • Cover your mouth. Use a tissue to cover your mouth anytime you laugh, sneeze or cough. Put the dirty tissue in a bag, seal it and throw it away. • Wear a mask. Wearing a surgical mask when you're around other people during the first three weeks of treatment may help lessen the risk of transmission. • Finish your entire course of medication This is the most important step you can take to protect yourself and others from tuberculosis. When you stop treatment early or skip doses, TB bacteria have a chance to develop mutations that allow them to survive the most potent TB drugs. The resulting drug-resistant strains are much more deadly and difficult to treat.
  17. 17. Home Remedies • Garlic is a great remedy to prevent tuberculosis. You can have raw garlic three times a day or have garlic capsule. • Tuberculosis patients lack silica in their bone which is one of the most important weapons to fight diseases. To increase that resistance level you must have 1 tbsp of horsetail juice three times, daily. • Nettle juice taken raw is rich in calcium. You can use it in soups and salads to add taste and health in your food. Have nettle juice with carrot to make it more appetizing. Have at least one tablespoon daily to find the right changes in your body.
  18. 18. • An herbal tea made by using one part each of mullein, bugleweed, knotgrass and sage, including three parts each of chamomile and horsetail which work immensely against the coughing problem. For daily usage use 3 cups of boiling water over one teaspoon of this herb concoction and have 3-4 cups daily. • Consume natural antibiotics by having horseradish, watercress and nasturtium juice. Have one tablespoon of these juices daily or have them in your salad.