Berlin ● Berlin is the capital city of Germany . Berlin is the largest city in Germany and has a population of 4.4 million. ● Although badly damaged in the final years of World War II and broken apart during the Cold War, Berlin has reconstructed itself greatly, especially with the reunification push after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. It is now possible to see representatives of many different historic periods in a short time within the city center, from a few surviving medieval buildings near Alexanderplatz, to the ultramodern glass and steel structures in Potsdamer Platz
BRIEF HISTORYFounded in the 13th century, on one side of the river Spree.The population grew and Berlin became a center for commerce and agriculture.In 1701 Berlin became the capital of Prussia.In 1871 Berlin became the capital of the new founded German Reich and a few yearslater, it became a city with more than one million inhabitants because of the immenselygrowing industry.WW II led to destruction of most of central Berlin, thus many of the buildings which wesee nowadays are reconstructed or planned and built after the war.Berlin was divided into four sectors (West Berlin into the French, American and Britishsector, East Berlin belonged to the USSR). In 1949 the GDR was founded with EastBerlin as its capital - West Berlin belonged to West Germany ,with Bonn as the capital.In 1989 the German revolution took place -subsequently leading to the fall of the BerlinWall- and in 1990 West and East Germany were merged officially together with Berlinbecoming the capital of reunified Germany.
Brandenburg Gate● The Brandenburg Gate have been used to enter the city.● It was built between 1788 to 1791. There are six Doric columns supporting the 11 meter-deep transverse beam, which divide the gate into five passages. In 1793, a quadriga was placed on the gate. It is modelled on the Athens Acropolis.● It represent the separation of the city between East and West Berlin, since the Berlin Wall came down in 1989 the Brandenburg Gate has now come to symbolise German unity.
● Located athe t top the Brandenburg Gate it was robbed by Napoleon during his occupation of Berlin in 1806, and taken to Paris. It was returned to Berlin by Field Marshal Gebhard von Blücher in 1814.● Communist government of East Germany remove the iron cross of the statue after the war. The iron cross was restored after German reunification in 1990
The Victory Column.● The Victory Column commemorate the Prussian victory in different wars.● It was inaugurated on 2 September 1873.● The entire column, including the sculpture, is 66.89 meters tall.● Via a steep spiral staircase of 285 steps, climb almost to the top of the column, to just under the statue.● The statue is Niké. The victory goddes.
Reichstag● The Reichstag building was completed in 1894. The Reichstag was extensively damaged. Further damage was caused during World War II and also when the Soviets entered Berlin. You can see the shots in the columns.● Is a copy of Agripa´s temple in Rome.● After German reunification, the German Bundestag decided to use the building as a seat of Parliament again.● In the door you can read the inscription "To the German people"(“Dem Deutschen Volke”)
Agrippas Pantheon ● This is the original. In Rome ● It was built in 111 B.C. ● The cupola was the biggest cupola in centuries.
The Dome of the Reichstag.● It was designed by architect Norman Foster● The roof terrace and dome of the Reichstag Building can be visited by members of the public, and offer spectacular views of the parliamentary and government district and Berlin’s sights.● The Dome symbolizes that the people are above the government.
● Inside the new Dome of the Reichstag.● The dome can be reached by climbing two steel, spiraling ramps.
● This is the german parliament. Inside Reichstag
Bundesbank● The Deutsche Bundesbank (German for German Federal Bank) is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB.
The Berlin Wall.● The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic ( East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls.● In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.● In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, associated with the liberalization of the Eastern Blocs authoritarian systems and the erosion of political power in the pro- Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin.
The Fernsehturm ● The Fernsehturm is a television tower in the city centre of city. ● the Berlin Television Tower, which is 368 metres tall, is the highest publicly accessible building in Europe. ● It was inaugurated on 3 October 1969 just before the 20th anniversary of the GDR. ● It was one of the most important symbols demonstrating the superiority of socialist societies. ● The tower was actually needed for transmitting radio and TV programmes. ● The restaurant Telecafé, which rotates once every 30 minutes, is a few metres above the visitors platform at 207 metres.
Gedächtniskirche (Memorial Church) ● Initially, there were plans to demolish the church to make place for a new one, but due to public pressure this did not happen. Instead, the church stands were it always has, with its bombed out tower - a constant reminder of the Second World War.
Pergamon Museum.● Is the most visited museum of Berlin.● It was named after an ancient Greek city.● The Pergamon is divided into several areas including Near East Museum, the Islamic Art Museum, Folk Museum and the Antiquity Collection.
SOVIET WAR MEMORIAL● This war memorial was built to honour the Soviet soldiers that fell in the battles against the German army in the Second World War.● The inscription on the side of the memorial reads:● ETERNAL GLORY TO HEROES WHO FELL IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST THE GERMAN FASCIST INVADERS FOR THE FREEDOM AND INDEPENDENCE OF THE SOVIET UNION
The Holocaust memorial● The Holocaust memorial is dedicated to the memory of the thousands of Jews murdered by the Third Reich prior to and during World War II. It took over a year to complete and was opened in December 2004.● The author wanted the visitor to feel uncomfortable and confused.
kurfurstendamm.● The Kurfürstendamm, is one of the most famous avenues in Berlin. Can be considered the Champs-Élysées of Berlin.● Full of shops, houses, hotels and restaurants. In particular, many fashion designers have their shops there, as well as several car manufacturers.
Ampelmann ● Ampelman is the symbolic person shown on traffic lights at pedestrian crossings in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR - East Germany).
Sony Center● Most of the area became part of the No Mans Land of the Berlin Wall.● After the fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, the square became the focus of attention again, as a large (some 60 hectares), attractive location which had suddenly become available in the centre of a major European capital city. As part of a redevelopment effort for the area, the center was constructed.● The centre was designed by Helmut Jahn and construction was completed in 2000 at a total cost of €750M.● Sony Center contains a mix of shops, restaurants, a conference centre, hotel rooms, luxurious rented suites and condominiums, offices, art and film museums, cinemas, an IMAX theater
Postdam.● Potsdam intersected with the medieval wall around Berlin.● The first traffic lights in Continental Europe were erected at Potsdamer Platz on 20 October 1924.● With the construction of the Berlin Wall in1961, Potsdamer Platz now found itself physically divided in two.● Today, the square is a mix of residential and commercial property.