NOT INTERESTED IN ICT?A CASE STUDY TO EXPLORE
HOW A MEANINGFUL M-LEARNINGACTIVITY FOSTERS
ENGAGEMENTAMONG OLDER USERS
Patr...
Outline
I. Introduction
II. State of the art
III. Case Study
IV. Results
V. Conclusions
Not Interested in ICT? A Case Stud...
Introduction
• M-learning + LBS  mostly used in formal educational contexts
• Lack of research understanding: M-learning ...
State of the Art
• Previous works (Boulos et al, 2011) exploring the use of geo-
positioning systems by older people have ...
State of the Art
• Adaptation of the UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance
and Use of Technology) model (Wang et al, 2009), ...
State of the art: QuesTInSitu
• The interaction context of the test had to be the city, a natural park...
Educational reso...
Case Study: Context
Educational context:
• Adult school that offers a variety of free courses supporting lifelong learning...
Case Study:
Research Question: how performance, effort expectancy, and
playfulness affect the participants’ m-learning acc...
Case Study: Activity
1. The QTIS questions were defined by the 20 participants in two co-design workshops
• Workshop 1:
Pa...
Case Study: activity in situ
Video: http://youtu.be/bBKvz9hYQ-k
Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meani...
Data gathering and analysis methods
• Qualitative approach combining: participatory observations and
conversations with pa...
Main Results
I - Progressive Engagement with the Technology
1. Participants initially refused to interact with the devices...
Main Results
II - Meaningfulness of the activities Supported by ICT
1. The increased acceptance of the technology was dire...
Main Results
III - Collaborative involvement
1. Collaborative involvement in the co-design of the context-aware m-
learnin...
Conclusions
 Participants’ performance and effort expectancy improved after doing the
activity.
 Participants found m-le...
Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a
Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement
Among Older Users
16
QUESTIONS?
THANK YOU!
Patricia Santos
Patricia.Santosrodriguez@uwe.ac.uk
LinkedIn: uk.linkedin.com/pub/patricia-santos-
ro...
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Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users

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Mobile devices are increasingly being used in lifelong learning. However, while older learners are active members of the lifelong learning system, little research has been aimed at understanding how m-learning can provide them with successful learning experiences. In this paper we address the question if m-learning can foster the acceptance and uptake of mobile technologies among a group of older people unfamiliar with ICT. Following a participatory design approach, 20 participants who were enrolled in a literature course created routes of geolocated questions about a fiction book they were reading and answered them in the real location using the QuesTInSitu application. Results indicate that their m-learning acceptance improved as their anxiety around use of technologies diminished. These findings question previous research in which use of mobile technologies tended to increase older users' anxiety and reduced their acceptance of technology. Participants described the experience as playful, enjoyable and useful.

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Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users

  1. 1. NOT INTERESTED IN ICT?A CASE STUDY TO EXPLORE HOW A MEANINGFUL M-LEARNINGACTIVITY FOSTERS ENGAGEMENTAMONG OLDER USERS Patricia Santos Mara Balestrini, Valeria Righi Josep Blat, Davinia Hernández-Leo ECTEL 2013 – Paphos, Cyprus
  2. 2. Outline I. Introduction II. State of the art III. Case Study IV. Results V. Conclusions Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 2
  3. 3. Introduction • M-learning + LBS  mostly used in formal educational contexts • Lack of research understanding: M-learning + Older Lifelong Learners How should context-aware m-learning be deployed to provide fruitful outcomes for older learners who are not familiar with ICT? 1) can m-learning in situ foster the acceptance of mobile technologies among older people initially not interested in ICT? 2) which strategies and combinations of tools can provide an engaging m-learning in situ experience? Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 3
  4. 4. State of the Art • Previous works (Boulos et al, 2011) exploring the use of geo- positioning systems by older people have mainly focused on e- health applications • Technology can be a source of stress among older users. However, if correctly introduced, it can be perceived as useful for improving their physical and mental health (Nycyk & Redsell, 2006) • ICT contributes to older adults’ well-being and sense of empowerment by affecting their interpersonal interactions, promoting their cognitive functioning and contributing to their experience of control and independence (Shapira et al, 2011) Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 4
  5. 5. State of the Art • Adaptation of the UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) model (Wang et al, 2009), experiment with 330 participants, concluded that: “performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived playfulness, and self-management of learning were all significant determinants of behavioral intention to use m-learning… age differences moderate the effects of effort expectancy and social influence on mlearning use intention” Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 5
  6. 6. State of the art: QuesTInSitu • The interaction context of the test had to be the city, a natural park... Educational resources (questions) have to be associated to real positions and distributed as a route in the physical environment “Assessment in situ” refers to a type of activity where the questions of a test have to be answered in front of a related real location (in situ) *. Geolocated QTI questions and tests (routes), can be created and learners answer the tests using a mobile device with GPS and 3G. * Santos, P., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Hernández-Leo, D. & Blat, J. (2011). QuesTInSitu: From tests to routes for assessment in situ activities. Computers & Education, 57 (4), 2517-2534. R Q1) Impact factor: 2.617 Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 6
  7. 7. Case Study: Context Educational context: • Adult school that offers a variety of free courses supporting lifelong learning. The center applies a dialogic approach empowers all the participants to have the same rights in decision making, collaboration and co-design. • 20 participants (60+ years old) who took part in the study were all enrolled in a Catalan literature course. There is no teacher or instructor in the course but rather a participant who volunteers to organize the discussion. • Main task: The book “La plaça del diamant” by Merçè Rodoreda was chosen , we asked them to come up with questions about specific facts in the story that were related to areas of the district of Gràcia in Barcelona. Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 7
  8. 8. Case Study: Research Question: how performance, effort expectancy, and playfulness affect the participants’ m-learning acceptance?  We propose that adopting a co-design process to create and perform the context-aware m-learning activity enhanced the m-learning acceptance among our participants and reduced their anxiety towards emerging and unfamiliar technologies Goals: 1. Design and realize an m-learning in situ activity that consisted of a route of geolocated questions based on the facts occurred in a novel that they had previously read in a dialogic literary gathering offered by the adult school. 2. Two groups of learners complete the route in situ by answering the questions Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 8
  9. 9. Case Study: Activity 1. The QTIS questions were defined by the 20 participants in two co-design workshops • Workshop 1: Participants voluntarily were divided in two groups. Each group think about questions for the other group. • Workshop 2: • Each group selects 10 questions and use iPads to decide the location of questions 2. 11 participants (divided in two groups) participated in the mLearning activity in situ by interacting with QuesTInSitu and smartphones Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 9
  10. 10. Case Study: activity in situ Video: http://youtu.be/bBKvz9hYQ-k Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 10
  11. 11. Data gathering and analysis methods • Qualitative approach combining: participatory observations and conversations with participants • Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) extracting the main themes from the data corpus  Three themes: i) Progressive engagement with device, ii) Meaningfulness of the activity, iii) Collaborative involvement Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 11 Activity Type of data Co-design workshops • Videos during the workshops (workshop 1 and workshop 2). • Fieldnotes of 3 researchers’ observations and conversations with participants during the activity Activity-in-situ • Videos during the QuesTInSitu route. • Fieldnotes of 4 researchers’ observations and conversations with participants during the activity • Questionnaire post activity Debriefing • Fieldnotes of 3 researchers’ observations and conversations with participants
  12. 12. Main Results I - Progressive Engagement with the Technology 1. Participants initially refused to interact with the devices (i.e. mobiles phone in the activity in-situ, iPad in the co-design workshop) suggesting that their performance and effort expectancy was negative. 2. When the mobile devices were entering in the activity in a natural way, participants were no longer disturbed by their presence. 3. Users were so engaged (playfulness) in the activity that they started to interact with the technology “naturally”. 4. Social influence is an important factor that has to be considered when engaging older learners in m-learning. Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 12
  13. 13. Main Results II - Meaningfulness of the activities Supported by ICT 1. The increased acceptance of the technology was directly related with the strong emotional involvement in the activity perceiving it as a playful educational experience. 2. The use of prompts & location information engages the participants to observe the physical space, improves their knowledge about the district visited and the association of the real world with the questions augments their point of view about the novel. 3. Participants reported that the context-aware m-learning activity allowed them to deepen their understanding of the story, and have a more realistic view of the scene. 4. Paper-map was a useful complementary instrument to have a global view of the district that they had to explore Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 13
  14. 14. Main Results III - Collaborative involvement 1. Collaborative involvement in the co-design of the context-aware m- learning activity encouraged participants’ engagement and fostered participants’ acceptance of m-learning and LBS 2. When participants become familiar with the m-learning activity, their outcome expectations–performance and self-efficacy improves and their anxiety is reduced. 3. Despite the fact that only one person in each group carried the smartphone, all the members of the team were engaged in the activity and collaborated in the tasks Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 14
  15. 15. Conclusions  Participants’ performance and effort expectancy improved after doing the activity.  Participants found m-learning useful and meaningful because it enabled them to accomplish learning activities putting in practice (in the real world) their knowledge by doing a playful activity.  The use of mobile devices and LBS allowed them to augment the knowledge that they previously had about the book.  The QuesTInSitu route mediated by smartphones was a successful activity since participants were immersed finding questions, answering them in the correct place and completing the routes. The scenario and findings discussed in this paper contribute to the limited existing body of knowledge around m-learning and older users. With further results, it will be possible to propose good practices for lifelong learning applying context-aware m-learning for older users. Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 15
  16. 16. Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users 16
  17. 17. QUESTIONS? THANK YOU! Patricia Santos Patricia.Santosrodriguez@uwe.ac.uk LinkedIn: uk.linkedin.com/pub/patricia-santos- rodriguez/54/207/a97/ GTI: http://gti.upf.edu Not Interested in ICT? A Case Study to Explore How a Meaningful m-Learning Activity Fosters Engagement Among Older Users Do you want to enjoy QuesTInSitu? Download the especial ‘Pafos demo’ !

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