nanotechnology (1st draft)


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nanotechnology (1st draft)

  1. 1. Medical Applications of Nanotechnology Gholamreza Pourmand, M.D.
  2. 2. How small is nano? Decade: 1/3 rd second Acre: 1/100 th square inch $151,700: 1/100 th cent Scale: Nanoscale E. Corcoran. The Next Small Thing. Forbes Magazine , 07/23/01
  3. 3. Nanotechnology Growth S. Milunovich, J. Roy. United States Technology Strategy. Merrill Lynch. 4 Sept. 2001
  4. 4. Smart Nanostructures for Selective Drug Delivery Scale: 1/40 th of red blood cell Nanotube Nanocap Drug Delivery for: #1 - Cardiovascular disease #2 – Cancer #3 - Infectious diseases Toxin Removal for: Adverse drug reactions >106,000 deaths/yr Pesticide Poisonings >220,000 deaths/yr
  5. 5. NanoMedical Diagnostics <ul><li>Targets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- drug overdose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- brain trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- disease markers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- hospital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- homeland security </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is nanotechnology <ul><ul><li>Creation of functional materials, devices, and systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of matter on the nanometer (1-100 nm) length scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is nano? nanos: dwarf nano 10 -9 mikros: small micro 10 -6 milli: thousand milli 10 -3 chilioi: thousand kilo 10 3 megas: large mega 10 6 gigas: giant giga 10 9 teras: monster tera 10 12 Origins Prefix Power
  8. 8. Why is the nanometer scale different? <ul><ul><li>The wavelike properties of electrons inside matter are influenced by variations on the nanometer scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The systematic organization of matter on the nanometer length scale is a key feature of biological systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanoscale components have very high surface areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The finite size of material entities, determine an increase of the relative importance of surface tension and local electromagnetic effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction wavelength scales of various external wave phenomena become comparable to the material entity size. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 17. Targeted Delivery to Tumors
  10. 18. Many Different Length Scales 10cm 1cm 100  m 1  m
  11. 19. Relative Size of Nanoparticles Nanoparticle with a 2 nm core and an octanethiol functionalized monolayer
  12. 20. Making Gold Nanoparticles <ul><ul><li>AuCl4- salts are reduced using NaBH4 in the presence of thiol capping ligands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The core size of the particles formed can be varied from <1 nm to ~ 8 nm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The surface functionality can be controlled through the choice of thiols </li></ul></ul>
  13. 21. Fluorophores and Drugs Selectively Dissociate Inside Cells
  14. 22. Control of Surface Charge
  15. 23. Investigating Delivery Using Cylindroids 100  m Plug Well Plate Microscope Objective Cylindroid Viable Dead
  16. 24. Nanoparticles in Cylindroids
  17. 25. How Does Particle Charge Affect Tissue Penetration? Transcellular Paracellular Cells A B
  18. 26. Engineering Approach: Targeted Intratumoral Therapy <ul><ul><li>Quantify tumor microenvironments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop vectors to target tumor quiescence </li></ul></ul>Necrotic Quiescent Proliferating Therapeutic
  19. 27. Tumor Growth and Mouse Survival PBS Control Bacteria Cytotoxic Bacteria PBS + 2Gy Control Bacteria + 2Gy Cytotoxic Bacteria + 2Gy Cytotoxic Bacteria Control Bacteria PBS Bacteria + Radiation Control + 2Gy PBS + 2Gy Median survival doubles from 14.0 to 26.0 days
  20. 29. Cells A B C