Chinese language


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Una breve introducción a esta lengua Oriental tan importante hoy en día para el mundo de los negocios.

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Chinese language

  1. 1. Chinese Writing Chinese Language Giorgio D'Addezio
  2. 2. Origins of Writing in China <ul><li>Believed to have begun in 2 nd half of 2 nd millennium BC </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest examples of Chinese writing date to 1500-950 BC (Shang dynasty) </li></ul><ul><li>Inscribed on ox scapulae and turtle shells – “oracle bones” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Development of characters <ul><li>Oracle bones developed into Chinese characters which have gone through several phases </li></ul><ul><li>Presently there are 2 completely different sets of characters: non-simplified and simplified </li></ul>
  4. 4. Simplified Chinese Characters <ul><li>Adopted in the People's Republic of China in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Northern dialect of Mandarin </li></ul><ul><li>Known as báihùa (plain language) </li></ul><ul><li>Not all writers wanted to adopt the new style </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional characters are still used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and Malaysia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of traditional vs. simplified characters
  6. 6. Groups of Characters <ul><li>There have been many attempts to group characters for learning purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>4 groups of characters: </li></ul><ul><li>Pictographs </li></ul><ul><li>Ideographs </li></ul><ul><li>Compound pictograph/ideographs </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic-phonetic compounds </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pictographs <ul><li>Characters primarily came from picture drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>These were usually sketches of the most basic elements of the object </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pictographs
  9. 9. Ideographs <ul><li>Ideographs are visual representations of abstract ideas. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ideographs one two three above below middle
  11. 11. Compound Pictographs / Compound Ideographs <ul><li>Compound pictographs and ideographs combine one or more pictographs or ideographs to form new characters. Both component parts contribute to the meaning of the compound character. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Semantic-Phonetic Compound
  13. 13. Pinyin <ul><li>Pinyin is a way to represent characters and express sounds </li></ul><ul><li>in Chinese language using the Roman alphabet. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult consonant for western people: </li></ul><ul><li>q - Pronounciation between &quot;ch&quot; and &quot;ts&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>x - Pronounciation between &quot;sh&quot; and &quot;s&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>r - Pronounciation between “r&quot; and “j&quot; z - Sounds like &quot;dz&quot; zh - Sounds like &quot;dj&quot; </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tonal Language <ul><li>First tone: This is the highest tone you can pronounce in a simple and normal way. It is pronounced with a steady pitch. </li></ul><ul><li>Second tone: Rising pitch from low to high. </li></ul><ul><li>Third tone: First sinking pitch at the same time as the voice is lowered, followed by a rising pitch and stronger voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Forth tone: fast sinking pitch with a sharp end. Toneless: Relax in your mouth and let the tone fall where it is natural. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral Tone: Flat, with no emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>mā má </li></ul><ul><li>mǎ mà </li></ul><ul><li>ma </li></ul>
  15. 15. Stroke Order
  16. 16. General rules (many exceptions) <ul><li>Top before bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Left before right </li></ul><ul><li>Left vertical stroke (usually) before top horizontal stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom horizontal stroke last </li></ul><ul><li>Center stroke before wings </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal strokes before intersecting vertical strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Left-falling strokes before right-falling strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Minor strokes (often) last </li></ul>