Chernobyl

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Chernobyl

  1. 1. Nuclear energy <ul><li>Radiactivity History </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>Chernobyl disaster </li></ul>
  2. 2. Radiactivity History
  3. 3. X rays discovery <ul><li>Wilhelm Röntgen </li></ul><ul><li>1895: </li></ul><ul><li>First detection of a new kind of radiation in vacuum tubes </li></ul><ul><li>1901: </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in Physics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Radiactivity discovery <ul><li>Henri Becquerel </li></ul><ul><li>1896: </li></ul><ul><li>recognition of a new property in uranium salts </li></ul><ul><li>1903: </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in Physics </li></ul>
  5. 5. New elements discovering <ul><li>Maria Sklodowska </li></ul><ul><li>and Pierre Curie </li></ul><ul><li>1898: isolation of Polonium and Radium </li></ul><ul><li>1903: Nobel prize in Phisics </li></ul><ul><li>1911: Nobel Prize in Chemistry </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of radioactivity <ul><li>Ernest Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>Scattering in a magnetic or electrical field </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel prize in Physics (1908) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of radiactivity <ul><li> : massive and positive particles (Helium nuclei). They can be stopped by a sheet of paper </li></ul><ul><li> : electrons; stopped by an aluminium shielding </li></ul><ul><li> : electromagnetic radiation, reduced by a lead barrier </li></ul>
  8. 8. Atomic models <ul><li>Ernest Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>1911: atomic nucleus with protons and neutrons surrounded by an electron cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Radiactivity: nuclear emission of either energy or subatomic particles </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nuclear power
  10. 10. Nuclear fission <ul><li>Fission </li></ul><ul><li>Splitting of the nucleus of an atom into nuclei of lighter atoms, releasing a great amount of energy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nuclear fission <ul><li>1938: </li></ul><ul><li>Lise Meitner , Otto Hahn y Frederic Strassman (Nobel de Física, 1944) , who observed fission of uranium-235 using slow neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>235 U + 1 n -> 141 Ba + 92 Kr + 3 1 n </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nuclear reactors <ul><li>Enrico Fermi </li></ul><ul><li>1934: </li></ul><ul><li>first nuclear reaction controlled by slow neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>1938: </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in Physics </li></ul><ul><li>1942: </li></ul><ul><li>first nuclear reactor </li></ul><ul><li>1945: leading </li></ul><ul><li>“ Manhattan project” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nuclear weapons <ul><li>August, 6 th 1945: Hiroshima </li></ul><ul><li>140,000 dead (December,1945) </li></ul><ul><li>August, 9 th 1945: Nagasaki </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 dead (December 1945) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nuclear power stations <ul><li>Plant that generates electricity using the heat released in a nuclear fission process </li></ul>
  15. 15. Nuclear power stations
  16. 16. Nuclear power stations in Spain
  17. 17. Radioactive wastes <ul><li>High level </li></ul><ul><li>Release a great amount of heat and radiation </li></ul><ul><li>usually long half-life </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in spent fuel pools or in dry cask storage </li></ul><ul><li>Low activity </li></ul><ul><li>No release of heat </li></ul><ul><li>less than 30 years of half-life </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chernobyl
  19. 19. Chernobyl <ul><li>Nuclear power station, 4 reactor, each of 1 Gwatt. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Ukraine, near the border </li></ul><ul><li>10 % of the amount of energy </li></ul><ul><li>No vessel </li></ul>
  20. 20. Accident <ul><li>April, 26 th , 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Chain reaction out of control in reactor 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Steam explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Hidrogen explosion which tore the top of the building </li></ul>
  21. 21. Burning <ul><li>Graphite and hidrogen burning, due to the oxigen </li></ul><ul><li>Extinguished with 5000 t of sand, lead, clay, etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Radiactive fallout <ul><li>5,6 Röntgen/s (lethal dose: 500 Röntgen/h) </li></ul><ul><li>400 times more than the amount spread in Hiroshima </li></ul>
  23. 23. Radiactive fallout <ul><li>Debris removed and collected by hand (40 s) </li></ul><ul><li>3.9 million km 2 polluted by 137 Cs (34 % of UK, 44 % of Germany) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Firefighters: liquidatori
  25. 25. Sarcophagus <ul><li>Large concrete sarcophagus erected in December </li></ul><ul><li>Supported and controlled by European Union </li></ul><ul><li>New save confinement structure will be built in 2011 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Pripyat evacuation <ul><li>High radiattion levels detected in Sweden, 1100 km from Chernobyl </li></ul><ul><li>Started on December, 27 th </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chernobyl today <ul><li>7 million people affected </li></ul><ul><li>30,000/60,000 dead people due to the accident </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chernobyl today
  29. 29. Pripyat today
  30. 30. Pripyat today
  31. 31. Prypiat today
  32. 32. Prypiat today
  33. 33. Chernobyl today <ul><li>30 km exclusion zone </li></ul><ul><li>Some people have come back </li></ul><ul><li>Prypiat dead city </li></ul>
  34. 34. New sarcophagus
  35. 35. Conclusions

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