Bibliotherapy as a strategy for facilitating behavior change proposal defence
BYPATRICK ALFRED WALUCHIO ONGWEN MPHIL/031/09 SUPERVISED BY Dr. Damaris Odero and Dr. Emily Kogos
INTRODUCTIONBibliotherapy is the use of books to help individuals solve both physical, emotional and spiritual problems (Riordan, 1989)Behavior change refers to any transformation or modification in human behavior (Haldeman & Idstein: 1979).Ex-prisoners are prisoners who served their terms of prison and released to join the community.
Background of the studyKenya’s prison services have historically been modeled on punitive justice rather than on restorative justiceMany released prisoners face rejection in communities.Technical training like agriculture, carpentryBibliotherapy consists of sharing books or stories with the intent of helping an individual or group gain insight into personal problems (Cohn, 1995; Corr, 2003-2004; Doll and Doll, 1997; Pardeck and Pardeck 1997).
Statement of the problemMany ex-prisoner face rejection when released from the prison.“I am James Mwindi Ngoru. I have no trace of family members. I am not sure whether my brother, sister or father are alive or not” (Times news, 2008)RODI-Kenya a rehabilitative organization using different strategiesAmerican ex-prisoners of war were rehabilitated by use of books, drama, music and poetry (Cohn, 1995; Corr, 2003-2004; Doll and Doll, 1997).
Cont.The research will therefore examine how bibliotherapy as a strategy to facilitate behavior change in ex-prisoners and reintegrate them back to their communities.The study will focus on ex-prisoner who must have been in prison for more than five year and have been out of prison for year and above.
Aim of the studyAim and objectivesIs to examine how bibliotherapy can be used in correction and rehabilitation process for the ex-inmates and develop a model of using bibliotherapy as a strategy for facilitating behavior change in ex-prisoners.Objectives of the study are :To identify the strategies used by prisons staff to address behavior change and find out their effectiveness in correcting, rehabilitating and reintegrating ex-prisoners in the Kenyan society.
Objectives continuedTo find out the ways in which the Kenya prisons reform initiatives address behavior change in ex- prisonersTo probe into the ex-prisoners perception of the strategies used for their correction and rehabilitation activities.To examine the challenges facing ex-prisoners in changing their behaviors and reintegrating with the Kenyan community using the current strategiesTo identify the extent and the form of bibliotherapy approach usedTo develop a model of using bibliotherapy for correcting, rehabilitating and reintegrating prisoners in the Kenyan society
Research QuestionsWhat are the current approaches used for correction and rehabilitation of ex-prisoners in KenyaHow effective are they in addressing behavior change among prisonersHow are the prison reforms initiative directed to correction and rehabilitation of ex-prisoners?What do the ex-prisoners feel about correction and rehabilitation strategies usedAre the various prisons stakeholder (Ministry, prisons administration and prisons religious leader) adequately aware of the role bibliotherapy could play in correcting and rehabilitating the interned
Research questions cont.What challenges are facing the Kenyan government in changing the behaviors and reintegrating ex-prisoners back to the community?How will bibliotherapy be used to solve the above challenges?
Scope of the studyThe main focus of the study will be to find out how bibliotherapy can be used to facilitate behavior change in Kenya ex-prisoners but limited to prisoners who had spend more than five years in prison and they have been out of the prison for the last one year.The study will therefore concentrate entirely on the ex-prisoners, prison officers and accredited prison religious leaders
Limitation of the studyFear of the ex-prisoners to be identified as prisoners and therefore not ready to be interviewed.Possible presence of illiterate ex-prisoner who may be unable to respond to the interview question in English.
Theoretical frame workOpportunity theory- Warner (1999), suggest that most crimes are committed by poor, uneducated members of the society who lack viable and legitimate means to attain economic opportunities.Socio-psychological development theory: The theory suggests that new behavioral patterns can be elicited from an individual through exposure to certain modes of treatment such as correctional- reading programming (Bandura, 1977; Orpinas et al., 1996).
Moral development theoryThe theory suggests that individual change is based on correctional rehabilitative programmes.Prison based programmes that offer books of liberal arts such as psychology, sociology, history or literature offer rehabilitative effects in that they strengthen people’s conscience as they confront the moral dilemmas addressed in the study of liberal arts (Arbuthnot & Gordon, 1986; Duguid, 1981; Lockwood, 1991).
Moral development theoryThe groundbreaking ideas of this approachwere formulated by George Herbert Mead, asdiscussed in Mind, Self, and Society: From theStandpoint of a Social Behaviorist (Morris,1962)This theory provide a model of how interaction processes are the basis for moral development in humans
Literature reviewThe review will be thematic following the themes listed below.Overview of current prison system in Kenya.Reintegration of ex-prisoner back to the societyOrigin and development of bibliotherapyResearch based findings: is bibliotherapy an effective treatmentNature and value of bibliotherapyDifferent types of bibliotherapyWho qualifies to use bibliotherapyBibliotherapy in society setting
literature review contiThe process of bibliotherapySelecting materials for bibliotherapyThe basics of delivering bibliotherapyLittle has been done on ex-prisoner and reintegration to the communityMore has been done on prisoners in prisons (being done in Kamiti prison currently)
Research designThe research will be qualitative in natureThe study seeks to understand the topic from the perspective of the ex-inmates.The design will also to identify intangible factor such as social norms, socioeconomic status, gender roles and ethnicity of ex-prisonersIt provides information about the “human” side of anissue – that is, the often contradictory behaviors,beliefs, opinions, emotions, and relationships ofex prisoners and the society (Mays, 2000)
Study populationPopulation Numbers of the Percentage of the total respondents respondentsEx-prisoner 15 50Prison wardens 10 33Religious leaders 5 17Total 30 100
Sampling strategyA snowballing sampling strategy will be used in order to select the target group from the population. The researcher’s target group will be the ex-prisoners , prison staff and accredited prison religious leaders.
Data collection methods andinstrumentsThe research instruments to be used for this study will be interview guide.The method for data collection will be indepth interview
Data presentation and analysistechniques The researcher will endeavored to ensure clarity, relevance and authenticity by checking other available documents in order to ensure completeness and accuracy of the collected data. The data will be analyzed qualitatively according to the themes and categories of the responses.
Expected outcome of studyTheoretical significance: The study will further the knowledge on how bibliotherapy can be used for behavior change especially with reference to ex- prisoners.Practical significance: The study will develop a model of using bibliotherapy as a strategy for facilitating behavior change in ex-prisoners in Kenya.Policy related significance: the study will provide prisons officers, community leaders and accredited religious leaders with information in formulating the policy of incorporating bibliotherapy as a strategy for facilitating behavior change in ex-prisoners.
Expected outcome cont.Public Sensitization: the study will also sensitize the public on the use of bibliotherapy as a strategy for behavior change in ex-prisonerPersonal significance: the study will expose the researcher to more research methodology and knowledge on bibliotherapy as an area of study
Ethical considerationThe research with ex-prisoners should be conducted only if it offers a distinctly favorable benefit-to-risk ratio, not because ex-prisoners are a convenient source of subjects.The goal is to ensure rigorous, responsible research that improves the well-being of ex-prisoners while taking great care to protect their health, wellbeing, and human rights.