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  1. 1. <ul><li>Shobna Bhatia </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Fame </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Advance science </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement for professional recognition </li></ul><ul><li>….. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>To draw the attention of a prospective reader </li></ul><ul><li>To induce him / her to read the entire paper or at least the abstract </li></ul><ul><li>To make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Simple and concise, but informative </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting and eye-catching </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate and specific about paper’s content </li></ul><ul><li>State the subject in full </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate study design, animal species </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatically correct </li></ul><ul><li>State results or not ? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Do not Use abbreviations (unless well accepted) Use literary titles Use interrogative/exclamatory titles Use all capitals </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 cases </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on cobalt estimation in liver disease </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugs </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 cases Small bowel intussusception in children: A report of 55 cases </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on cobalt estimation in liver disease </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugs </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 cases Small bowel intussusception in children: … </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on cobalt estimation in liver disease Serum cobalt levels in patients with cirrhosis of liver </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugs </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 cases Small bowel intussusception in children: … </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on cobalt estimation in liver disease Serum cobalt levels in patients with cirrhosis of liver </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugs Comparison of hypoglycemic effects of A and B with chlorpropamide in diabetic nude mice </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Words or short phrases used for cross-indexing, and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>3-10 identifiers representing main concepts included in the article </li></ul><ul><li>Use MeSH words </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude words already in title </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange alphabetically </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Key words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coeliac disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Histopathology findings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Key words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coeliac disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical features, nutritional status, histopathology findings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Coeliac disease in Indian children: Assessment of clinical, nutritional and pathologic characteristics </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Key words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of infection to babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral kinetics </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Asymptomatic hepatitis B virus infection is associated with low viral load and transmission of disease to babies </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B virus with low viral load – low risk of transmission of disease to babies </li></ul><ul><li>Low viral load in hepatitis B is associated with low risk of transmission of virus to babies </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Original paper Effects of tegaserod and erythromycin in patients with upper gut dysmotility- a comparative study </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial Promotility drugs: not all uniform? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A placebo-controlled trial of interferon gamma-1b in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reported treatment adherence in inflammatory bowel disease in Indian patients </li></ul><ul><li>Daily aspirin -- only half the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of baicalin on TNF-α mRNA expression in pancreatic tissue and apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells of rats with severe acute pancreatitis </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>A succinct, accurate, summary of the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included in several abstracting services (including Medline) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps readers browse and decide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent (stand-alone) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>A brief statement of chief points </li></ul><ul><li>Short but intelligible </li></ul><ul><li>Informative and interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unnecessary detail </li></ul><ul><li>Stand alone </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>IMRAD pattern: purpose, basic procedures, main findings, principal conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Structured/unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>Length: 150-250 words </li></ul><ul><li>No information not included in main body </li></ul><ul><li>Not a copy of sentences in the text </li></ul><ul><li>No references or abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Include main statistical conclusions </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>•  Background • Objective </li></ul><ul><li>•  Methods • Design </li></ul><ul><li>•  Results • Setting </li></ul><ul><li>•  Conclusion • Subjects </li></ul><ul><li>• Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>• Main outcome measures </li></ul><ul><li>• Results </li></ul><ul><li>• Conclusions </li></ul>+ Background, limitations
  21. 21. <ul><li>Background/Objectives: Disease progression in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may have association with different genotypes of the virus. In view of limited data available, we studied the prevalence/association and role of HBV genotypes, with reference to the viral and host characteristics in patients, reflecting the chronic form of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods : A total of 96 HBsAg seropositive and chronically infected patients attending the Gastroenterology out patients’ department of ___ Gastroenterology were studied for determination of HBV genotypes by nested PCR using type- specific primers. Biochemical markers of liver functions and HBe antigen status were evaluated by standard methods. Serum HBV DNA levels of patients were also measured by real-time PCR using Taqman® chemistry. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Results : HBV genotype was noted to be in the order of D (N= 80; 69.5%) > A (N=10; 8.6%) > B (N= 3; 2.6%) or B+ D (N= 3; 2.6%). Higher viral load (7.68 x 108 copies/ml) was associated in patients with elevated serum ALT activity (> 64 IU/L). Majority of the patients (86.3 %) also tested negative for HBe Ag upon serological analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Identification of genotype B individually and intermingling of this genotype with the common genotype D is now reported for the first time from India. A detailed follow-up study, involving larger number of such patients might be helpful for better understanding of the HBV disease transmission and pathogenesis. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a single large oral dose of vitamin A in treating acute shigellosis in children in Bangladesh. </li></ul><ul><li>Design: Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects: 83 children aged 1­7 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomized to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group. </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Little information is available on the knowledge about scientific writing among medical teachers. We administered a 10-point questionnaire to test knowledge about scientific writing among medical teachers participants attending a writing workshop. 32 medical teachers participated. Of these, only 20 (63%) achieved a score of 50% or above. The younger participants (aged less than 30 years) scored worse than the older participants (aged > 30 years), the average scores in the two groups being 6.5 + 1.5 and 4.5 + 1.7, respectively (t-test; p<0.05). Indian medical teachers lack skills in medical writing and steps to improve this are needed. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Main focus is Methods and Results </li></ul><ul><li>V short introduction and Discussion </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Do not provide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>References </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long introduction / Discussion </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Main text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No mismatch in numbers / results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No contradictions </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Title should be accurate, detailed, interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured vs unstructured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short, concise and accurate </li></ul></ul>

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