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Redesign And Rebuilding Of The Repulsine Engine

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Redesign and Rebuilding of the Repulsine Engine
Page |1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Since the beginning of the industrial age, the scientific
enquiry has largely been limited to a materialistic understanding of natural and technological
processes. At one stage, science comprised the spiritual sciences of Alchemy and Metaphysics. With
the taking of the industrial path, the spiritual enquiry was neglected by the mainstream scientific
establishment. Technology has become increasingly complex without questioning its basic
foundations and long term effects, and has moved further and further away from the simple basic
workings of nature. Environmental, pollution, exploitation and dereliction have intensified with the
increase in sophistication of technology. 1.1 EXPLOSION Today's ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
From Implosion Magazine, No. 36, written in Vienna, 1944. The Repulsine is a germinal–matter
generator with which humanity can once more be returned to Paradise and hence all wearers of
mitre–boards, gowns, cassocks and cowls will have been expelled by fire and sword. Fig 1.3 –
Schematic Diagram of Repulsine Engine 1.4 WORKING OF REPULSINE ENGINE The working
of Repulsine engine can be explained by the combination of the Water Jet Pump and De–Laval
Nozzle techniques in Molecular Level. 1.4.1 WATER JET PUMP In the fig 1.4.1, the mainstream
Flow A exists within a pipe. Aside of the pipe a side–stream B exists, where additional air flows into
pipe. At first, molecules of influx B just ´stand´ locally and represent no stronger resistance than
main–stream is affected by friction on inner faces of pipe. Particles of that ´resting´ air at B are
trembling, based at normal molecular movements, thus are flying into all directions from one
collision to next. Just by pure chance, any particle will be pushed into direction of main–stream.
That particle moves ahead within main–stream, and will not come back to influx–area. Page |5 At
its original location, that particle no longer is available as collision–partner, so is leaving some
empty area there, into which following particles will fall. As many particles behave likely, flow C
comes up within side–influx. That pipe downside at D
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Redesign And Rebuilding Of The Repulsine Engine
The Negative Impacts Of Firefighting
Alarifi, A. A., Dave, J., Phylaktou, H. N., Aljumaiah, O. A., & Andrews, G. E. (2014). Effects of
fire–fighting on a fully developed compartment fire: Temperatures and emissions. Fire Safety
Journal, 68, 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2014.05.014 This article contains information on the
effects, and evaluation, of three different water pulse durations from a fire nozzles. It also shows
scientific data related to compartment temperatures, HRR, 02 levels, and toxic gases before and
after nozzle usage. This article will help to explain how fire behavior is effected by fire nozzle use,
and provide evidence for my thesis. Connors, T. (2006). Building a case for implementing smooth
bore nozzles. Fire Engineering, 159(2). In terms of importance, ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
D., & Bertrand, J. E. (2003). The safe and effective use of fog nozzles: Research and practice. Tulsa,
OK: PennWell Corp. Although this source is a little older, it provides a vast amount of information
on fog nozzles. The author's reference, extensive research and practice associated this type of
nozzle. I will use this book as my primary source, for fulfilling the argumentative requirement of my
final paper. Yoon, S. S., Figueroa, V., Brown, A. L., & Blanchat, T. K. (2010). Experiments and
modeling of large–scale benchmark enclosure fire suppression. Journal of Fire Sciences, 28(2), 109–
139. doi:10.1177/0734904109104503 This article will help support my thesis. It contains scientific
data on fire suppression using firefighting nozzles. The data distinguished, based on evidence, the
difference between suppression and no–suppression was related to flow rate and operating pressure.
It also contains good information on, beneficial nozzle diameters and water droplet size need to
suppress fires in a controlled
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Redesign And Rebuilding Of The Repulsine Engine
3d Stringing Research Paper
3D printing ensures pinpoint accuracy, enables mass customization and gives you the ability of
handling almost any level of complexity. With this technology we can literally say that you are
limited by your imagination. While the printing technology is awesome, it comes with its fair share
of negatives. Here are 4 common 3D printing problems and how to fix them:
Warping
Warping is when one or more corners of your printing machine lift up until the base of the model is
no longer at level with the print platform. This results to horizontal cracks in the upper parts of your
machine.
The problem comes about when the plastic of the first layers of your machine cool down thus start
shrinking.
To fix the problem you need to identify the cause of the problem. One of the ways of fixing the ...
Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
There are many ways in which you can do it. One of the most effective ways is using rafts which
give the print a larger surface area at the base.
Stringing
If you have been using your printing machine for long you must have come across this problem.
Stringing happens when you have tiny little hairs between the gaps of your print.
The problem results when some filament drips from the nozzle when the print moves over an open
part.
Stringing is a problem that fixable. One of the ways of fixing it is enabling retraction. Retraction is a
feature on your printing software. When you enable retraction the printer retracts the filament in the
nozzle before the travel moves. This ensures that no surplus plastic drips from the nozzle thus
producing strings.
Cracks
Cracks are common on tall, thin models. The cracks and gaps are found in the sides of the model.
The cool thing with the problem is that it's easy to fix. One of the things that you need to do is
increase the extruder temperature in 10 degree increments. If this trick doesn't work increase the bed
temperature by 5–15 degrees.
Under
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
 

Redesign And Rebuilding Of The Repulsine Engine

  • 1. Redesign and Rebuilding of the Repulsine Engine Page |1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Since the beginning of the industrial age, the scientific enquiry has largely been limited to a materialistic understanding of natural and technological processes. At one stage, science comprised the spiritual sciences of Alchemy and Metaphysics. With the taking of the industrial path, the spiritual enquiry was neglected by the mainstream scientific establishment. Technology has become increasingly complex without questioning its basic foundations and long term effects, and has moved further and further away from the simple basic workings of nature. Environmental, pollution, exploitation and dereliction have intensified with the increase in sophistication of technology. 1.1 EXPLOSION Today's ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... From Implosion Magazine, No. 36, written in Vienna, 1944. The Repulsine is a germinal–matter generator with which humanity can once more be returned to Paradise and hence all wearers of mitre–boards, gowns, cassocks and cowls will have been expelled by fire and sword. Fig 1.3 – Schematic Diagram of Repulsine Engine 1.4 WORKING OF REPULSINE ENGINE The working of Repulsine engine can be explained by the combination of the Water Jet Pump and De–Laval Nozzle techniques in Molecular Level. 1.4.1 WATER JET PUMP In the fig 1.4.1, the mainstream Flow A exists within a pipe. Aside of the pipe a side–stream B exists, where additional air flows into pipe. At first, molecules of influx B just ´stand´ locally and represent no stronger resistance than main–stream is affected by friction on inner faces of pipe. Particles of that ´resting´ air at B are trembling, based at normal molecular movements, thus are flying into all directions from one collision to next. Just by pure chance, any particle will be pushed into direction of main–stream. That particle moves ahead within main–stream, and will not come back to influx–area. Page |5 At its original location, that particle no longer is available as collision–partner, so is leaving some empty area there, into which following particles will fall. As many particles behave likely, flow C comes up within side–influx. That pipe downside at D ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. The Negative Impacts Of Firefighting Alarifi, A. A., Dave, J., Phylaktou, H. N., Aljumaiah, O. A., & Andrews, G. E. (2014). Effects of fire–fighting on a fully developed compartment fire: Temperatures and emissions. Fire Safety Journal, 68, 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2014.05.014 This article contains information on the effects, and evaluation, of three different water pulse durations from a fire nozzles. It also shows scientific data related to compartment temperatures, HRR, 02 levels, and toxic gases before and after nozzle usage. This article will help to explain how fire behavior is effected by fire nozzle use, and provide evidence for my thesis. Connors, T. (2006). Building a case for implementing smooth bore nozzles. Fire Engineering, 159(2). In terms of importance, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... D., & Bertrand, J. E. (2003). The safe and effective use of fog nozzles: Research and practice. Tulsa, OK: PennWell Corp. Although this source is a little older, it provides a vast amount of information on fog nozzles. The author's reference, extensive research and practice associated this type of nozzle. I will use this book as my primary source, for fulfilling the argumentative requirement of my final paper. Yoon, S. S., Figueroa, V., Brown, A. L., & Blanchat, T. K. (2010). Experiments and modeling of large–scale benchmark enclosure fire suppression. Journal of Fire Sciences, 28(2), 109– 139. doi:10.1177/0734904109104503 This article will help support my thesis. It contains scientific data on fire suppression using firefighting nozzles. The data distinguished, based on evidence, the difference between suppression and no–suppression was related to flow rate and operating pressure. It also contains good information on, beneficial nozzle diameters and water droplet size need to suppress fires in a controlled ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. 3d Stringing Research Paper 3D printing ensures pinpoint accuracy, enables mass customization and gives you the ability of handling almost any level of complexity. With this technology we can literally say that you are limited by your imagination. While the printing technology is awesome, it comes with its fair share of negatives. Here are 4 common 3D printing problems and how to fix them: Warping Warping is when one or more corners of your printing machine lift up until the base of the model is no longer at level with the print platform. This results to horizontal cracks in the upper parts of your machine. The problem comes about when the plastic of the first layers of your machine cool down thus start shrinking. To fix the problem you need to identify the cause of the problem. One of the ways of fixing the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There are many ways in which you can do it. One of the most effective ways is using rafts which give the print a larger surface area at the base. Stringing If you have been using your printing machine for long you must have come across this problem. Stringing happens when you have tiny little hairs between the gaps of your print. The problem results when some filament drips from the nozzle when the print moves over an open part. Stringing is a problem that fixable. One of the ways of fixing it is enabling retraction. Retraction is a feature on your printing software. When you enable retraction the printer retracts the filament in the nozzle before the travel moves. This ensures that no surplus plastic drips from the nozzle thus producing strings. Cracks Cracks are common on tall, thin models. The cracks and gaps are found in the sides of the model.
  • 6. The cool thing with the problem is that it's easy to fix. One of the things that you need to do is increase the extruder temperature in 10 degree increments. If this trick doesn't work increase the bed temperature by 5–15 degrees. Under ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8. 5 Operating Principles Of Abrasive Jet Machining Principles Chapter: 1 Introduction 1.1 Abrasive Jet Machining Principle 1.2 Equipment 1.3 Variables in Abrasive Jet Machining 1.4 working 1.5 Operating characteristics 1.6 Advantage and Limitations 1.7 Application 1. Introduction 1.1 Abrasive jet machining principle: Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM) is the removal of material from a work piece by the application of a high speed stream of abrasive particles carried in gas medium from a nozzle. The AJM process is different from conventional sand blasting by the way that the abrasive is much finer and the process parameters and cutting action are both carefully regulated. The process is used chiefly to cut intricate shapes in hard and brittle materials which are sensitive to heat and have a tendency to chip easily. The process is also used for drilling, de–burring and cleaning operations. AJM is fundamentally free from chatter and vibration problems due to absence of physical tool. The cutting action is cool because the carrier gas itself serves as a coolant and takes away the heat. Abrasive jet machining also known as micro abrasive blasting, is a mechanical energy based ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The main components being the compressor, air filter regulator, mixing chamber, nozzle and its holder, work holding devices and X–Y table. Air from the atmosphere is compressed by the compressor and is delivered to the mixing chamber via the filter and regulator. The mixing chamber contains the abrasive powders and is made to vibrate by an electric motor arrangement. Then the abrasive particles are passed into a connecting hose leading to the nozzle. This abrasive and gas mixture emerges from the orifice of nozzle at high velocity. The feed rate of abrasive air is controlled by the amplitude of vibration of the mixing chamber. A pressure regulator installed in the system controls the gas flow and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10. Upwind Discretization Model Essay The second order upwind discretization model was used in this problem. The truncated error due to selected terms in the Taylor series expansion is reduced and a more accurate solution is implied. Fewer grid points are necessary to give the same level of accuracy. ∂u/∂x+u=0,〖(du/dx)〗_i + ui =0 u_(i–1)=u_i–∆x(du/dx)_i+(∆x^2)/2 ((d^2 u)/(dx^2 ))_i–(∆x^3)/6 ((d^3 u)/(dx^3 ))_i+0(∆x^4) u_(i–1)=u_i+∆x(du/dx)_i+(∆x^2)/2 ((d^2 u)/(dx^2 ))_i–(∆x^3)/6 ((d^3 u)/(dx^3 ))_i+0(∆x^4) The central differencing method is used to find an expression for d2u/dx2 in the form ui–1 +ui+1 u_(i–1)+u_(i+1)=〖2u〗_i+∆x^2 ((d^2 u)/(dx^2 ))_i+O(∆x^4) ((d^2 u)/(dx^2 ))_i=((u_(i–1) )+ (u_(i–1) )–(2u_i))/(∆x^2 ) This is the discretised expression for d2u/dx2 and the truncation error is above O(∆x^2) Q6a. You were instructed to use an inviscid flow model. Justify the use of that model for this calculation. (2 marks) Assuming no viscous forces present an inviscid model has been used for the calculations. Also from the equation of the Reynolds number Re=ρvl/μ due to Re being really big rearranging and assuming v and l to be constant the viscous force μ =ρvl/Re becomes negligible. Q6b. Write down the simplified Cartesian Navier–Stokes momentum equations that you think are the closest representation to the equations you actually solved in Fluent. State why these aren't actually the equations you solved. (10 marks) Navier stokes momentum ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12. How Safe Is Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting? Fluorescence–activated cell sorting (FACS) arose from the need to separate and purify specific cells of different organisms or parts of organisms (5). The FACS was created in the late 1960s by Bonner, Sweet, Hulett, Herzenburg, and others and is a special type of flow cytometry(5). The commercial use of the machines did not happen until the early 1970s. The use today mostly involves staining, analyzing and sorting individual cells from small human samples (5). These methods are mainly applied to infants and stem cell transplant patients. Coming into the future, the speed of the machine has now been increased to measure 12 colors and two scatter parameters (5). The FACS is one of the leading and fastest applications in cell analyzing and sorting by DNA differences. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The cells are placed into a flask and are forced through a nozzle so small that they must pass through one by one. In the nozzle, the cells are vibrated at different frequencies to produce drops (3). The drops of cells are then scanned by a laser that is used to count and measure each cell. Separating populations of cells involves attaching antibody linked fluorescent dye to certain cells of interest (3). The information that is gathered from the sorting and measuring of the cells is evaluated by a computer. The final steps for the FACS include applying an electrical charge to the drops of cells (3). Before the drop of cell forms at the end of the nozzle, a charge is applied to the stream that will determine where the drop will go (3). Based on the charge, the drip is either moved left or right with electrodes or placed in to designated final tubes. Quantifying the FACS information involves displaying the information so we know how many cells of each color and charge were ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14. The Effects Of Performing Local Pwht And Considerations CHAPTER 1 Literature and Previous Work Introduction and Related Research There is a common practice to perform post weld heat treatment when performing alterations or repairs to pressure vessels that have been stress relived prior to being commissioned. This research paper is the study of the consequences of performing local PWHT and considerations that need to be taken when determining what type of stress relieving is to be performed to meet code requirements. Post weld heat treatment is an effective way to minimize weld residual stresses in pressure vessels and piping equipment. PWHT is a required for carbon steels above a code defined thickness threshold and other lo–allow steels to mitigate the propensity for crack initiation and ultimately, brittle fracture, and is often employed to mitigate stress corrosion cracking due to environmental conditions. Performing local PWHT following component repairs or alterations is often more practical and cost effective than heat treating an entire vessel or a large portion of the pressure boundary. Spot or bulls eye configurations are often employed in industry to perform PWHT following local weld repairs to regions of the pressure boundary. Both the ASME Boiler and Pressure vessel code and the National Board inspection code permit the use of local PWHT around nozzles or other pressure boundary repairs or alterations. Additionally, welding research council bulletin 452 offers detailed guidance relating to local PWHT and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. ACCT 434 Midterm Exam ACCT 434 Midterm Exam http://homeworkmonster.com/downloads/acct–434–midterm–exam/ ACCT 434 Midterm Exam (TCO 1) For each of the following drivers identify an appropriate activity. a. # of machines b. # of setups c. # of inspections d. # of orders e. # of runs f. # of bins or aisles g. # of engineers (TCO 2) Favata Company has the following information: Month Budgeted Sales June $60,000 July 51,000 August 40,000 September 70,000 October 72,000 In addition, the cost of goods sold rate is 70% and the desired inventory level is 30% of next month's cost of sales. Prepare a purchases budget for July through September. (TCO 1) Merriamn Company provides the following ABC costing information: (TCO 2) A master budget (TCO 2) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (TCO 4) In evaluating different alternatives, it is useful to concentrate on (TCO 5) The theory of constraints is used for cost analysis when (TCO 5) Schmidt Corporation produces a part that is used in the manufacture of one of its products. The costs associated with the production of 10,000 units of this part are as follows: Direct materials $45,000 Direct labor 65,000 Variable factory overhead 30,000 Fixed factory overhead 70,000 Total costs $210,000 Of the fixed factory overhead costs, $30,000 is avoidable. Phil Company has offered to sell 10,000 units of the same part to Schmidt Corporation for $18 per unit. Assuming there is no other use for the facilities, Schmidt should
  • 17. (TCO 3) Patrick Ross, the president of Ross's Wild Game Company, has asked for information about the cost behavior of manufacturing overhead costs. Specifically, he wants to know how much overhead cost is fixed and how much is variable. The following data are the only records available: Month Machine–hours Overhead Costs February 1,700 $20,500 March 2,800 22,250 April 1,000 19,950 May 2,500 21,500 June 3,500 23,950 Using the high–low method, determine the overhead cost equation. Use machine–hours as your cost driver. (TCO 5) Kirkland Company manufactures a part for use in its production of hats. When 10,000 items are produced, the costs per unit ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Parametric Optimization Of Gas Metal Arc Welding  Parametric Optimization of Gas metal arc welding process by PCA based Taguchi method on Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 316L Nabendu Ghosh a, Pradip Kumar Palb, Goutam Nandic and Ramesh Rudrapatid *aPh.D student, Mechanical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, WB, INDIA b,cProfessor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, WB, INDIA dAssociate professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering and Management, Pune–412207, India Abstract In the present work AISI 316L stainless steel samples have been welded by MIG welding. Butt joints have been made. Plate thickness is kept constant (= 3mm). Some important parameters have been varied during welding. Thus several butt–welded joints have been made. Each sample of the joints has been prepared under certain combination of welding parameters. The parameters considered for variation, in the present work have been welding current, gas flow rate and nozzle to plate distance. The design of experiment has been done using L9 Taguchi design of experiment. The influence of the process parameters (mainly current, gas flow rate and nozzle to plate distance) has been examined visually and also through X–ray radiographic tests. Next, samples have been cut, machined to conform to some specified dimensions for tensile testing. The quality of the weld has been evaluated in terms of ultimate strength, yield strength and percentage of elongation of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Abrasive Water Jet Machining ( Awjm ) A Review Paper Submitted By Shaumilkumar Patel (50204321) On Abrasive Water Jet Machining In The partial fulfillment of Coursework IE 506 ABSTRACT Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM) is a new machining technique. Abrasive Water Jet Machining is widely used in many industries, including mining and aerospace, for cutting, shaping, and reaming. AWJM is the extended version of Water Jet Machining. AWJM is a non–conventional machining process where the material is removed by impact erosion of the high velocity, high pressure of water and entrained high velocity of fine grit abrasives such as sand (SiO2) or beads of glass on a work piece. The Important process parameters which mainly affect the quality of cutting are hydraulic pressure, traverse speed, standoff distance, abrasive flow rate and types of abrasive material used in the process. The Important quality parameters in AWJM are Material Removal Rate (MRR), Surface Roughness (SR), kerf width and tapering of the kerf. This paper reviews the research work carried out so far in the area AWJM. Keywords: AWJM, Material Removal Rate, Surface Roughness, traverse speed, Kerf width INTRODUCTION Abrasive Water Jet Machining is a non–conventional process. AWJM works on principles of abrasive jet machining and water jet machining. In AWJM, material is removed by impact erosion of high pressure and high velocity of water and entrained high velocity of grit abrasives on work piece. Fig–1– different AWJM patent drawings and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. The Roles And Advantages And Types Of Mechanical Thrust... CONTENTS Title Page No. College Certificate NAL Certificate Declaration Organisation Profile i Abstract ii Acknowledgement iii Contents iv List of Figures viii List of Tables x Nomenclature xi 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Examples 2 1.2 Types of Thrust Vectoring 4 1.2.1 Mechanical Thrust Vectoring 5 1.2.1a Paddles, Vanes/Spoilers 5 1.2.1b Adjustable Nozzle 5 1.2.2 Fluidic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Nozzle geometry design 30 6.1 Grid diagrams of different geometries 30 6.2 Reasons for the geometry selection 31 6.3 Various strut positions for 6&10 model 32 7. Softwares used and analysis 34 7.1 Introduction to Fluent 34 7.1.1 Program structure 34 7.1.2 Program capabilities 36 7.1.3 Solver and conditions used in Fluent 37 7.2 Boundary conditions 38 8. Results and discussion 40 8.1 Comparison of preliminary results ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. 2d and 3d Method of Characteristics for Nozzle Design Applied Physics Laboratory RTDC–TPS–48 I Laurel MD 207236099 Y 2D and 3D Method of Characteristic Tools for Complex Nozzle Development Final Report Tharen Rice June 3 0,2003 Prepared under Grant No. NAG3–2460, "Design of Exhaust Nozzle for the RBCC– GTX Concept," with the NASA Glenn Research Center THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland 20723–6099 1 J m HOpKINs OS U N I V B
  • 26. R S I T Applied PhytiCS Laboratory RTDC–TPS–48 1 Laurel M D 207236(199 Y Table of Contents 1 .0 Purpose .................................................................................................................. 2.0 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 4.2 4.2.1 File Input/Output...................................................................................... 4.2.2 Grid Setup ................................................................................................ 4.2.3 Surface Fit ................................................................................................ 4.2.4 Initial Plane Properties ............................................................................. 4.2.5 Calculate Nozzle Button and Progress Indicators .................................... 4.2.6 Print Output Parameters ........................................................................... 5.0 2D and 3D MOC Tool Verification ...................................................................... 2D MOC Tool Verification ............................................................................... 5.1 3D MOC Tool Verification .............................................................................. 5.2 6.0 Summary............................................................................................................... 2 5
  • 28. J O ~ HO~KINS Applied physics Laboratory S MD Laurel U N I V 7.0 8.0 9.0 B R S I T RTDC–TPS–48 1 20723–6099 Y References ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Mechanical Engineering Research Paper MECHANICAL THE 8TH WONDER AND THE SCOPE AND FLAWS IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING I don't want to show that mechanical engineering is the 8th wonder by its actual persistence but by his full extent and what did mechanical engineers did from the past from its existence. What a Mechanical engineering is? Mechanical engineering is a diverse subject that derives its breadth from the need to design and manufacture everything from small individual parts and devices (e.g., microscale sensors and inkjet printer nozzles) to large systems (e.g., spacecraft and machine tools). Why the name as mechanical engineering? Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, lever, the wheel, and pulley. Each of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I am presently confining my study, particularly in India. What and all we can do with a mechanical degree in hand? It is one of the oldest branches of engineering. One of the appealing features is that the field is broad and diverse. All in all mechanical engineering offers a wide bouquet of job options to students who are looking for a stable and stimulating career. Plethora of opportunities awaits us if we do it right. Not only designing but Mechanical Engineer can work on each and every stage during the process of making a product. Public and Private Sectors both offer plenty of career opportunities. The scope of Mechanical Engineering is vast. Various exams that you can give which leads to good job opportunities after B.E are: There are many government examinations which we can write after completing B.E (Mechanical Engineering). We can appear for RRB exam to get into Railways for jobs. Being a mechanical engineer, we can join technical job posts like Assistant Engineer/ Junior Engineer/Project Manager/Technician, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Abrasive Jet Machining Sapphire 0.2 – 0.8 – 300 Abrasive: The most common abrasive materials used for Abrasive jet machining are aluminum oxide, silicon carbide. Sodium bicarbonates, glass beads of small grain size and dolomite are used for cleaning and polishing purpose. The selection of abrasive material depends on the work material, machining operation and required material removal rate. The size of the material is also important. The material removal rate (MRR) depends on the grain size. The coarse grains give high MRR, and they are recommended for cutting. The finer grains are useful in finishing operation. However, the finer grain tends to stick together and cause a clog in the nozzle. The grain must be sharp edged, but fine enough to remain ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Thin sections of brittle and hard material like ceramic, glass, and germanium can be machined. Disadvantages of Abrasive Jet Machining: The material removal rate is low. The process tends to environmental pollution. A dust collection system must be provided to avoid air pollution and health hazards. This can be eliminated by using abrasive water jet machining. The abrasive powder cannot be reused because its cutting ability decrease and it may clog on orifice of the nozzle. Higher chance of stray cutting*. Tapering may occur during drilling. AJM not suited for machining of soft material because the abrasive may get embedded in the work material. Nozzle life is low (300hr), and short standoff distance causes frequent damages on the nozzle. The air used for abrasive jet must be moister and oil free. * Stray cutting is an over cutting of material during machining process. It results in a non–uniform cutting surface. Stray cutting is unavoidable if cutting operation not properly controlled. Applications: AJM is suitable for machining heat sensitive material like silicon, gallium because the heat generation during the machining is very ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. A Laboratory Small Auxiliary Power Unit ( Apu ) Engine... 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Assessment aims The aim of the current work lies in accomplishing a laboratory small Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) engine practice, including the collection of the test data and achieving an engine performance simulation and diagnostic analysis. To carry out the analysis, it is necessary to develop the engine model and taking into account the measurements from the test in order to derive a coherent model. 1.2 Engine description An APU is a small gas turbine engine that provides secondary power to the airplane. This power is used to start the main propulsion engines and provide pressurized air for aircraft environmental control systems, electrical power for lighting, avionics and galleys on the ground and backup and emergency power in flight. [1] The APU investigated, GTCP30–92, consists of the following systems and assemblies: Gearbox Enclosing housing assembly incorporates an integral oil tank sump. Housing assembly, supporting the assembly bearing carrier and incorporates cast fins for cooling. Single–stage centrifugal compressor Single–stage turbine Torsion shaft which connects the compressor–turbine shaft to the gear train. Intake and an inlet screen before the compressor. Single combustion tube. Lubrication system Fuel system Electrical system. The below figure shows part of these devices. Figure 1.1: Main engine components.[2] The operation of the GTCP30–92 gas turbine is similar to other gas turbines. It incorporates a check ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. Smooth Bore vs. Fog Nozzles ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Old School: Smoothbore Nozzles in the Fire Service ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– The City of ______ Fire Department is in current discussion of using either smooth bore nozzle versus combination nozzles in commercial structures. This conversation has been a topic within the fire service since the introduction of the fog/combination nozzles in the 1960's. Although there are positives to both pieces of equipment, I believe that the department needs to make a decision on which nozzle to use for a standard operating procedure and safety purposes. To better understand the background of the contrasting views, we must look at how the fire service has developed around ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Guess what happened? We got our tails burned every time from the heat, steam, and black nasty garbage dropping down on us. The protective cone of water works great IF you are not in a confined super heated atmosphere. Like for approaching a gas meter fire, or a car fire where the heat can dissipate into the atmosphere. I think the best choice is having both types of nozzles available and selecting the right one for the job. Either way, a smooth bore stream or a straight stream from a combination nozzle is the best choice for interior work. The department decided to investigate this particular topic to determine which nozzle would be more beneficial when a firefighter is in a burning commercial structure. The smooth bore shoots out more water per second but at a straight stream. The combination nozzle shoots out more water droplets at a wider stream. Both processes are functional when putting out a fire. However, the combination nozzle can act as a barrier or wall against flames and smoke because it shoots at such a wide pattern. At the same time because the combination nozzle system shoots out water droplets, the droplets produce steam. The steam that is now present is more harmful to firefighters, which can be prevented by keeping the smooth bore nozzle in place. A direct attack method is designed to extinguish the fire by applying water in a straight or solid stream to the base of the fire. This allows the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. Pay For Gasoline Most people know how to do this simple task. However, for others' it is more difficult or it is their first time. I am about to explain how to perform this simple task in just a few comprehensive paragraphs; how to pump and pay for gasoline at the pump. Yes, without having to go inside to pay for it. You were paying attention! Thank you! First, find the nearest gasoline station to your location. Pull up to the empty pump. Stop your vehicle. Unfasten your seat belt. Grasp keys from ignition switch firmly but gently and pull or push down on them. Remove keys from ignition. Grab car door handle and open door. Step out of vehicle. Close door and walk over to the gasoline pump. Remove your wallet from your pants pocket or purse. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40. Fire System: Deluge Sprinkler Fire Maribel Hernandez Mc Call Fire Sept. 1,2016 Deluge Fire System A deluge sprinkler fire system is designed for rapid fire extinguishment in places of high hazard such as chemical storage and processing facilities, power plants, aircraft hangars, etc. All these places have one thing in common, they all posses the power to spread fire very rapidly. This makes the deluge fire system perfect for these facilities of high hazard. With this fire systems ability to smother any fire rapidly and effectively, it gives a result of increased property and employee safety. According to the encyclopedia of chemical engineering equipment, the deluge system consists of three types. The first type mention is the fine water spray deluge system. This system consists of extremely find mist drops from ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The foam consist of a mixture of water, forming agent, and air . As water flows, the foaming agent is mixed and the extinguishing agent is created. With every deluge systems specific purpose and design, it will require foam to have different foam densities. Foam extinguishment consists of cooling the fire and displacing of oxygen. It also suppresses vapors that can be flammable when mixed with air. You will find foam being generally used on class A and B fires. Special designed nozzles need to be in place for foam usage. One type commonly used are foam guns. Foam guns aim to cool fire from a distance. There is also a nozzle that can alternate between foam and water called foam/water jet pipe. You will find these foam nozzle systems in oil refineries, laboratories, and any places with hazardous materials. The use of foam can be of great service due to its ability to flow over practically any surface, can be manipulated to extinguish many different types of hazardous fires. The only downside will be the cost and clean up time required, which tends to be more than other extinguishing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42. Disadvantages Of Moulding Essay 4.2.4 Advantages of Liquid Silicone Rubber Moulding Here are several problems that might face with other materials, which would not with LSR: By–Products: LSR does not generate by–products. Its molecular structure makes it appropriate for a wide range of applications, however, the same structure means it can't be broken apart or recycled. The superior bonding strength between the silicon and oxygen atoms keeps the polymers from degrading under temperatures that most thermoplastics cannot withstand. Restrictive design: Generally, LSR has design guidelines that are comparable to thermoplastics, but it offers more freedom in certain areas. LSR gives designers more flexibility in the design process because the material is more forgiving when compared to thermoplastics. Planes: Planes that run the same direction of the mould opening usually require some draft, which allow milling of the mould. The mould design requires about one ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Part geometries can have a great deal of impact depending upon the type of moulding used. Some work well with automation typical for horizontal LSR moulding, while others work better for the manual operation of vertical machine moulding. Also, the complexity of the geometry plays a role in governing the size of the mould and thus the size of the moulding machine. How will the part be demoulded? Design for ease of demoulding is just as important as design for moulding. Silicone has high green tear strength: meaning that very large undercuts may be designed into a product and the parts can be stretched over them during demoulding without permanent deformation. However, this does not mean that any geometry may be easily removed from the mould. Silicone's tendency to adhere to the mould steel after moulding coupled with its natural tackiness can make it quite difficult to remove thick walled highly undercut parts. Undercuts and wall thicknesses should be carefully chosen during the design ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44. Propellants : Propellants And Propellants Rocket propulsion is a class of jet propulsion that produces thrust by ejecting stored matter, called the propellant. The propellant term includes two categories, liquid and solid propellants. Solid propellants are the oldest and most used for missile propulsion, since they are easily stored over liquid. After World War II, it was thought that the liquid propellants were going to have a true monopoly in the exploration of space and solid propellants are limited to rocket and low–power devices. In fact, the considerable progress made in the preparation processes, packaging of solid propellants and the relative simplicity of these propellants made of them very serious competitors to the liquid propellants. The double base propellant (homogeneous) represents one category among the categories of the solid propellant. It is a group of materials used for self–propulsion and their combustion is ensured by the two basic components, the nitrocellulose gelatinized by nitroglycerin. This homogeneous mixture forms a compound providing energy properties necessary for propulsion. The name of propellant homogeneous is given in opposition to the family of composite whose combustion is provided by two different components, an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent together with a binder constructing an energy matrix [1]. The manufacturing process has a very important impact in modifying the double base propellant characteristics such as mechanical properties, chemical properties, physical ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46. This chapter includes general information related to the... This chapter includes general information related to the main subject of this project which is a fogging system. How does the system work? The working principle of the fog cooling system can be summarized as this system utilizes very high pressure water about 1000 psi or 70 pars which occurred from a pump with high quality and delivery lines to create a very fine droplets size nearly 10 micron from specifically designed nozzles. Then, these fine droplets are quickly evaporated and absorbed the heat found in the air. In order to offer an excellent cooling; fog cooling systems use something called flash evaporation (Giacomelli, 2003). Fog Evaporative cooling According to Al–Amri, (2000) evaporative cooling is the chill that the person ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For better performance, cooling fans sometimes are added for the purpose of air circulation in closed areas, where the expected temperature will differ based on the climatic conditions, where cooling to 12°C is possible under the best circumstances (Yuwana et al., 2011). Evaporative Cooling Fog evaporative cooling system is similar to the conventional misting system in many aspects. But it works at a much higher pressure reached to (1000 – 2000 lb in–2; 7000 – 14000 kPa) and tiny nozzles with (1.2 gal hr–1; 4.5 L hr–1) volume. The tiny droplets can evaporate more quickly and efficiently, the evaporation rate is influenced also by the area of the surface, where the relation between them is proportionally. High quality filtration and water systems are necessary for reducing the clogging nozzles problem (Giacomelli, 2003). The evaporative cooling system is usually consisted of two lengths of fog nozzles (0.5 in; 1.3 cm) PVC pipe diameter. The nozzles may be made of high pressure, stainless steel and it could produce a water droplets or "fog" with 0.2 mm diameter at (1.3 ml s–1 ;1.2 gal hr–1) flow rate and (3450 kPa ;500 lb in–2) pressure. The effectiveness of cooling is defined as the ratio of the reduction of the immediate inner dry bulb air temperature to the depression of the inner wet bulb, before fogging, is determined and calculated to 50% – 70%. thus, if the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48. Tools Used The Trade : The Characteristics Of The... Tools of The Trade: The Characteristics of The Smoothbore vs. The Fog Nozzle. Bryant Boehner Utah Valley University Course: Online English 2020 Instructor: Robert Crane Abstract The fire service, particularly over the last two decades has taken a deeper interest in firefighter safety and accident prevention. This report examines the smoothbore and fog fire attack nozzles as they relate to firefighter safety. Although these two nozzles are not new to the trade, misapplication, and a lack of understanding past scientific studies by individuals, departments, and fire training centers continues to put firefighters at risk for injury or death. This report concludes that the benefits of the smooth bore nozzle make it a safer, and more ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Smoothbore Nozzle.........................................................................................................2 Figure 2. Solid Stream....................................................................................................................2 Figure 3. Fog Nozzle......................................................................................................................3 Figure 4. Narrow Fog Stream........................................................................................................3 Table 1. Fallout and Heat–Absorbing Capability...........................................................................10 Glossary of Terms CFM Cubic feet per minute. Conduction Heat transfer within an item or from one to another by direct contact Convection Heat transfer by circulation within a medium such as a gas or a liquid. Electromyograph device for recording electric currents from an active muscle to produce an electromyogram Fire A rapid oxidation process, which is a chemical chain reaction resulting in light and heat of varying intensities Fire Tetrahedron A four–sided geometric representation of the four factors ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50. Thesis On Rocket Nozzle Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1) Thesis Structure This dissertation aims to provide an optimized shape for rocket nozzle to minimize the variations in flow parameters like temperature, pressure, density and Mach number. The total thrust produced by the rocket nozzle depends upon these parameters and in order to obtain maximum thrust, it is necessary to make sure that the gas, expanding through the nozzle, exits with maximum uniformity–with minimum abrupt variations in temperature, pressure, density and Mach number. The first part of this dissertation presents a method to design a two–dimensional contour of a rocket nozzle known as method of characteristics. Method of characteristics is mainly a technique for solving partial differential equations. Typically, it is used to solve first order partial differential equations, but in this thesis it is used to solve the velocity potential equation which is a partial differential equation of hyperbolic nature. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Some of the previous research in this field will be reviewed. Y. Perrot et al [1] showed in their numerical investigation of turbulent boundary layer separation in over–expanded supersonic nozzle that very different shock structures and flow separation may appear depending on the contour of the nozzle. Such flow separation creates abrupt variations in pressure along the length of the nozzle. Furthermore, Onofri et al [2] showed that the shape of the nozzle has significant effect of the shock structure specifically in case of separated flows. William et al [3], in their investigation of the cap– shock pattern in a rocket nozzle, pointed out that significant reduction in thrust performance of launch vehicle results due to imperfect exhaust profile. They also mentioned in their investigation, that the contour of the nozzle directly influences the shock structure and subsequent plume ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52. Designing A 3d Modeling Software Once you have a 3D model the next step is to prepare it in order to make it 3D printable. Preparing a 3D model to be 3D printed is called slicing. Slicing is dividing a 3D model into hundreds or thousands of horizontal layers. This is done with software. It can sometimes be done within a 3D modeling software application. Certain 3D printers require a certain slicing tool. Once the 3D modelTo begin 3D printing you first have to make a virtual design of the object that you want to create. The virtual design is a CAD (Computer Aided Design) file. A CAD file is created using a 3D modeling application or with a 3D scanner. A 3D scanner is used to make a 3D digital copy of an object. 3D scanners: Microsoft and Google have recently created hardware that can perform 3D scanning. An example of this is Microsoft's Kinect. Soon digitizing real objects into 3D models will become much easier. Smartphones may even have integrated 3D scanners. 3D modeling software: 3D modeling software comes in many forms. There's industrial grade software that costs thousands of dollars a year, or there's a free open source software, like Blender. is sliced, it is ready to be sent to the 3D printer. This can be done via USB, SD, or wifi, depending on the brand and type of 3D printer you have. When a file is uploaded in a 3D printer, the object is 3D printed layer by layer. The 3D printer reads every slice and creates a three dimensional object. Types of 3D Printing Some 3D printers use different ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54. 3d Printing History Its One thing to 3D print something as advanced and cutting edge as a Jet engine motor, but it is another to fuel it up, take it to the runway and push the start button. This is the stride GE aviation achieved when it fired up the motor of a simple Jet engine, made completely of in–house designed and 3D printed parts, at a test stand normally reserved for commercial jet engines. GE Aviation is a world–leading provider of jet and turboprop engines, components and integrated systems for commercial, military, business and general aviation aircraft propulsion applications. GE Aviation has a global service network to support these offerings. 3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three–dimensional solid objects from a digital design. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes. In an additive process the desired object is created by laying down successive layers of material (usually molten alloy or plastics) until the entire object is formed. Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross–section of the eventual object. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The best part is that the nozzles, like those used in the best selling 'Leap engine' manufactured by GE Aviation, were traditionally machined from 20 separate parts. Now with 3D printing, each nozzle is one solid part, assembled by layering powdered metal melted and fused together with lasers. With 19 fuel nozzles per engine, it's a substantial difference that helps to streamline the manufacturing and assembly process. It also cuts down on design ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Excicessing Pharmaceutical Excipients Coprocessing Nowadays, there is an increasing demand on multifunctional excipients that replaces the need and use of multiple excipients. There are two ways that can fulfill this requirement, first, the development of new excipients with new chemical entity that has good properties including stability, flowability, compressibility, etc... and is compatible with other excipients in the formulation and with the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). The second way is to make new grades of exisiting excipient, or to modify it in a way that meets the needs of development. Excipient modifications can be categorized into chemical and physical modifications. The chemical modification deals with chemical reaction that add, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Table 1 shows the general advantages and disadvantages of coprocessing. As shown in the table, if an excipient has certain limitation such as poor flowability and compressibility, coprocessing could be the solution to overcome this problem. On the other hand, coprocessed excipients ratio is fixed and can't be changed. Sometimes this ratio may be incompatible with the API or with the dose [2]. In general, coprocessing is carried out for one plastic and one brittle–deforming excipient in order to minimize the elastic energy stored during compression and to decrease capping or lamination of the tablet, in addition, this combination is reflected positively on the compressibility of the powder. Coprocessed excipient use in direct compression tablet manufacturing process combines the advantages of wet granulation with the fast processing of direct compression[6]. As mentioned above, the ratio of initial excipients included in the coprocessed excipient is fixed, the particles of the excipient with the lower percentage can be processed on the surface or in the core of the other excipient. Excipients must be homogenized and then coprocessed ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58. Carburetor Research Paper Start by taking all the parts off of the carburetor, until all that remains is the body of the carburetor and more than likely the seat for the needle (6212), as well as the spray nozzle (6214B). Usually the seat and spray nozzle are frozen in place and the flats are damaged from trying to be removed by an ill fitted flat–head screwdriver. If it won't come easily, apply heat to the stalk with a propane torch. When heated, drop a few drops of water into the hole onto the brass jet. Brass has a higher expansion and shrink rate than iron and when those items cool they pull themselves away from the wall and are loose. Now you should be able to remove the spray nozzle and seat easily, by using flathead screw drivers that have been ground to fit each part. Be sure to remove the round gaskets under the needle seat and main jet. They get like iron and it might look like there isn't one there but there is. This is especially true of the main jet. It's down in the hole and is tough to see. If ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... To do this there are three brass plugs that have to be drilled out. You can drill and tap the brass plugs for a #4 machine screw and 'pulled' the brass plugs with a stainless steel machine screw. Or you may drill out the brass plugs with a 3/32" drill bit using low speeds to drill and be very careful to drill only the brass. Often the drill will also spin the remaining brass plug out. Here is a little trick on cleaning passages. You can make a set of carburetor passage cleaning wires in six different sizes ranging from .013 to .056. They are called acoustic Guitar strings. Cut them in lengths of about 6 inches and throw them in the carburetor bench tool drawer. (Pick up the cheapest set they make at the music store for about five bucks and make up a dozen sets for your friends.) The bronze winding is hard enough to knock loose crud but soft enough not to damage the cast iron ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60. 3d Printing Or Additive Manufacturing 3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes. In an additive process an object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the entire object is created. Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross– section of the eventual object. It all starts with making a virtual design of the object you want to create. This virtual design is made in a CAD (Computer Aided Design) file using a 3D modeling program (for the creation of a totally new object) or with the use of a 3D scanner (to copy an existing object). A 3D scanner makes a 3D digital copy of an object. 3D scanners use different technologies to generate a 3d model from something that already exists. Recently, many IT companies like Microsoft and Google enabled their hardware to perform 3D scanning, a great example is Microsoft's Kinect. This is a clear sign that future hand–held devices like smartphones will have 3D scanners. To digitize real objects into 3d models will become as easy as taking a picture. Prices of 3D scanners range from very expensive professional industrial devices to devices anyone can make at home. To prepare a digital file for printing, the 3D modeling software "slices" the final model into hundreds or thousands of horizontal layers. When the sliced file is uploaded in a 3D printer, the object ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62. Solid Stream Nozzle Research Paper Kristen Gordon English 101 Mr. Bliss September 20,2015 The fire service is full of tradition and has been that way since the very beginning of it time. It has always been a challenge when trying to implement new technology, ideas or ways of acting. For a long time in this history, firefighters have used a solid stream nozzle at the end of a hose line. In 1968, the fog nozzle was invented and a struggle between the old and a new began. Although there are benefits to both nozzles, the capabilities of the fog nozzle make it clear that it is the better choice. The solid stream nozzle discharges a solid, unbroken stream of water. This happens because of the construction of the nozzle, which is simply a wider opening at the connection to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64. Principle Of Bernoulli Principle Experiment Petroleum Engineering Baku Higher Oil School PROCESS ENGINEERING A SECOND YEAR LABORATORY REPORT COVER SHEET Name: Nijat Ismayilov Title of Experiment: Bernoulli's Principle Demonstrator Group number: NM–14.1(6) Date of Experiment: 05.10.2016 Demonstrator: Prof. Azizagha Azizov Supervisor: Prof. Fuad Valiyev Date of Submission: 19.10.2016 Contents Synopsis 3 Introduction 3 Theory 4 Equipment 6 Figure 1 7 Experimental technique 7 1st part 7 2nd part 8 Results 8 Table 1 9 1st part 9 Graph 1 9 Graph 2 10 2nd part 10 Graph 3 10 Graph 4 11 Discussion of results 11 Conclusion 11 Appendix 11 Table 2 12 1st part 12 2nd part 13 References 14 Synopsis This experiment ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Calculation of dynamic pressure heads using equation (12): h_(dyn(1))=285–275=10mm h_(dyn(4))=255–120=135mm h_(dyn(2))=280–255=25mm h_(dyn(5))=220–145=75mm h_(dyn(3))=275–10=265mm h_(dyn(6))=210–165=45mm Then we found measured flow velocities according to equation (11): v_(meas(1))=√(2*9.81*10*〖10〗^(–3) )≈0.443 m/s v_(meas(2))=√(2*9.81*25*〖10〗^(–3) )≈0.700 m/s v_(meas(3))=√(2*9.81*265*〖10〗^(–3) )≈2.232 m/s v_(meas(4))=√(2*9.81*135*〖10〗^(–3) )≈1.627 m/s v_(meas(5))=√(2*9.81*75* 〖10〗^(–3) )≈1.213 m/s v_(meas(6))=√(2*9.81*45*〖10〗^(–3) )≈0.940 m/s Next, theoretical velocity values were calculated, first by finding starting value, then by multiplying it by reference velocities according to equation (10) and Table1: v_start=v_theor(1) =V ̇/A_1 =(0.159*〖10〗^(– 3))/(3.38*〖10〗^(–4) )≈0.470 m/s v_theor(i) =v_1*v ̅_i v_theor(2) =0.470*1.45≈0.682 m/s v_theor(3) =0.470*4.00≈1.88 m/s v_theor(4) =0.470*2.00≈0.94 m/s v_theor(5) =0.470*1.33≈0.625 m/s v_theor(6) =0.470*1.00≈0.47 m/s Afterwards, we used equation (13) to get flow rate factor: K=V ̇/√∆P=V ̇/√(P_1–P_3 )=V ̇/√(ρ*g*(h_stat(1) –h_stat(3) ) ) As ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66. Stainless Steel Icing Piping Nozzles Chef choice 24 pcs Stainless Steel Icing Piping Nozzles set, Cake Decorating Tips, cupcake tool, cake decorating supplies PRODUCT TITLE Chef choice 24 pcs Stainless Steel Icing Piping Nozzles set+ Cake Decorating tips +cupcake tool premium baking tools with bonus silicone pastry bags, 6 cake cups & 1 cake pen +cake decorating supplies, cake decorating set, for baking cakes, cookies & pastries, PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Discover easy baking steps without prior experience in baking with Chef choice 24 pcs Stainless Steel Icing Piping Nozzles set, Cake Decorating Tips, cupcake tool, cake decorating supplies; This cake decorating supplies includes everything you need to create your dream pastry cakes, desserts and savory cupcakes for birthdays, anniversary, or family picnics plus a free bonus silicone pastry bags, 6 cake cups & 1 cake pen all in one pack to take your baking to the next level. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This cake decorating kit offers the ability to make your mind more creative and very productive. It is designed with easy, quick baking tips, better dexterity for beginners & professionals chefs alike. It contains the perfect frosting pips to make your cakes, deserts and cookies the focal point of any table. With this cake decorating set you and your children can enjoy baking your favorite cup cakes, cookies and pastries together as a fun loving ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68. Evaluation Of A Research On Software And Tool Path Generation 2. Review of Literature Basically research in FDM can split into three categories 1. Novel applications 2. Materials 3. System improvements This systems improvements mostly based on software and tool path generation, layer by layer algorithms and part orientation. The basic FDM process changed since 1980's and it has three Cartesian linear actuators, extruder and temperature controls. To print different materials multiple heads can be used. Research published on FDM extruder so far is very little. Adaptive filament deposition (AFD) and planar layer deposition (PLD) are the two patented techniques Tseng has for the freeform fabrication of metals and ceramics AFD uses a conical spindle which is kept inside a deposition head it is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As the current limitations imposed on constant diameter and shape nozzle, so authors focused more research on variable shape and diameter nozzles. 3. Errors due to Circular Nozzle In a horizantal plane, the axisymetric properties of circular noxzle makes FDM more convenient to use. But the angles drwan from the nozzle are eual to the radii or more . Figure 2. cross sectional Geometrical error by circular nozzle. The error is obtained by the following Equation: Error = r/sin (θ/2) – r Where r = radius of the nozzle and θ = angle of cross sectional geometry. The Following figure is drawn between the intended angle made by nozzle in digress to the error in geometry. From the graph it gives clear idea that when the geometrical angles are larger in any geometry the errors are less. This illustrates as we go to the larger angles the error is going to be reduced.the three lines in the graph describe mutiple units of radius (say 1,2,3...). Figure 3. Graph showing minimum geometrical error of an angle printed with a circular nozzle. 3.1 Limitations of Circular Nozzle It is difficult to draw sharp external corners since we are using circular nozzle there would be radius equivalent to that of the nozzle at any corner or edge. Round corner and edges 4. Project Proposal The proposal we made to overcome circular nozzle problem is to introduce ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70. Carburettors Advantages And Disadvantages In order for an internal combustion engine to operate correctly, a mixture of fuel and air needs to enter into the combustion chamber, pressurised and then ignited by a spark ignition which then drives the piston to rotate. The way that the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber has evolved over the decades. Before electronic fuel injection, carburettors were the primary method of mixing air and fuel. Carburettors work on the Bernoulli's principle: the faster the air moves, the lower its static pressure and the higher its dynamic pressure. The throttle actuates carburettor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being pulled into the engine, the speed of this flow and therefore its pressure determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. Carburettors consist of an intake of air being pushed into the intake manifold to the engine. The build–up of fast dynamic pressure will initiate fuel delivery action by providing a vacuum for fuel to enter the intake with the manifold propagating as a mixture chamber to atomise the fuel into the air to create an ideal mixture. Carburettors use Bernoulli's principle, where the speed of air intake entering the engine intake manifold in relation to the potential difference of pressure will meter the correct amount of fuel to be sucked in. The disadvantage of a carburettor is that the amount of fuel being delivered cannot be fully controlled and carburettors tend to have higher fuel to air ratios and sometimes flood the engine ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72. Risk Of Welding Welding is a task that many farmers will have to do at some point. Often, this is to repair a damaged piece of equipment or metal fence. However, there are many individuals that may not be particularly experienced with doing this type of work. As a result, they may not understand the correct steps that they should take to keep their welding equipment in excellent condition. Luckily, these tips can help you to minimize the risk of your welding equipment experiencing malfunctions. Dust Your System DUst is a major threat to welding equipment, but it is a problem that many people overlook. However, it is possible of dust to accumulate on the interior of your welding unit, and this can severely compromise the system's ventilation. Eventually, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74. Structure Fire Reducing the Spread of Structure Fires Nameless Abstract This paper gives an overview of just a few of the ways fire companies can help limit the spread of a structure fire. A few factors to take into consideration that are discussed here are ventilation, nozzle type, and time. Along with the ways that these concepts can help reduce the spread of a structure fire are ways that, if used incorrectly or misjudged, can greatly worsen the situation and the behavior of the fire. Reducing the Spread of Structure Fires Structure fires can spread very rapidly if proper precautions are not taken. Fire companies have a variety of actions they can take and many factors to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (West et al.'s, 2009, para. 20–51). If PPV is used incorrectly it can cause severely dangerous fire behavior which can result in deaths or injuries to firefighters and civilians. Some common problems that can cause this severe fire behavior are the lack of an exhaust opening, an insufficient exhaust opening size, and a lack of leadership and organization. West et al.'s (2009) states that, "If PPV is not effective, increased air flow is accompanied with turbulence and resultant mixing of fuel and air which increases the probability of ignition and rapid fire progression" (para. 20). Overall, ventilation can be a great way to effectively limit the spread of fires, however, incorrect use can worsen the situation and the fire can become an increased threat to firefighters and civilians. Another thing that can significantly impact and limit the spread of a structure fire is the nozzle type. There are three basic types of nozzle patterns, smooth–bore nozzles, fog nozzles, and specialty nozzles. Each of these is very important and has many different uses during a fire. The one most talked about is the fog nozzle. The fog nozzle can provide a number of stream shapes to suit different types of fire situations. Fog nozzles break the water that runs through it into small droplets, which is believed to create more surface area than a solid stream. The water absorbs the heat and turns it into steam which displaces the oxygen and suffocates
  • 75. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 77. Micro Hydro System For The De Pulper Essay Micro–Hydro System for the De–Pulper Micro–Hydro power systems can be applied to a wide range of energy needs throughout the world wherever an ideal site is available. On a small organic farm in Nicaragua, Finca Esperanza Verde (FEV), a direct drive micro–hydro system is being used to power a coffee de–pulper (Raichle, Sinclair & Ferrell, 2012). This paper will build upon existing data on the system and will explore options for directing the water after it has gone through the system to effectively suit the needs of the farm. The applications of the system could be prevalent throughout the coffee growing regions of Latin America where there are water resources and small– scale coffee farms. Coffee is 8.1% or $438 Million of Nicaragua's exports, which makes it the second most exported commodity in the county (Nicaragua, n.d.). The energy force that is driving the harvesting and processing is predominantly manual labor (Raichle et al., 2012). Coffee Harvesting and System Design First a coffee cherry is picked from the plant, once a basket is full of the cherries it is brought to the de–pulper that is traditionally hand–cranked. Meanwhile, water comes from the top of the farm in a pond and flows down to the beneficio, where the de–pulper is located, through the penstock that is a 2" pipe to the pipe that splits off between the micro–hydro system into a 1½" pipe and the bean washing tanks (Sinclair, 2016). For the micro–hydro system the water can flow through one or two ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 79. The Fundamental Concept Of Additive Manufacturing Essay 3. What is 3D printing? 3 D printing also known as additive manufacturing or stereolithography or rapid prototyping has been predominantly explored for the past few years. 3D printing technology is called additive manufacturing because the material is built from scratch, without any loss in existing volume of an object by chipping, drilling or cutting. (Tony Hoffman, 2016). The fundamental concept of additive manufacturing is printing an object by successive deposition of layers of various materials. Before an object can be 3D printed, it first has to be sliced into thousands of horizontal and vertical planes in Computer Aided Design (CAD). There are similar software like CAD which are used for the purpose of 'Slicing '. Some of these software are CAM– Computer Aided Manufacturing and 3D Scanner. These horizontal and vertical planes together make up the 3D model of the object. Once a virtual design of the object is prepared, also called as 'the feed', a file in the '.stl' format is provided to the printer which then prints the desired object. Though the basic outcome of 3D printing is same, different technologies have been developed as per its need in the industry. Based on personal requirements, an object can be customized on small as well as large–scale. As 3D printing continues to grow and evolve, a number of companies are establishing their mark in this area. 3D printing not only involves the printing of an object, but it is a step by step process ultimately ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 81. Water Jet Machining Archived in Dspace@nitr http://dspace.nitrkl.ac.in/dspace pkray@nitrkl.ac.in 'R~prttited irom the journai of the Institution of Bnglneers~)vbt (; '3,pt. m 3, Novenibert~82 ' ' UDC 621–16/– 17:621/621.9 Water Jet Machining–A State of Art P K Ray, Associate Member With the advent of newer materials and intricate shapes of components, unconventional methods ofmatflrial removal have been developed. Water jet machining (WJM) is cne ( 'f such processes of material removal. This paper briefly describes the basicfcatures of WJM, such as, its mechanism of material removal, advantages, and application possibilities. INTRODUcnON ,r– The principle of rain–erosion phenomenon occuring on high speed aircrafts is welknown and is utilised ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... "I.ounter How ' 01 the jet to escape IreeJy and Even the smallest surlace discontinuities act as nuclei for lessens its tend ency to build a 'lIquid lushlOn '6. P 1< 4 >< 5 ... 6 ... @ @ @ I ~ 11 12 :1 @ Motor Reservoir Purifying chamber Mixing chamber Pump Pressure switch Reli ef valve Check valve Intensifier Direction–control p.res5ure gauge Restrictor Accumulator Pres–sure transducer Nozzle Workpiece valve I To drain ~ –––r..:~u.!:I2..!~– ~a_n~J FI8 3 Schematic diagram of a waterJet machiningsystem : 109 J '0163, November 1982 DISCUSSION The elements of a jet cutting system basically consists of a high pressure source (pump) and a shaped nozzle which concentrates the liquid and forms the jet through the nozzle mouth. Other accessories indude high pressure tubing and their fittings, valves, various holding fixtures, and a control panel. The last element is the drainage system which collects the water (together with fine dust like chips of the work material) after it has passed through the work–piece). A schematic diagram of the process is shown lrl Fig 3. Jet cutting requires a continuous high pressure delivery and this ltmlts the lile 01 the components, since at high pressure~ latlgue lailure of the mechanical components occur~. Huwever, with Impruved materials, fat Igue in the high pre~~ure range IS of less importance ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 83. Water Fly Lab Report Water Jet Target Characterization and Relation to Conservation of Linear Momentum Stephanie Coleman July 7, 2015 2 Abstract In order to visualize and conceptualize the affect of the contact angle on impact force, testing of four different shapes and comparing the results was done. Conclusions were drawn on the affects of the type of contact surface on the measured impact force. In analyzing these results, it was also be of interest to calculate the theoretical force using a derivation of equations and comparing them to the measured data. Doing so may allow for further understanding concerning the possible errors in calculations or possible mis–assumptions being made. Because theoretical results and measured results did not agree within reasonable ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This allows the theoretical data to further validate the measured data. Because the hemispherical shape had error bars which did not overlap, the data corrections were made to that particular set of data. Refer to Figures 5 and 6 to see how these error bars either did not overlap or came close to not overlapping. Notice in Figures 9 and 10 the comparisons in the before calculated force compared to that of the corrected forces. Specific data on these corrections may be found in Tables 7 and 8 in the Appendix. 14 Figure 9: Corrected data with errors for hemispherical shape with the small nozzle Figure 10: Corrected data with errors for hemispherical shape with the large nozzle 15 Table 4: Uncorrected data for inverted cone Conclusions and Recommendations This experiment effectively showed that the resultant impact force acting on the different target shapes changed depending on the shape, which is affected by the contact angle. Further analysis of the data also showed that some beginning assumptions were incorrect, allowing insight on the reasoning for incorrect data percentages. These were corrected via further derivations in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...