• People describe objects in many ways using size, shape, colors, and textures. Describing objects by using> size> shape> color> texture
• A property describes how an object looks, feels, or acts
Properties of all objects• Objects take up space.• All objects take up space. Your computer is taking up space on the desk. You are taking up space on the chair.• Objects have mass.• Mass is how much there is of an object.. Mass and weight are two different things. The unit for mass is a gram. A nickel has the mass of about one gram.• Objects that take up space and have mass are called matter. Everything around you is made up of matter.• If you are having trouble understanding matter, look all around you. You can see matter makes up the walls of your house and your classroom. Matter is large and matter is small. Do you get it yet?
• . Anything you see and can feel is made of atoms.• All atoms are too small to be seen with the naked eye or even a microscope, although there are some new types of microscopes that are now able to see larger atoms such as gold.• All matter is the same because all matter is made up of atoms. Matter is also different because objects can be made up of different kinds of atoms.• Gold is made of one kind of atom-gold atoms. Salt is made up of two different kinds of atoms-sodium atoms and chloride atoms.
Properties of Matter• Remember all objects take up space and have mass. You use your sense of taste and smell to tell the difference between spinach and an orange.• Physical properties- The measurement of mass and other characteristics that can be seen without changing how that object looks are its physical properties.• Mass, color, shape, volume, and density are some physical properties. The answers to the question about the present are physical properties.• Density is an important physical property. Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume. Volume is the amount of space an object occupies.• Chemical properties- These are properties that can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance. A piece of paper burns and turns to a black substance. After the flame goes out you can no longer burn the new substance. The chemical properties have been changed.
Intensive– Intensive - Properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present. • Color • Odor • Luster - How shiny a substance is. • Malleability - The ability of a substance to be beaten into thin sheets. • Ductility - The ability of a substance to be drawn into thin wires.
• Conductivity - The ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity.• Hardness - How easily a substance can be scratched.• Melting/Freezing Point - The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.• Boiling Point - The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid (generally atmospheric pressure).• Density - The mass of a substance divided by its volume
ExtensiveExtensive - Properties that do depend onthe amount of matter present. • Mass - A measurement of the amount of matter in a object (grams). • Weight - A measurement of the gravitational force of attraction of the earth acting on an object. • Volume - A measurement of the amount of space a substance occupies. • Length
Chemical Property• Cannot be determined apart from Chemical reaction
gas liquid solidassumes the shape and assumes the shape of retains a fixed volume volume of its container the part of the container and shapeparticles can move past which it occupies rigid - particles locked one another particles can move/slide into place past one another compressible not easily compressible not easily compressible lots of free space little free space between little free space between between particles particles particles flows easily flows easily does not flow easilyparticles can move past particles can move/slide rigid - particles cannot one another past one another move/slide past one another
Solids• A substance in a solid phase is relatively rigid, has a definite volume and shape.• The atoms or molecules that comprise a solid are packed close together and are not compressible.• Because all solids have some thermal energy, its atoms do vibrate. However, this movement is very small and very rapid, and cannot be observed under ordinary conditions.
Kinds of Solids• Amorphous solids Amorphous solids do not have a definite melting point or regular repeating units. An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms unlike those in crystalline solids. An example of an amorphous solid is window glass. In addition many polymers such as polystyrene are amorphous.• Amorphous solids can exist in two distinct states, the rubbery state and the glassy state. The temperature at which they transition between the glassy and rubbery states is called their glass transition temperature or Tg.
Liquids• Liquids have a definite volume, but are able to change their shape by flowing.• Liquids are similar to solids in that the particles touch. However the particles are able to move around.• Since particles are able to touch, the densities of liquid will be close to that of a solid.• Since the liquid molecules can move, they will take the shape of their container.
Properties of liquids• Viscosity --The resistance of a liquid to flow is called its viscosity• Surface Tension -- The result of attraction between molecules of a liquid which causes the surface of the liquid to act as a thin elastic film under tension. Surface tension causes water to form spherical drops.• Vapor Pressure -- The pressure that a solid or liquid exerts when it is in equilibrium with its vapor at a given temperature.• Boiling Point -- when vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure.
Gases• Gases have no definite volume or shape. If unconstrained gases will spread out indefinitely.• If confined they will take the shape of their container. This is because gas particle have enough energy to overcome attractive forces. Each of the particles are well separated resulting in a very low density.
Plasma• Plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist.• In effect a plasma is a cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where all the electrons have come loose from their respective molecules and atoms, giving the plasma the ability to act as a whole rather than as a bunch of atoms.
• Plasmas are the most common state of matter in the universe comprising more than 99% of our visible universe and most of that not visible. Plasma occurs naturally and makes up the stuff of our sun, the core of stars and occurs in quasars, x-ray beam emitting pulsars, and supernovas.• On earth, plasma is naturally occurring in flames, lightning and the auroras. Most space plasmas have a very low density, for example the Solar Wind which averages only 10 particles per cubic-cm. Inter-particle collisions are unlikely - hence these plasmas are termed collisionless.
Bose- Einstein Condesates• The collapse of the atoms into a single quantum state is known as Bose condensation or Bose-Einstein condensation is now considered a 5th state of matter.• Recently, scientists have discovered the Bose-Einstein condensate, which can be thought of as the opposite of a plasma. It occurs at ultra-low temperature, close to the point that the atoms are not moving at all.• A Bose-Einstein condensate is a gaseous superfluid phase formed by atoms cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. The first such condensate was produced by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman in 1995 at the University of Colorado at Boulder, using a gas of rubidium atoms cooled to 170 nanokelvins (nK). --Under such conditions, a large fraction of the atoms collapse into the lowest quantum state, producing a superfluid. This phenomenon was predicted in the 1920s by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein, based on Boses work on the statistical mechanics of photons, which was then formalized and generalized by Einstein.
States of Matter• States of matter are the distinct forms that different phases of matter take on. Three states of matter are known in everyday experience: solid, liquid, and gas. Other states are possible; in scientific work, the plasma state is important. Further states are possible but do not normally occur in our environment: Bose-Einstein condensates, neutron stars. Other states, such as quark- gluon plasmas, are believed to be possible. Much of the baryonic matter of the universe is in the form of hot plasma, both as rarefied interstellar medium and as dense stars.• Historically, the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in bulk properties. Solid is the state in which matter maintains a fixed volume and shape; liquid is the state in which matter maintains a volume which can vary only slightly, but adapts to the shape of its container; and gas is the state in which matter expands to occupy whatever volume is available.• This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions.• The state or phase of a given set of matter can change depending on pressure and temperature conditions, transitioning to other phases as these conditions change to favor their existence; for example, solid transitions to liquid with an increase in temperature.• A state of matter is also characterised by phase transitions. A phase transition indicates a change in structure and can be recognized by an abrupt change in properties. A distinct state of matter can be defined as any set of states distinguished from any other set of states by a phase transition. Water can be said to have several distinct solid states. The appearance of superconductivity is associated with a phase transition, so there are superconductive states. Likewise, ferromagnetic states are demarcated by phase transitions and have distinctive properties. When the change of state occurs in stages the intermediate steps are called mesophases. Such phases have been exploited by the introduction of liquid crystal technology.• More recently, distinctions between states have been based on differences in molecular interrelationships. Solid is the state in which intermolecular attractions keep the molecules in fixed spatial relationships. Liquid is the state in which intermolecular attractions keep molecules in proximity, but do not keep the molecules in fixed relationships. Gas is the state in which molecules are comparatively separated and intermolecular attractions have relatively little effect on their respective motions. Plasma is a highly ionized gas that occurs at high temperatures. The intermolecular forces created by ionic attractions and repulsions give these compositions distinct properties, for which reason plasma is described as a fourth state of matter.• Forms of matter that are not composed of molecules and are organized by different forces can also be considered different states of matter. Superfluids (like Fermionic condensate) and the quark–gluon plasma are examples.
• Solid• A crystalline solid: atomic resolution image of strontium titanate. Brighter atoms are Sr and darker ones are Ti.• Main article: Solid• The particles (ions, atoms or molecules) are packed closely together. The forces between particles are strong enough so that the particles cannot move freely but can only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume. Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut.• In crystalline solids, the particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern. There are many different crystal structures, and the same substance can have more than one structure (or solid phase). For example, iron has a body-centred cubic structure at temperatures below 912 C, and a face-centred cubic structure between 912 and 1394 C. Ice has fifteen known crystal structures, or fifteen solid phases, which exist at various temperatures and pressures.• Glasses and other non-crystalline, amorphous solids without long-range order are not thermal equilibrium ground states; therefore they are described below as nonclassical states of matter.• Solids can be transformed into liquids by melting, and liquids can be transformed into solids by freezing. Solids can also change directly into gases through the process of sublimation.
• Liquid• Structure of a classical monatomic liquid. Atoms have many nearest neighbors in contact, yet no long-range order is present.•• Main article: Liquid• A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. The volume is definite if the temperature and pressure are constant. When a solid is heated above its melting point, it becomes liquid, given that the pressure is higher than the triple point of the substance. Intermolecular (or interatomic or interionic) forces are still important, but the molecules have enough energy to move relative to each other and the structure is mobile. This means that the shape of a liquid is not definite but is determined by its container. The volume is usually greater than that of the corresponding solid, the most well known exception being water, H2O. The highest temperature at which a given liquid can exist is its critical temperature.• Gas• The spaces between gas molecules are very big. Gas molecules have very weak or no bonds at all. The molecules in "gas" can move freely and fast.• Main article: Gas• A gas is a compressible fluid. Not only will a gas conform to the shape of its container but it will also expand to fill the container.• In a gas, the molecules have enough kinetic energy so that the effect of intermolecular forces is small (or zero for an ideal gas), and the typical distance between neighboring molecules is much greater than the molecular size. A gas has no definite shape or volume, but occupies the entire container in which it is confined. A liquid may be converted to a gas by heating at constant pressure to the boiling point, or else by reducing the pressure at constant temperature.• At temperatures below its critical temperature, a gas is also called a vapor, and can be liquefied by compression alone without cooling. A vapor can exist in equilibrium with a liquid (or solid), in which case the gas pressure equals the vapor pressure of the liquid (or solid).• A supercritical fluid (SCF) is a gas whose temperature and pressure are above the critical temperature and critical pressure respectively. In this state, the distinction between liquid and gas disappears. A supercritical fluid has the physical properties of a gas, but its high density confers solvent properties in some cases, which leads to useful applications. For example, supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract caffeine in the manufacture of decaffeinated coffee.• State Symbols
• Plasma (ionized gas)• Main article: Plasma (physics)• Plasmas or ionized gases can exist at temperatures starting at several thousand degrees Celsius, where they consist of free charged particles, usually in equal numbers, such as ions and electrons. Plasma, like gas, is a state of matter that does not have definite shape or volume. Unlike gases, plasmas may self-generate magnetic fields and electric currents, and respond strongly and collectively to electromagnetic forces. The particles that make up plasmas have electric charges, so plasma can conduct electricity. Two examples of plasma are the charged air produced by lightning, and a star such as our own sun.• As a gas is heated, electrons begin to leave the atoms, resulting in the presence of free electrons, which are not bound to nuclei, and ions, which are chemical species that contain unequal number of electrons and protons, and therefore possess an electrical charge. The free electric charges make the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. At very high temperatures, such as those present in stars, it is assumed that essentially all electrons are "free," and that a very high-energy plasma is essentially bare nuclei swimming in a sea of electrons. Plasma is the most common state of non-dark matter in the universe.• A plasma can be considered as a gas of highly ionized particles, but the powerful interionic forces lead to distinctly different properties, so that it is usually considered as a different phase or state of matter.