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  1. 1. Escola Secundária Fontes Pereira de Melo<br />Cultura, Língua e Comunicação Estrangeira- Inglês<br />NEWSPAPERS<br />Workdoneby: <br />Bárbara Teixeira<br />
  2. 2. Newspaper<br />A newspaper is a publicationcontaining news, information, and advertising. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns thatexpress the personal opinions of writers. <br /> Supplementary sections may contain advertising, comics, and coupons. Newspapers are most often published on a daily or weekly basis, and they usually focus on one particular geographic area where most of their readers live. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits, newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism.<br />
  3. 3. Newspaper<br />Newspapers are most often published on a daily or weekly basis, and they usually focus on one particular geographic area where most of their readers live. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits, newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism.<br /> Features a newspaper may include are:<br /><ul><li>Editorial opinions</li></ul>Comic strips and other entertainment, such as crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes<br /><ul><li>Weather news andforecasts
  4. 4. Advice, gossip, food and other columns
  5. 5. Critical reviews of movies, plays, restaurants, etc.
  6. 6. Classifiedads</li></li></ul><li>The Origins of Newspapers <br />The history of newspapers is an often-dramatic chapter of the human experience going back some five centuries. In Renaissance Europe handwritten newsletters circulated privately among merchants, passing along information about everything from wars and economic conditions to social customs and &quot;human interest&quot; features. The first printed forerunners of the newspaper appeared in Germany in the late 1400&apos;s in the form of news pamphlets or broadsides, often highly sensationalized in content. Some of the most famous of these report the atrocities against Germans in Transylvania perpetrated by a sadisticveovodnamed VladTsepesDrakul, who became the Count Dracula of later folklore.<br />
  7. 7. The Origins of Newspapers <br />In the English-speaking world, the earliest predecessors of the newspaper were corantos, small news pamphlets produced only when some event worthy of notice occurred. The first successively published title was The Weekly Newes of 1622. It was followed in the 1640&apos;s and 1650&apos;s by a plethora of different titles in the similar newsbook format. The first true newspaper in English was the London Gazette of 1666. For a generation it was the only officially sanctioned newspaper, though many periodical titles were in print by the century&apos;s end.<br />
  8. 8. History of British newspapers<br />During the 17th century, there were many kinds of publications, that told both news and rumours. Among these were pamphlets, posters, ballads etc. Even when the news periodicals emerged, many of these co-existed with them. A news periodical differs from these mainly because of its periodicity. The definition for 17th centurynewsbooks and newspapers is that they are published at least once a week. Johann Carolus&apos; Relation allerFürnemmen und gedenckwürdigenHistorien, published in Strassburg in 1605, is usually regarded as the first news periodical.<br />
  9. 9. History of British newspapers<br />In the beginning of the 17th century the right to print was strictly controlled in England. This was probably the reason why the first newspaper in English language was printed in Amsterdam by JoriVeseler around 1620. This followed the style established by Veseler&apos;s earlier Dutch paper Courante uytItalien, Duytslandt, &c. However, when the English started printing their own papers in London, they reverted to the pamphlet format used by contemporary books. The era of these newsbooks lasted until the publication of the Oxford Gazette in 1665.<br />
  10. 10. History of British newspapers<br />The control over printing relaxed to some extent after the ending of the Star Chamber in 1641. The Civil War escalated the demand for news. News-pamphlets or -books reported the war, often supporting one side or the other. Following the Restoration there arose a number of publications, including the London Gazette (first published on November 16, 1665 as the Oxford Gazette), the first official journal of record and the newspaper of the Crown. Publication was controlled under the Licensing Act of 1662, but the Act&apos;s lapses from 1679–1685 and from 1695 onwards encouraged a number of new titles.<br />
  11. 11. Advantages and disadvantages of reading newspaper<br />There are many advantages and disadvantages of reading the newspaper. Newspapers are one of the traditional mediums used by businesses, both big and small alike. People read newspaper to find out information, news, and what going on around there world. However, there are many pro and con about reading the newspaper.The advantages of reading the newspaper are good in many ways. For instance, you can increase you neologies by reading the newspaper. You can also find information around world. In addition, many people buy newspaper just to read the advertisement from the restaurants, movies, subway and discount stores. However, reading the newspaper has become a habit for most families. It has something for everyone. For example, you can reach certain segments of your market by placing your advertisement in different sections of the paper such as sports, crosswords, news, comics, classifieds, etc.<br />
  12. 12. Advantages and disadvantages of reading newspaper<br />The disadvantages of reading the newspaper show that it is wasting of time by reading the nonsense article. In addition, people who making the newspaper they wasting the papers company and killing more trees. Moreover, you have no assurance that every person who receives the newspaper will read your advertisement. They may not read the section you advertised in, or they may simply have skipped the page because it contained little or nothing else of interest and which is wasting of papers.Different people have different opinion of reading the newspaper. Some people would read the newspaper, because they like, and they would find some interesting articles to read or something else. Other people would not read, maybe they don’t know how to read or they would just get a newspaper and look at the pictures.<br />
  13. 13. Articleabout Porto<br />Now, I’llwritewhatcouldbe a newspaperarticle. The notice talks about Porto city, the characteristics, some attractions and gives a pedestrianroutepassingby some ofthe principal monumentsofthecity. PretendingthatI’m a journalist, I work for theweeklynewspapercalledTheDiscoverer. Thisnewspapertalksaboutdifferentcitiesintheworld, rangingitweekbyweek.<br />
  14. 14. Discovering… Porto<br /> Bridges and port wine are what characterises Oporto, Portugal&apos;s gracious northern capital and second largest city after Lisbon. Oporto sits astride a great gorge at the point where the River Douro enters the Atlantic, and although it is mainly industrial, the city centre has plenty of charm with some art treasures, medieval cathedrals and museums, along narrow streets sporting wrought-iron balconies and bright splashes of potted geraniums. <br />The main reason tourists visit Oporto is to sample its legendary port wine, processed, blended and aged in the various lodges of the Vila Nova de Gaia district across the river from the city, via the spectacular two-tiered Dom Luis bridge. Visitors can tour the lodges and finish up with a tasting session. The city also has an historic riverside district called Ribeira, which is undergoing restoration and has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. <br /> Within easy reach of Oporto there are numerous coastal resorts and fishing villages on the Atlantic coastline, well known for their seafood restaurants. It is possible to cruise down the River Douro to take in the scenic splendour of the area.<br />
  15. 15. Discovering… Porto<br /> Igreja de São Francisco<br /> On the Oporto waterfront stands the church of St. Frances, dating from 1383, which, while not very imposing from the outside, has a lavishly Baroque decorated interior that was created in the 17th and 18th centuries. Pillars and columns within the vault are festooned with gold-gilded cherubs and flower garlands, entwined animals and fruit cornucopia. This feast for the eyes is set off by wide Gothic arches made of marble, which soar into the roof. <br />Museu Nacional Soares Reis<br />This extensive art museum opened in 1840, and is today dedicated to Soares dos Reis, the famous sculptor born and bred in Porto. The gallery also houses a foreign art collection which includes works by the Dutch, Flemish, Italian and French masters. There is a large collection of Portuguese 19th century works, including those from the Porto school, and exhibits of ceramics, glassware, gold and silverwork and furniture. <br />Solar Vinho do Porto<br />Visitors come to Oporto for the port wine. The place to head for samples of every port produced in the region (and also the rest of Portugal) is the Solar Vinho do Porto in the Quinta de Macieirinha. Inside the rose-bedecked villa is a relaxed, upmarket tasting room, staffed by knowledgeable hosts who offer glasses or bottles of port, along with some complimentary snacks and information on the port-making process. <br />
  16. 16. Discovering… Porto<br />WorldHeritage<br />Vitória Parish <br />In 1583, the parish of Sé (the only in existence until then) was split into four new ones, Vitória being one of them. Twenty years later the area increased with the extinction of the Belomonte parish, and the intramural urban area was divided into three parishes: Sé, S. Nicolau and Vitória. <br /> According to the Parish Memories, the population in 1758 was of 3.3370 inhabitants, of which: 3.122 adults, 116 children and 132 “pilgrims” (absent). <br />Vitória Tour<br /><ul><li>Olival- Cordoaria
  17. 17. Anjo- Clérigos
  18. 18. Rua Arquitecto Nicolau Nasoni- Rua dos caldeireiros
  19. 19. Gaoland Court ofAppeal
  20. 20. S. Bento da Vitória Monastery
  21. 21. Judiaria Nova- Ruas de S. Bento da Vitória e S. Miguel
  22. 22. Taipas- Igreja de S. José das Taipas
  23. 23. Cordoaria Gardens- Santo António Hospital</li></li></ul><li>Discovering… Porto<br />Olival- Cordoaria<br />Our tour begins by the Old Pharmacy of Porta do Olival (with nearly 200 years of existence) and by the Café Porta do Olival, in the corner (where the medieval remains of the Olival Tower can still be seen). One of the most important doors of the city – Porta do Olival - was located there, next to a fountain. The wall led to Virtudes, where there was a wicket gate with that same name, and another fountain. <br /> The denomination of “Olival” is associated to the rural environment of the past, and it still persists in the toponymy: &quot;Olival&quot;, &quot;Oliveiras&quot;, and “Moinho de Vento&quot;. Today, the Olival area comprises, other than Porta do Olival, Campo dos MártiresdaPátria, Largo do Carmo, Praça Carlos Alberto, Largo do Moinho de Vento, Rua das Virtudes, Rua das Oliveiras, Calvário Velho (former Praça de Stª. Teresa, today PraçaGuilherme Gomes Fernandes – illustrious Porto Fire Department Chief, who was made notable, among other missions, during the famous fire that destroyed the Baquet Theatre in 1888) and Mercado do Anjo.<br />Campo do Olival belonged to the Bishop of Porto, having been given to the City Council in 1331 by D. Vasco Martins, under the condition of never being used to hold any market or fair. However, in 1682, the City Council created the St. Michael’s Fair that became one of the most important fairs in the city. <br />Around 1661 the rope makers and vendors of Miragaia – whose corporation had significantly increased – settled in Olival, occupying the whole area. That is why the old denomination of Olival vanished, being replaced by “Cordoaria.”<br />
  24. 24. Discovering… Porto<br />Anjo- Clérigos<br />Anjo ShelterandMarketIntheformerlynamed Praça do Anjo, wherethe Galerias da Praça are located, therewasintime a hermitageinhonourofSt. Michael, theAngel. In 1672, on D. Helena Pereira’sinitiative, the Recolhimento do Anjo (AngelShelter) – alsoknown as Recolhimento de Stª. Isabel (St. Elizabeth’sShelter) – wascreated to welcomenobleladieswithoutassets. Afterthe Porto siegeandthesubsequentdemolition, itwouldgiveplace to the Mercado do Anjo (AngelMarket) (1837).<br /><ul><li>Clérigos Church, Infirmary and Tower </li></ul>The whole set known as Clérigos, planned by NicolauNasoni, is considered one of the best architectonic examples of the Porto baroque, and its tower is the city landmark The church was built at the top of CalçadadaNatividade – a designation connected to the fountain in honour of Our Lady of Nativity at Praça Nova, at the end of the present Rua dos Clérigos. The work began on 23 April 1732, and the church’s divine service began on 28 July 1738. The façade was finished in 1750 but the temple’s consecration only took place on 12 December 1779, with a ceremony presided by the Bishop of Porto, D. João Rafael de Mendonça. The infirmary was finished between 1753 and 1758. Finally, the Tower was built (1757-1763) in a land called Cerro dos Enforcados (Hillock of the Hanged), since it was then that the executed persons were buried. <br />Inside, apart from the lateral altarpieces, pulpits, tribunes and pelmets of beautiful gilt carving, another element deserves special mention the main altarpiece (1767-1780), whose sketch was made by Manuel Santos Porto, a beautiful exemplar done in polychromatic marbles, unique in the city. <br />
  25. 25. Discovering… Porto<br />Rua Arquitecto Nicolau Nasoni-Rua dos Caldeireiros <br />NicolauNasoniNicolauNasoni (1691-1773), after whom the street was named after him, is one of the most prominent artistic individualities of the 18th-century Porto. Born in S. Giovanni Valdarno (2 June 1691), province of Arezzo, he studied Art in Italy where he lived until 1720-1722. His activity in Sienna as an architect and a painter connected to the ephemeral architecture is well known. In the early 1720s he went to Malta, hired to work in the Grand Master’s Palace, in La Valletta. His stay in Malta coincided with the function of Grand Master of the Malta Brotherhood by the Portuguese D. António Manuel de VilhenaNasoni came to Porto in 1725 invited by the Dean D. Jerónimo de Távora Noronha LemeCernache (through his brother, Roque de Távora e Noronha, knight of the Order, who met Nasoni, as a painter, in Malta). <br />As a landscape painter, the artist participated on the transformation work of the Porto Cathedral, leaving his mark on the chancel (1725-1731) and, later (1734), on the paintings of the vestry and on the sketches of the carvings, done by the master wood engraver Miguel Francisco da Silva.Nasoni left an unmistakable mark in our city and in our country, and its best example is the whole set of Clérigos (1731-1773) – church, infirmary and tower – and the beautiful façade of the Porto’s Misericórdia Church (1749)<br />
  26. 26. Discovering… Porto<br />CaldeireirosGoing from Rua do ArquitectoNicolauNasoni to Rua dos Caldeireiros one can see Rua de Trás, which is a street parallel to the wall that came from Porta de Carros (opposite Congregados Church), continued though Cardosas, and went up CalçadadaNatividade to Porta do Olival. <br />Rua dos Caldeireiros was formerly known as Ferraria de Cima. It was there that most of the craftsmen connected to the iron trade settled. Later, the street would be known by two denominations – RuadaCaldeireira and Rua dos Caldeireiros – due to the development of the workshops of that trade. <br /> The Fraternity of Nª Sª da Silva, managed by coppersmiths, blacksmiths and makers of fishhooks, played (and still plays) an important role in the life of the city. Whoever passes by Rua dos Caldeireiros may admire the beautiful oratory-house, with a niche crowned by a beautiful carved pelmet with the image of the patron saint, much worshipped by the Porto inhabitants. The Fraternity of Nª Sª da Silva managed the St. John the Baptist’s Hospital, which functioned in the Fraternity House since the late 15th century and sheltered women of no means. It has been mistakenly identified as the Rocamador Hospital, primarily called “Rocamador Inn”, also by RuadaFerraria but on the opposite side. <br /> The Cruzeiro do Senhorda Boa Fortuna (Cross of the Lord of Good Fortune) existed at RuadaFerraria de Cima until 1869. Even though the cross has disappeared, the image can still be seen in a niche at the corner of Viela do Ferraz. The pilgrimage to the Lord of Good Fortune was reactivated recently thanks to the diligence of the Vitória people.<br />
  27. 27. Discovering… Porto<br />Gaoland Court ofAppeal<br /> Porto’s Court of Appeal was created in 1582 and the first session took place on 4 January 1583, still in the Town Hall. Later, the Court of Appeal would function in the Colégio de S. Lourenço and in the Palácio do CorpodaGuarda (known from 1611 on as Palácio dos Condes de Miranda do Corvo), where it would remain until 1608. Since no building in the city could fully function as a Gaol until the early Modern Age, the petty criminals were assembled in the “CadeiaVelha” (Old Gaol) at RuaChã. <br /> Finally, a licence of 22 June 1606 ordered the construction of the Court of Appeal and Gaol (finished in 1608), in an area by Porta do Olival. <br /> In 1750 the building was in a bad state of repair and the master mason José Francisco was hired to build a new gaol, following a plan by NicolauNasoni. There is little information, however, on the subject. <br /> The construction of the present building began in 1765/66, through the effort of João de Almada e Melo, following a plan made on purpose by the architect and engineer Eugénio dos Santos Carvalho, an important individuality of Lisbon in the time of the Marquis de Pombal. The construction ended in 1796. <br /> Between 1750 and 1765, the Court of Appeal sessions took place in various places around the city: in the town-hall and in a house at Praça das Hortas (1752); in the St. AntóniodaCordoaria Hospice (1761-1787); once again in the house of Praça das Hortas; then back in the St. António Hospice; finally in the above-mentioned house at Praça das Hortas, until it settled definitely in the new building. <br /> Many were the individualities whose names are connected to the Porto’s Gaol and Court of Appeal. The writer CamiloCasteloBranco and Ana Plácido, whose lawsuit scandalised the Porto of the time, are prominent among them. Another famous prisoner was Zé do Telhado, a charismatic local robber that remained in the memory of the people as a helper of those in need.<br />
  28. 28. Discovering… Porto<br />S. Bento da Vitória Monastery<br /> This is one of the city’s most important religious buildings. The Porto City Council passed the building permit on 18 January 1596 and the appropriate location was chosen the following year. Once the royal authorisation was obtained, by a licence of 6 June 1598, the Order of St. Benedict chooses the architect Diogo Marques Lucas in 1601. The new church was built in 1693 and blessed in 1707.The magnificent monastic house would suffer several tribulations until today; however, its dignity remained intact throughout the times. <br /> In 1808 the monastery was turned into a Military Hospital and in 1835, after the extinction of the Religious Orders the previous year, it became a Military Court and Gaol, and barracks of the 31st Infantry Regiment and Engineering.<br /> Between 1835 and 1852, its church became the parish church and, finally, in 1853, by a licence of D. Maria II, it sheltered the Arch-Confraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary.<br /> Between 1985-1990 important building repairs took place. The Benedictine monks, the Porto’s Classical Orchestra and the Porto’s District Archives all found a suitable seat. <br />
  29. 29. Discovering… Porto<br />Judiaria Nova- Ruas S. Bento da Vitória e S. Miguel<br />The Jewish community, located outside the wall, in Miragaia (occupying the area of Virtudes, Monchique Monastery, RuadaBandeirinha and Largo do Viriato) was forced to settle in the Olival area, in the time of D. João I. The Judiaria Nova (New Jewish Quarter) was thus created in the place appointed by the City Council (following a request of the King). The area was surrounded by a wall and comprised Rua de S. Bento daVitória (where one door was located), Rua de S. Miguel, Rua das Taipas, Rua de Belomonte and EscadasdaEsnoga (where the other door was located). Many assumptions have been made on the exact location of the Jewish Quarter Synagogue. In reality, after the Jews’ exile from Castile, in 1492, thirty Jewish families settled in Porto, at Rua de S. Miguel (later Rua de S. Bento daVitória), where, by order of D. João II, the city gave them thirty houses. The Synagogue was among them. The most polemic supposition is the one that indicates the land that the S. Bento daVitória Monastery would later occupy; other suppositions include the VieladaEsnoga or the EscadasdaEsnoga and, the most plausible, the place where the NossaSenhoradaVitória Church would later stand.<br />Igreja de NossaSenhoradaVitória (NossaSenhoradaVitória Church) <br />At the place where today stands the NossaSenhoradaVitória Church there was a chapel in honour of the same saint, which was replaced in 1638 by a temple of bigger proportions. In 1755 Bishop D. FreiAntónio Sousa ordered the construction of a new church, at his own cost. The S. José das Taipas Church became the parish church for the duration of the work. The new temple was finished in 1769 and the Blessed Sacrament was transferred on 7 August from the S. José das Taipas Church where it stood since 4 May 1755, when the work began. <br /> Seriously damaged during the Porto siege, the parochial was once again transferred, in 1852, this time to S. Bento daVitória, while the reconstruction work took place. Years later, in 1874, a fire destroyed the high altar and the image of the patron saint. A new intervention was needed. A new sculpture of the Virgin was ordered to Soares dos Reis. However, the parishioners did not like the head of the statue and so it was replaced by another one done by an image-maker. <br />
  30. 30. Discovering… Porto<br />Taipas- Igreja de S. José das Taipas<br />The name of the street remind us of the enclosure (similar to the one in Rua dos Caldeireiros) that was raised during the plague outbreak. Even though they clearly show signs of decay, the houses are in unison with the ones of Virtudes and Belomonte. The following are some of the houses worthy of mention: the Brito e Cunha family house, with a stone of arms, where António Bernardo de Brito e Cunha (judge of the Fraternity of the Blessed Sacrament, of the Vitória parish, and one of the liberals executed in May 1829) lived; and the Leite Pereira house (sold by the Chief Postman of Coimbra, Francisco Zuzarte Maldonado, to D. Maria Leite Pereira de Melo, who placed her coat of arms on the façade in 1734). The back of the S. Bento daVitória Monastery, where the Porto District Archives is located, also faces Rua das Taipas. Igreja de S. José das Taipas (S. José das Taipas Church) Few data exist on this magnificent neo-classical church supposedly planned by Carlos Amarante, located at the top of Rua do Calvário (today named Rua Dr. Barbosa de Castro). It is certain, however, that in 1634 the Brotherhood of S. NicolauTolentino e Almas was headquartered at the S. João Novo Church. In 1780, due to a severe disagreement, the brotherhood left the above-mentioned church and travelled to the S. José das Taipas Chapel. Two brotherhoods co-existed there: the S. José das Taipas’ and the S. NicolauTolentino e Almas’. Worthy of mention is the presence in the church of a beautiful 18th-century crib, a unique example thanks to its quality and good repair. Every year, on 29 March, a procession would leave the church to pray for the souls of those who perished in the famous Barcas Bridge disaster that took place on 29 March 1809. Rua Dr. Barbosa de Castro ou do CalvárioComing from Porta do Olival, the wall went on by Campo dos MártiresdaPátria, and down Rua do Calvário (the name remind us of the existence of the Calvário Novo chapel, that replaced the Calvário Velho hermitage, located on one of the northern exits, probably at the place where there was a medieval temple in honour of the Holy Cross). <br />
  31. 31. Discovering… Porto<br />Cordoaria Gardens- Santo António Hospital<br />The name of the street reminds of the settlement of the Miragaia rope makers and vendors. The previous denominations would thus be replaced: Campo do Olival, until 1613, and Alameda do Olival (conceived and planted by imposition of Filipe II), between 1613 and 1661. After this last date the term Cordoaria was generally used to define the above-mentioned public space. In memory of the liberals executed in May and October 1829, at Praça Nova (today PraçadaLiberdade), the place became known as Campo dos MártiresdaPátria (Camp of the Martyrs of the Motherland) from 28 October 1835 on. The place was laid out as a garden in the late 18th century and became a Pedestrians Pavement in 1852. Later, the gardens would know their moment of glory, when the German landscape gardener Emílio David was invited to present a plan for the valuation of the area. The Viscount Vilar Allen, a man of great sensibility, was linked to this measure having favourably influenced the members of the Porto City Council. Three buildings occupied the place where the PaláciodaJustiça stands today: the granary, later turned into a Fish Market; the Senhor Jesus do Calvário Novo Chapel, and the Santo AntóniodaCordoaria Hospice, used for various purposes, such as Casa or Roda dos Expostos, from 1838 to 1854. Santo António Hospital is one of the most significant examples of the civil architecture of the city and one of the most important buildings of British origin built outside England. Since the D. Lopo de Almeida Hospital did not suffice for the necessities of the population in the late 18th century, the Porto Misericórdia decided to build a new hospital. Through the British Nation Consul, John Whitehead, the English architect John Carr (1727-1807), from Yorkshire, was asked to present a modern plan. The sketches for the new hospital were sent to Porto in August 1769 – John Carr was paid 500 pounds – and were executed after been carefully studied. The foundation stone was laid on 15 July 1770 and a magnificent procession was arranged to celebrate the event. <br /> The building took place in two construction phases: the first one, from 1769 to 1780, and the second, beginning in 1791. In June 1799 the removal started. The first patients were transferred on 19 August of that year, and part of the hospital started working. <br /> John Carr’s magnificent plan was never fully accomplished due to its high costs, and only part of it was built.<br />
  32. 32.<br />