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Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning science

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ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THE IMPACT OF
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) OF TEACHERS
 ...

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CERTIFICATION

      This thesis by Aminat Abdullahi has met the requirements for the

award of master of Education degree...

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DEDICATION

      This thesis is dedicated to Mrs. Habibat Onu Suleiman for her

financial, moral, continual and unrelenti...

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Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning science

  1. 1. TITLE PAGE ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THE IMPACT OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) OF TEACHERS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY TO LEARNING SCIENCE BY ABDULLAHI AMINAT NOU 060241125 MINNA STUDY CENTER BEING ORIGINAL PROJECT SUBMITTED TO SCHOOL OF EDUCATION NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, LAGOS, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCE EDUCATION JUNE 2010 1
  2. 2. CERTIFICATION This thesis by Aminat Abdullahi has met the requirements for the award of master of Education degree in science education of the National Open University of Nigeria, and is approved for its contribution to knowledge. …………………………. …………………………….. ………………. DR. D.I WUSHISHI SIGNATURE DATE (Supervisor) …………………………. …………………………….. ………………. DR. FRANCIS GANA SIGNATURE DATE (Centre Manager) …………………………. …………………………….. ………………. (External Examiner) SIGNATURE DATE …………………………. …………………………….. ………………. (HOD Science Education) SIGNATURE DATE 2
  3. 3. DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to Mrs. Habibat Onu Suleiman for her financial, moral, continual and unrelenting support. My Kids Fadilah, Safiya and Mustapha. The memory of my late mother Hauwa and Husband Bello Abdullahi. May Allah grant their souls al-jannatul firdaus. 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All praise and appreciation goes to Allah (S.W.T) who bestowed his protection, guidance and mercies on me, who also granted me patience, wisdom and knowledge in completing the thesis and studies in spite of all odds. This work has been successful through the immerse guidance, experience and expert supervision of Dr. D.I Wushishi of the department of Science education, Federal University of technology, for his assistance all through the processes of questionnaire designing and data analysis. During this processes, he had offered invaluable suggestions and criticisms, invaluable role of proof reading the thesis and providing necessary guidance, correction and very useful suggestions which saw the thesis through to completion. My profound gratitude goes to my ever supporting sister Hajaratu and her Husband, Moh‟d Suleiman for their overwhelming moral support. I will also say „thank You‟ to my dear Husband Mal Salihu Isah Lemu for his moral support which has rekindled my life. I am also indebted to Aisha Suleiman for her patience and assistance accorded to me during the process of data analysis. My indebtedness also goes to Aisha Mohammed a Colleague, a friend and confidant for her understanding throughout the period of my studies. My sincere gratitude goes to all the principals, H.O.D science and computer teachers and students of the schools visited for this study. „Thank you‟ to Fatima L. Yakubu C.B.N Abuja for her financial and moral support 4
  5. 5. accorded to me. I am most grateful to all my family members for the moral support given to me throughout the period of my studies. I am also grateful to all my colleagues and members of staff of ETF/CERC. Most especially Sala Emmanuel Yisa head of computer unit ETF for his patience, endurance and unrelenting assistance and guidance given to me in the laboratory when sourcing for data and Abdulkadir K. Ibrahim for being there for me anytime I needed his assistance. My appreciation also goes to Mr. Suleiman Agboola Head of ICT ERC Minna for his necessary correction and pain taken to see to the successful completion of the analysis. I am also indebted and grateful to my typist Emmanuel Chinedu Okonkwo of Federal University of Technology Minna. I will not fail to acknowledge my late brother Dr. Suleiman Danjuma Suleiman for his inspiration and encouragement to embark on this course may Allah grant him al-jannatul firdaus. My special gratitude goes to the entire members of staff of National Open University of Nigeria minna study centre for their encouragement most especially Mrs. S.A. Alao, the centre‟s manger Dr. Francis Gana and Ndagi. Alhamdullilah. 5
  6. 6. ABSTRACT This research is on the attitude of secondary school students on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication technology to learning science. Four schools were used for this study namely El-Amin International College, New Horizon College, Himma International College and Hill-Top Model School. Descriptive survey method using a questionnaire tagged “QICPDTICTASSSS” was used for data collection. It was validated by three experts and by pilot tested using test retest method. The reliability was calculated using the pearson product moment correlation coefficient and coefficient of relation (rxx) 0.89 was obtained. The results were calculated using simple distribution table, Anova and Scheffe‟s Test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software. The results obtained showed significant differences in the attitude of students to the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication technology to learning of science. It was recommended that teacher training and professional development oriented policies should be made by government to support ICT related teaching models. 6
  7. 7. CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Technology has changed the way people live, work and learns. The use of technology in education is one of the main challenges for education policy makers (Zalzadeh, 2006). Traditional methods of education are no longer able to meet the needs of today‟s learner. New technologies provide opportunities, including the ability to tailor learning to the individual (Aminpoor, 2007). In view of the above statement, there is need for continuing education of teachers to meet these global challenges of technology to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, professional development have attracted increasing attention in recent years (Anna Craft,2000) faced with rapid change, demand for high standards calls for improving quality of teachers and the need to update and improve their skills through professional development. Recently, there are pressures at national and school levels of professionalism in information and communication technology. These arise from the demand for increased quality and the need to implement the national curriculum. The interest in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is hardly surprising given the worldwide impact ICT is having on many aspect of modern life especially in the field of education. Harnessing the power of ICT to support education is a major challenge, for not only is the technology 7
  8. 8. itself changing very rapidly, but education systems are culturally bound. Fullan (1991) highlighted the possibilities of bringing about changes in education through a deliberate process. In many parts of the world, several initiatives appear to have had little impact, despite significant investment in the expectation that it will improve the quality of teaching and learning thereby having positive effect on the student attitude. It is now widely accepted that effective use of ICT cannot be merely introducing teachers to the technology. Harland and Kinder (1997) suggests the need for professional development initiative to bring about planned change. The rapid development of ICT and having easy access to information through the e-mail and internet is one that is inextricably linked with modern education. As ICT is a resource to learning, science is primarily about methods of doing science and not ICT but students should learn how to develop scientific skills and learn about its role, function, application, preservation and processing using the ICT. The science teacher is not an ICT specialist and is not expected to teach ICT as his specialism. However, like every other teacher, they are required to support student‟s use of ICT within their subject. The more confident and competent the science teacher is with the ICT, the more likely he will be able to incorporate the latest, most up-to-date and accurate resource s of ICT into his teaching. Godfrey (2001) states that to become confident, critical and creative user of ICT, 8
  9. 9. Teachers must have access to professional development programs that enables them to have multiple skills, both in the use of technology and in task design (p.16). Therefore teachers need not only the ICT skills but also the models of the best practice and knowledge to support learning. They need to understand the rationale for integrating ICT into learning environments and interpreting curriculum documents to make decisions about designing, delivering, managing and evaluating instruction. Jegede (2004) p.66 says, continuing professional development must be created to re-skill the potential teacher, re-motivate the interested teacher, retain the dedicated teacher and retain the practicing teacher. It is a known fact that computer which is the major tool used in ICT especially in the classroom depends on the attitude towards computers {Lawton and Gerschner, 1982). Several studies states that teachers attitude, knowledge and skills in using computers are major factors affecting their initial acceptance of computer technology and their future behavior regarding computer usage (violato, mariniz and Hunter, 1989; koohang, 1989). Office of technology assessment of the united states congress (OTA) states that a number of teachers with access to computers purposely avoid integrating technology into their instruction because of their lack of training, while Bulkeley commented that few teachers publicly criticize computer for fear of appearing technologically backwards, but many ignore the machines 9
  10. 10. after one or more frustrating experiences. These fast growing use of new technologies in schools means that modes of professional learning are opening for the teachers to equip themselves with all the knowledge and technical no-how {application} needed to carry out this operation. The use of these computers without providing teachers with professional development time to learn equipment operations and application will eventually make the teacher to be scape goat. Several studies have been carried out on the assessment of attitude of students towards computer and it was found that students who received computer training were found to have a better understanding in the computer assisted teaching than the students who have not received any computer training. However, Johnson and Rising (1972) reported that computer programming helps students to learn how to solve problems systematically, carefully and in details, and helps to transfer acquired skills to other similar situation. They further explained that computer helps students to develop positive attitude, desirable interest and appreciation. Hoyle, (1983) said, the introduction of ICT into the educational system has been hailed as a major catalyst of the long dreamed about educational revolution, especially as ICT is designed to serve as a major vehicle for improving the efficiency of the educational process ( Jones and Knezek, 1993). Offir-et-al. (1994) described the historical development of ICT use in the educational process and indicated that 10
  11. 11. since the introduction of ICT, the traditional open courseware continuum succinctly and accurately depicts the progress made in the use of ICT for learning and instruction. The traditional open continuum provides an insight as to how ICT approaches evolved and developed as educational media since the early 1960s. Offir et al (1993) reported that in the early days of ICT use in the school classroom, traditional computer assisted instruction (CAI) based on rigid and „closed‟ drill and practice, was the dominant ICT approach. When poignant questions were raised regarding the relative advantages and effectiveness of drill and practice over more traditional and instruction approaches, more flexible and open learning and instruction program were developed and introduced into educational system. The use of spreadsheet (Dreyfus et al, 1997) contributes to the enhancement of learner independence and creativity, and provides students with sophisticated graphical assistance that promotes the understanding of complicated subject matter. According to (Appelberg, 1997) database provides students with the opportunity of enriching their knowledge and comprehension of subject matter by facilitating the ability to conduct comprehensive searches for sources hitherto available only in libraries and museums. However, the introduction of the use of spreadsheets and databases in the educational process contributed to the promotion of improved learning and instruction and increased effectiveness in the educational process. 11
  12. 12. Simulations which is sophisticated, progressive and improved form of ICT are equally used as learning instruction. (Offir and katz, 1994),said, through simulations teachers are able to provide their students with realistic models of subject matter as experienced in real life situations thereby facilitating students understanding and mastery. Thus, simulations enhances ICT mediated learning by providing an added dimension that closes the gap between theoretical subject matter and the application of knowledge to real life situations. However, the steady evolution of ICT (radio, television, interactive video, electronic mail, World Wide Web) has considerably influenced the development of learning (Jones and Knezek, 1995). Passing and Levin (2000) provided an in-depth analysis of multimedia packages and stated that when using multimedia approaches in learning the student does not only study the subject matter but also learn how to deal with the synthetically programmed environment. The ease of use and the uniformity of the multimedia interface have significant implications for both teacher and student, since they provide a platform for a higher level of motivation, concentration and understanding of the content being studied. Multimedia of educational packages attempt to provide a clear consistent and attractive ICT platform, which contributes towards the ability of teachers and students to reach excellence through user friendly instruction and learning approaches. 12
  13. 13. ICT use in education can be described as a major breakthrough for teaching, learning and instruction. In a series of studies, a number of researchers (Chandra et al, 1988; Karz and Offir, 1991; Offir and Karz, 1990) as well as numerous others, testified to the existence of psychological attitudes held by elementary and secondary school teachers towards the use of ICT as an instructional approach. Research studies have established that psychological attitudes such as independence, creativity, tough-mindedness, sociability, risk taking, stimulus and sensation seeking are key attitudes connected with effective ICT use. Similar situations have been found with elementary and secondary school (Dunn and Ridgway, 1991; Katz, 1993; Katz, 1995; Karz and Offir, 1990). Students who held attitudes such as positive self-image, positive social-image, independence in learning process, self-confidence in the learning, satisfaction with learning internal locus of control, level of control of learning, creativity and motivation for study were significantly more positive towards the use of ICT than students who are not typified by the same traits.The use of technology (ICT) to teach students in the classroom challenges the students in learning to think, interact and solve problems, learn how to learn with the aid of technology. Using ICT equally challenges the students to use higher level thinking skills and become active seekers rather than passive receivers of information.Using ICT enhances 13
  14. 14. student‟s collaborative construction of meaning via different perspective on shared experiences (Chan, Burtis and Bereiter, 1997). ICT enables students to utilize modeling and visualization as powerful means of bridging between experience and abstraction (Gordin and Pea, 1995). Dertouzes and Gates (1998) reported that in developed countries, computers and telecommunications are on the verge of reshaping the mission, objectives, content and processes of schooling. This is the part of a larger change in those nations from loosely, coupled, mature industrial economies to a profoundly interconnected, knowledge based global market (Thurow, 1999). Since one of the educational goal is to prepare students for work and citizenship the introduction of ICT in schools (primary and secondary) are attempting to change their policies, practices and curriculum to meet the challenge of making student ready for a future quite different than the immediate past. Furthermore, culminating ICT as a teaching aid encourages users to rely not only upon stored knowledge, but also on uniquely human reasoning and problem solving skills. Anita Cox remarks that this form of technology will become more widespread and visible in response to education‟s increasing need to prepare students for work in the information age. These challenges will in turn make the 14
  15. 15. students to realize the importance of life long learning and become motivated participants in the world and the workplace of the future. Computer assisted Instruction (CAI) programs are being used in schools as a supplement to traditional instruction. CAI is a spectrum of computer technologies that assist the teaching and learning process. Example of CAI applications include guided drills and practice exercises, computer visualization of complex objects and computer facilitated communication between students and teachers. Several programs are used for courses (chemistry, physics, geography, mathematics etc). These programs simulate the setting of laboratory apparatus and also guides the students through the steps required to complete the procedure (De la cuetara and Lamba, 1995). Some programs are equally used to increase the students understanding of specific topics. Such as Animal pathfinders that illustrates specific application of scientific method (Matray and Proulx, 1995). Computer assisted instruction (CAI) enhances the learning rate of students. The students learn faster with CAI than the conventional instruction. Capper and Copple (1985) stated that CAI users sometimes learn as much as 40% faster than those receiving the teacher directed instruction. Using ICT in the teaching and learning indicates that self esteem is enhanced and improves behavior. It equally assists in exploring new opportunities for improving classroom 15
  16. 16. practice. It makes lessons more stimulating, enjoyable, interactive and gives room for appropriate selection of technologies. Students have a positive attitude to learning as they retain their learning better [Bialo and Sivin 1990;Maverech and Rich 1985; Robertson,et al.1987,Rupe 1986]. Evarest .C. (2004) stated the following impact that ICT has on the students 1. With online teaching /learning, students can work independently with customized instruction and at his/her own place. 2. It increases the student‟s independence and motivation for self directed study. 3. It increases the student‟s commitment to the learning risk. 4. It assists in exploring new opportunities for improving class room practice. Other potential benefits of ICT (using CAI) includes: 1. It also makes students to have more of internal locus of control or sense of self efficiency.(Capper and Copper 1985,kinnaman 1990 and Lovie1985). 2. Students have better attendance. Capper and copper, rupees 1986 and 1990 ISTE. 3. Students have higher rate of motivation or time on task (Bialo and Sivin, 1990; Capper and Copper 1985). 16
  17. 17. 4. Students exhibit higher rate of cooperation or collaboration and presocial behavior (Dickson, 1986,Maverech, Stern and Levita, 1987; and Rupe, 1986). Having seen the relevance of ICT in education, there is need for continuing development of teachers to meet this enormous task of technology. However, it has argued for creating a collaborative professional learning environment for successful school improvement and the first order of business for those seeking to enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning (Eastwood and Louis, 1992:215).The department for education and employment (DfEE, 2001) in their professional strategy suggests that effective professional learning should be focused on classroom practice, collaborative learning together, learning from the best and learning from what works. By so doing, an ultimate change in practice will be achieved. Education of teachers both at pre-service and in-service through professional learning is recognized as being the major catalyst for change (Finger, Russell, Jamieson-Procter and Russell, 2006). Teacher on continuous training of ICT will build more confidence, competence and develop appropriate skills in handling curriculum. The Research on teacher‟s education has consistently stressed the need to regularly provide opportunities for teachers to improve their knowledge of the subject matter they teach and the teaching skills they learned in the pre-service courses they attended. Recent 17
  18. 18. research conducted by Tee Kay educational consultancy services done on behalf of Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), NCCE, National Teachers Institute (NTI), Teachers Registration Council (TRC) and world Bank revealed that their exist wide or major gaps in the present NCE and degree curricular in the following areas; computer education, small scale research technique, health and environmental studies, resource management, skills for teaching multigrade classes, National curriculum modules and sexuality education. These gaps have urgent implication for pre-service training. For those already trained needs to be followed up with in-service continuing professional development programme to correct the deficiencies and broaden their horizon. Fitzallen and Brown (2006) carried out a research on the factors that impact on successful teacher implementation of professional learning while incorporating the Schulman‟s essential teacher knowledge (1982 a,b) which Identifies three interconnecting categories. a. Teacher knowledge (including knowledge of; content and curriculum, teacher characteristic, ICT content, application of ICT in context). b. Teacher dispositions (confidence, previous success, engagement in reflection. c. External factors (background, professional learning, time and access). until these interlinking contents are considered the full promise of digital content may not be realized. Professional learning is insufficient 18
  19. 19. in itself for the adoption of ICT into teaching and professional practice, teacher belief, confidence and expertise (Jamieson- proctor and Finger, 2006; Phelps, Graham and Kerr, 2004; Albion, 1999). Having access to appropriate equipment and infrastructure have been identified to be an added advantage (Norris and Soloway, 2000). With the present pace of dispensational development, ICT is said to be a vital tool which teachers, students and lecturers must equip themselves with, if they must move with the trend of global awareness to enhance their teaching skills and improve their learning abilities. Just as computer has played vital roles in many aspect of life such as transportation, communication, national defense, material production and scientific research, it has also become the fastest reliable way of communication between teachers and students in our education today. Using computers as an aided instruction is the best way and the fastest object of instruction in today‟s world. Computers also serve as a medium of teaching and learning methods to students thereby bringing the close understanding between the two. Madu (2002) reported that there is an increasing awareness of the potentials for the use of ICT in education and the information technologies are tools used to produce, store, process, disseminate; and exchange information. The need for continuing professional development (CPD) has the following advantages 19
  20. 20. 1. To improve the job performance skills of the whole staff or group of staffs 2. To improve the job performance skills of an individual teacher. 3. To extend the experience of an individual teacher for career development or promotion. 4. To develop the professional knowledge and understanding of an individual teacher. 5. To enable teachers to anticipate and prepare for change (Anna Crafts, 2000). 6. CPD may enable practitioners to widen their understanding of society, especially information and communication technology (Bland ford, 2000). A lot of these training have been offered to Nigerian teachers through workshops, seminars and conferences in ICT appreciation and programming. This raises the need to assess the impact of CPD of teachers on ICT Minna metropolis. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Education is generally acknowledged as one of the crucial allies of the development process. Therefore educational policy makers and social planners, in recognition of it‟s potentials for leveraging existing social stratifications have placed a huge premium on the development of the education sector. This is reflected in the emphatic resonance in the National Policy on education (NPE, 2004) that „no nation can rise 20
  21. 21. above the quality of its education systems‟. Based on this evident truth, the national policy formulators recommend, as a priority, the training of those responsible for faciliting the education of Nigerians in the development planning process. On this, the National policy on education unequivocally focuses attention to all aspects of education planning, because of its teachers. This view was crystallized by lassa (2000) and the roles that they play in the educative process to (basic) education, particularly in third world countries. However, the challenge of teacher training appears to be the most daunting challenge facing the education system in general. Researchers have observed that out of all the educational problems that beset the African continent today, none is as persistent or compelling as the one relating to the training of competent teachers who directly and indirectly is bound to influence the quality and quantity of services provided by other teachers and professors, as poor teachers tend to produce their own kind (Fafunwa 1967; Afe, 1999) in Afe 2000). As new technologies transform classroom and laboratories, academics will have to learn, change or improve their teaching styles and every body will need some necessary ICT skills regardless of their interest or their employment. Tools that incorporate ICT will undertake many specialist tasks, learning to perform these task and using the tools will be part of education. 21
  22. 22. In Nigeria, teachers have been trained in several for a in ICT teaching and learning especially in programmes organized by UNESCO and UNICEF and government also occasionally organizes ICT training for teachers of primary and secondary schools. As a result of these, this study attempts to investigate the impact of continuing professional development of teachers on the attitude of secondary school students to learning science. It will also investigate the difference between senior secondary school (SSS)1, SSS 2 and SSS 3 students attitude on the impact of CPD of teachers in ICT to learning science. It will also do the same on variables such as age groups and male and female students. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main purpose of the study is to find out the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication technology (computers) on secondary school student‟s attitude to learning science. Specifically, this research is designed to Investigate the difference between the impact of continuing professional development of teachers on student‟s attitude to learning science in relation to variables such as class level, age of students and gender of students. 22
  23. 23. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the attitude of secondary school students on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science? 2. What are the differences between SSS1, SSS2 and SSS3 student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science? 3. Are there differences between student‟s age groups (13-15years and 16-18years) attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science? 4. What would be the difference between male and female student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science? 1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Ho.1 There is no significant difference between SSS1, SSS2 and SSS3 student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science. 23
  24. 24. Ho.2 There is no significant difference between students age groups(13-15years and 16-18years) attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science Ho.3 There is no significant difference between male and female student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study would benefit the Federal ministry of Education, National Teachers institute (NTI), National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), Nigeria University commission (NUC), proprietors of private schools, principals, teachers, lecturers, students and users of information and communication technology facilities to designed appropriate curricular materials for teaching and learning of science by the use of ICT. This study will be a guide to curriculum developers of science to develop and integrate ICT in to learning and interpreting curriculum documents to make decisions about designing, delivering, managing and evaluating instruction. Through continuing professional development, teachers will also benefit in getting new and better ways 24
  25. 25. of improving their methods and techniques of teaching. Students will not only learn how to use computers, but effectively use it through the internet to learn outside the class and beyond the given syllabus. They will be able to access the web ICT for course information, such as course outline, objectives, information about assessment and note for the subject. This study will serve as a yardstick for Federal Government, National Teachers Institute (NTI), National Board for Technical education (NBTE), and Universal Basic Education (UBE) to evaluate the achievement of the set national educational objectives. 1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY This study will cover all the students in secondary schools in Minna metropolis but specifically restricted to students from Himma, New Horizon College, El-Amin International Schools and Hill-Top Model Schools Minna. This is because the schools have computer laboratories and have teachers that went on CPD in ICT. 1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There are limited literature about CPD of teachers in Nigeria, so it limits the scope of generalization of the findings of this study. Samples are drawn mostly from among private secondary school students in Minna Niger State, because most of the public schools have no computers and their teachers have received limited or no CPD on ICT. . 25
  26. 26. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION The importance of continuing professional development (CPD) cannot be over –emphasized, especially in field as vital as education. Only by continually arming oneself with the latest research techniques and knowledge in the profession can one hope to stay effective in one‟s career. Any training programme is thus concerned with improved ways of doing things of carrying out various activities in a professional manner. The contribution of the ICT can be very useful tool for the development of skills on it provides effective training programme which can be attributed to its capacity for stimulation, model-building and interactive adaptation. This usage applies not only to subjects like sciences but also to various aspects of professional courses like engineering and teacher training. The concept of life long education is associated with a learning society, in the contemporary society; the end of formal education does not mean the end of one‟s learning. The University of Wisconsin –Madison in 1907 was the first academic institution in the united state to offer an identifiable continuing education program (schugurensky, Daniel (1907). In 1969, Empire state college, a unit of the state university of New York, was also the 26
  27. 27. first institution in the united state to exclusively focus on providing higher education to adult learners. While in 1976, the University of Florida created its own division of continuing Education and most courses were offered on evenings or weekends to accommodate the schedule of working student‟s .Hopkins, Ainscow and west, 1994; southworth 1994; Sammons, Hillman and mortimore, 1995; Green, 1999) reported that learning is a worth while process and not a static or bounded process, however learning of education professionals throughout ones career is essential. These researchers, commentators and policy makers equally explained that teacher‟s development to raising of pupils standards of achievement is a central policy. Generally, continuing professional development is acknowledged to be centrally important in maintaining and enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in schools (craft 2000, Harland and Kinder 1997, Harri 2002). The International research literature has consistently shown that professional development is an essential component of successful school level change and development (day, 1999b, Hargreaves 1994).It has confirmed that where teachers are able to access new ideas and to share experiences more readily, there are greater potentials for schools and classroom improvement .Improving schools, invest in the development of staff and create opportunities for teachers to collaborate and to share best practice. Evidence also suggests that attention to teacher learning can impact directly upon 27
  28. 28. improvements in student learning and achievement. Teachers expand and develop their own teaching repertoires and are clear in their purposes, it is more likely that they will provide an increased range of learning opportunities for students (Joyce et al,1999). The research literature demonstrate that professional development can have a positive impact on curriculum, pedagogy as well as teachers sense of commitment and their relationship with students (Talbert and McLaughlin 1994). Several and resent research has reiterated that quality of professional interaction, focus on staff development and the relentless pursuit of improved teaching and learning are the characteristic of successful school improvement ( Gray 2000; Harris 2000; Maden and Hillman J. 1996; OFSTED 2000). However, it also acknowledges the importance‟s of teachers engaging in continuing career long development that will meet their own personal and professional needs. These needs will vary according to circumstances, personal and professional histories and current dispositions. Matching appropriate professional needs of the teacher and the selected activity is critically important in ensuring that there is a positive impact at the school and classroom level, where staff development improvement is paramount (DfEE,P3) and offers a number of new initiatives to achieve particular important goal. The richer mix of professional development opportunities will allow teachers to focus upon their own learning, 28
  29. 29. career and promotion ambitions and to consider new responsibilities within their own school content. This will lead to an improved and enhanced sense of professionalism for teachers, plus an increased motivation to stay within the profession. 2.1 DEFINITION OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) Debates around CPD have been numerous in recent years. Much of the recent debate regarding CPD has been concerned with who and what is being develop, by whom and most importantly, in whose interest (Nofke, 1997, p.334). Wikipedia defines CPD as the skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career advancement. It encompasses all types of facilitated learning opportunities, ranging from college degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities in practice. Analytic quality Glossary defines CPD as the study (that may accumulate to whole programmes with awards) designed to upgrade knowledge and skills of practitioners in the profession, while higher education funding council for England (HEFCE, 2003), sees CPD as a range of short and long training programmes, some of which have an option of accreditation, which foster the development of employment related knowledge, skills and understanding. Northeast Texas Network consortium (NTNC, 2007), defines professional development as courses offered to improve knowledge and skills in a specific 29
  30. 30. professional area, such as professional certification programs. Usually not offered for academic credit. David Hargreaves (1998), refined his definition about the nature of CPD exploring the need for better professional knowledge which a transition towards a knowledge society requires. He argues that knowledge transmission in the past has failed partly because University-based researchers were not very successful in either knowledge creation or dissemination. He argues further that new knowledge transmission models are required which involves a radical reconceptualization of knowledge creation and its dissemination in education, and the consequent restructuring that is necessary to support it (p.1). To these new models, for Hargreaves is the knowledge creating school. This would involve schools conducting a knowledge audit, managing the processes of creating new professional knowledge, validating the knowledge creating and disseminating the created knowledge (p.2). The support and co- ordination of schools and networks of school engaged in this new form of knowledge creation and dissemination would require a rethinking of the nature and role of CPD. Welsh (2002) endorses that collaborative professional development which could bridge research, policy and power at the same time recognizing the potential for element of political conflict inherent in restructuring teacher and school development. Similarly, Barber (1996) 30
  31. 31. argues that professional development should not be founded on „narrowly conceived idea about in-service education for teachers but the idea of the teacher as a life long learner who is a member of a research- based profession. It has been suggested that continual development is a relatively straight forward concept to accept. But, the term „professional‟ is much more problematic (Bolam, p.280). Bolam suggests that professional development is the process by which teachers learn, enhance and use appropriate skills and knowledge and the essence of such profession development for educators would presumably be, therefore the learning of an independent, evidence- informed and constructively critical approach to practice within a Public framework of professional values and accountability, which are also open to critical scrutiny. (Bolam, 2000, p.272). In the current climate of professional issues in teacher‟s live, relating to teacher workload, shortage and retention, it has been argued that the focus of CPD should both be more structured and more teacher-led, offering opportunities not just to minorities but to all irrespective of factors such as geographical constraints and the size of the school. Carol Adams, Chief Executive of the general Teachers council (GTC) voiced her concerns, she said her biggest worry was about how to ensure we have a proper, structured programme and avoid lots of little pilots with only short term horizons and limited impact (quoted in cordingley, 2001, p.82). 31
  32. 32. CPD is seen as part of the career development of all professionals which is a shared responsibility with their employers because it serves the interest of both. Day, (1999) says, professional development consists of all natural learning experiences and those conscious and planned activities which are intended to be of direct or indirect benefit to the individual, group or school which constitute through these, to the quality of education in the classroom. It is a process by which, alone and with others, teachers review, renew and extend their commitment as change agents to the moral purposes of teaching; and by which they acquire and develop critically the knowledge, skills and emotional intelligence essential to good professional thinking, planning and practice with children young people and colleagues throughout each phase of their teaching lives (Day, 1996. b.). In February 2000, the government published its consultation document on professional development (Green paper, DfEE, 2001). The document argues that good professional development requires time to reflect and set objectives, recognition and commitment, opportunity, particularly for work based learning. The documents equally argued that professional development reflect three perspectives; Individual teacher‟s needs and aspirations, the need of the school and national strategic priorities. In a study conducted by National Foundation for educational Research CPD. Teachers perspective (2000), stated that CPD is mostly needed in the development of knowledge in the teachers own subject area; the 32
  33. 33. use of ICT and the internet in the curriculum; assessment; support for pupils with special educational needs and leadership skills. Gatewood and Conrad (1997) also explained at another workshop held at implementing technology in the school curriculum that teachers‟ training is essential for computers to be effective teaching tool. They reported that training opportunities enable teachers to build skills and confidence and learn strategies to integrate computers into their curriculum. Epstein (1993), identified four critical components of training, practical experience, workshops, models and mentors and supervisory follow-up. 2.2 IMPORTANCE OF CPD CPD are undertaken by teachers beyond the point of initial training. The following are the resource for undertaking professional development. 1. To improve the job performance skills of the whole staff or group of staff. 2. To improve the job performance skills of an individual teacher. 3. To extend the experience of an individual teacher for career development or promotion. 4. To develop the professional knowledge and understanding of an individual teacher. 5. To extend the personal or general education of an individual. 33
  34. 34. 6. To make staff feel value. 7. To promote job satisfaction. 8. To develop an enhanced view of job. 9. To enable teachers to anticipate and prepare for change. 10. To clarify the whole or department policy ultimately all teachers development will have as one of its aims the improvement of pupils learning. Blancd Ford (2000) emphasizes that professional development enable practitioners to widen their understanding of society in particularly of ICT. 2.3 THE CONCEPT OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT The concept of CPD is often left ill-defined, being in many cases conflated with related concepts of in-service training and on the Job learning. Both are more limited to CPD, as CPD encompasses a wide variety of approaches and teaching and learning styles in a variety of setting (inside or outside of the workplace) it is distinguishable from the broader concept of learning. It is primarily related to people‟s professional identities and roles and the goals of the organization they are working for (Galloway, 2000). 34
  35. 35. The concept of lifelong education is based on post formal education and it assumes learners to adults or near adults who can mange their learning on their own. In a paper presented by Dr. Ahmed Modibbo Mohammed of NTI on creating opportunities for CPD, he said teacher‟s professional development has two main phases: Initial preparation and continuing professional development. He said initial teachers training takes the form of full time residential pre-service programmes in teachers colleges or universities. The initial training may also be available to serving unqualified teachers through distance education or out of school programmes during vacations or on release from schools for extended periods of time. The pedagogical or professional components of initial teacher training programmes can be either conservative or concurrent with academic subjects. However, initial teacher training has been criticized for its inadequacy in preparing students for teaching. Learning to teach is a process that requires continuing support and resources. Continuing professional development of teachers comes from various sources and in various forms; orienting teachers to curriculum or examination changes, upgrading qualification levels, donor- funded projects, professional teachers association in developing subject teaching e.g. STAN; sometimes teachers unions, school based improvement initiatives or individual teachers working to improve their qualifications, career 35
  36. 36. prospects or teaching skills. In our national situation where both qualified and unqualified teachers are employed in schools, pre- service and in-service education may go on simultaneously. Therefore, structured and unstructured approaches of professional development of teachers should be employed. 2.4 RATIONALE FOR CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS The pace at which new knowledge is being generated and old knowledge is becoming outdated, demands that an individual should continue to learn throughout one‟s life. ICT can be very effective for facilitating lifelong education, both an tutor and as a tool. The teacher is increasingly becoming an important factor in the educative process. According to Sprinthall, Reiman and sprint (1999:666), there is no such thing as a teacher-proof curriculum. They pointed to the massive failure of national curriculum projects of the 1960‟s with the attendant “failed ideas, unused curriculum guide, and tarnished hopes. By implication, teacher‟s characteristics, attitudes, conception of self and intellectual and interpersonal dispositions in large measure determine both the explicit and the hidden agenda of the classroom. The formal curriculum is represented by the materials, lesson plan and objectives, but the informal agenda is the atmosphere 36
  37. 37. or climate in the classroom as indicated by important teacher characteristic. The society expects great deal from their educational systems. New goals are being continuously set such as life long learning, life skills education, and competency in the use of ICT etc. As key agents in these changes, teachers face high expectations, new roles which they can get through CPD. One of the key elements of teacher quality, is the provision of adequate opportunities for personal growth and professional development. Research on teacher‟s education has consistently stressed the need to regularly provide opportunities for teachers to improve their knowledge of the subject matter they teach and the teaching skills the learned in the pre-service courses they attended. This is based on the recognition of the fact that we live in a rapidly changing world such that whatever knowledge and skills teachers acquired in their pre-service training becomes stale very fast as new challenges and realities emerge in the socio-economic and political environments. 2.5 MODEL OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Various model for teacher professional developments have emerged. Most CPD models and practices emphasize formal CPD programmes and activities. Spark, D and Loucks-Horsley, S (1989, fall) says there are five models of staff development for teachers (Journal of staff 37
  38. 38. development, 10(4), 40-57). Sparks and Loucks-Horsley (1989) who are influential researchers suggests five models that are useful for accomplishing the goals of staff development. These models includes a. Individually Guided Development b. Observation and Assessment c. Involvement in a Development or improvement process. d. Training e. Inquiry In Nigeria, three commonly used models are workshop models, school-based teacher professional support and in-service training of teachers (INSET). The workshop model is the commonest form of CPD in Nigeria. It entails drawing participants out of their school to a venue where they are exposed by experts to a core of information and skills. The workshop may be short or long term. The nature of skills and processes to be acquired also vary. The school-based teacher professional support and mentoring is a recent alternative for in-service training of teachers. Pupils, teachers, supervisors and facilitators are involved collaboratively in carrying out a series of classroom/school-based activities that will help the teacher to improve. The teachers get professional support from facilitators and supervisors who serve as mentors. Activities may include direct 38
  39. 39. classroom support by the facilitators and supervisors, staff meeting within the school and involving head teachers and the participating teachers, demonstration lessons by teacher educators (mentors); visit to the school by mentors etc. Erant, (1994) suggest that any framework for promoting and facilitating professional learning should take into account the following; 1. An appropriate combination of learning settings (on the Job, near the Job, home, library, course). 2. For study consultation and reflection. 3. Availability of suitable learning resources. 4. People who are prepared (i.e. both willing and able) to give appropriate support. 5. The learners own capacity to learn and take advantage of the opportunities available. In-service training of teachers (INSET) has relied upon teachers participating in courses delivered by external providers either at the school or at dedicated training centers. 39
  40. 40. 2.6 EFFECTIVE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPPMENT A key factor of ensuring effective CPD is matching appropriate professional development provision to particular professional needs. This „fit‟ between the developmental needs of the teacher and the selected activity, is critically important in ensuring that there is a positive impact at the school and classroom level (Hopkins and Harris, 2001). Where staff development are poorly conceptualized, insensitive to the concern of individual participants and make little effort to relate learning experiences to workplace conditions, they make little impact upon teachers or pupils(Day,1999). There have been claims that CPD needs to be linked to both individual and organizational goals, if both individual and organization change are to be achieved (Jones and Fear, 1994). 2.7 FORMS OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Continuing professional opportunities ranges from a single workshop to a semester long academic course, to service offered by a medley of different professional development providers and varying widely with respect to philosophy, content and format of the learning experiences (Goggle). Other forms of CPD includes on the Job, in- house activities, work shadowing or secondment (Michael Fullan). Some examples of approaches to professional development includes:- 40
  41. 41. 1. CASE STUDY METHOD: - The case method is a teaching approach that consists in presenting the students with a case, putting them in the role of a decision maker facing a problem (Hammond, 1976). 2. CONSULTATION: - To assist an individual or group of individuals to clarify and address immediate concerns by following a systematic problem solving process. 3. COACHING: - To enhance a person‟s competencies in a specific skill area by providing a process of observation, reflection and action. Flaherty (1999) presents coaching as a way of working with people that leaves more competent and more fulfilled, so that they are more able to contribute to their organizations. He described the product of coaching as  Long term excellent performance.  Self correction.  Self generation. 4. LESSON STUDY: - To solve practical dilemmas related to intervention or instruction through participation with other professionals in systematically examining practice. 5. MENTORING: - To promote an individual‟s awareness and refinement of his or her own professional development by providing and recommending structured opportunities for reflection and observation. 41
  42. 42. 6. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE: - To assist individuals and their organization to improve by offering resources and information, supporting networking and change effort. 7. RELECTIVE SUPERVISION: - To support, develop and ultimately evaluate the performance of employees through a process of inquiry that encourages their understanding and articulation of their rationale for their own practices. In united State of America, many American State have professional development requirement for school teachers. Arkansas teachers must complete 60 hours of documented professional development activities annually. Teachers in Idiana are required to earn 90 continuing renewal units (CRUs) per year. In Massachusetts, teachers need 150 professional development points (PDPs) and in Georgia 10 professional learning units (PLUs) (Wikipedia). In Singapore, every teacher is required to submit himself/herself to 100 hours of re-training every year. In Scotland, every Thursday during term time, teachers have an opportunity to take part in some live on line CPD in part of the glowing Thursday programme. 2.8 CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. From time immemorial, the training of teachers has been an issue of concern to researchers and lay members of society alike. Fafunwa (1974) argued that teacher education continues to be the key to 42
  43. 43. educational development, In Nigeria and else where, for without adequately trained teaching cadre, Nigeria cannot hope to expand her educational facilities. Till-date, the pre-service training and in-service professional development of Nigerian teachers has not reflected the attention and focus of these observers of our education system. Jegede (2002) observed that the teacher training system in Nigeria has failed to adhere to the provisions of the National policy on education that the teacher education shall continue to take cognizance of changes in methodology and in curriculum and that teachers shall be regularly exposed to innovations in their professions. But, Okebukola (2002) opined that in times past the teacher as well as his/her education did enjoy some pride of place….. But teacher education in Nigeria and indeed decades had been characterized by incessant instability, not unconnected with attempts by practitioners in the field to better their lot. Afemikhe (2004) quoting taiwo (2002) added that teacher education suffered some setbacks as greater emphasis was then laid on how to teach rather than on what to teach. However, it appears obvious that teachers need CPD and substantial research seem to have confirmed this, not much importance seem to be attached to continuing professional development of teachers in Nigeria. For most teachers, training ends as soon as they graduated 43
  44. 44. and no opportunities exist for updating their knowledge and skills by attending seminars, conferences, and workshops that will enhance their knowledge and skills and ultimately classroom practice (Ahmed Modibbo, 2006). 2.9 A MODEL OF ICT APPLICATION FOR TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA The pace at which new knowledge is being generated and old knowledge is becoming outdated, demands that an individual should continue to learn throughout one‟s life. Information and communications technologies can be very effective for facilitating lifelong education, both as a tutor and as a tool. The concept of lifelong education is based on post formal education and it assumes learns to be adults or near adults who can manage their learning on their own. However, teacher training process in Nigeria is regarded as the foundation of quality and relevance of education at all levels of the levels of the national educational system of the initial teacher training process and the CPD of Nigerian teachers is currently besortted by number of challenges. However, ICT is having a major impact across all curriculum areas most especially in science subjects, easy worldwide communication provides instant access to vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills (Fowowe, 2006). Rapid communication plus 44
  45. 45. increased access to ICTs in the home, at work and in educational establishment, learning becomes a truly lifelong activity- an activity in which the pace technological change forces constant evaluation of teaching process itself. 2.10 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY If students of today are to be prepared for the workplace of tomorrow, computers must become an integral part of the current curriculum of the school system. 2.10.1 DEFINITION OF COMPUTER A computer can be defined as an electronic device or contrivance that works under the control of stored instruction known as programs to speedily accept data, process the inputted data into meaningful information and then present its output in a well organized format predefined by the user. 2.10.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS Computers are grouped into various classes depending on the character they exhibit, the way they look or the way they are located. Classification of computers by type: -  Analogue Computers: Computers which does not compute directly with discrete values (digits), rather, it measures quantity 45
  46. 46. in continuous flow e.g. current, temperature, voltage. Examples of such computers are diagnosis, thermometer, analog watch.  Digital Computers: These computers cannot measure quantity in continuous flow. I.e. measures discrete values such as digit (0- 9), understands binary(0 or 1) letter of alphabets(a-z). Examples are calculators, desktop, laptop, gaming computers. Hybrid Computers: These computers have the features of the analog and digital computers. It can measure quantity in continuous flow as well as those in discrete values .e.g. the system used in the electricity reading is hybrid. 2.10.3 CLASSIFICATION BY SIZE/CAPACITY a. Mainframe Computers: these computers are bulky and stored in control rooms with air-conditioning accommodation. They are the largest form of computers. Examples IBM370, ICI 900. Mainly used in research institute. b. Mini Computers: These computers are smaller in size and can perform arithmetic and logic operational functions, can process task that do not require access to large masses of stored data. Examples are Vax series, PDP-8 etc. c. Micro Computes: these are the personal computers (Pc). They are the smallest form of computers and uses micro processor as 46
  47. 47. its central processing unit (CPU). Examples are the Desktop, Laptop, Notebook and palmtop. d. Super Computers: These are faster than mainframe and are designed for specialized application. E.g. monitoring and controlling space flights and weather forecasting. 2.10.4 CLASSIFICATION BY NATURE OF LOCATION Computers are also classified by the way they are located or located in other devices. In this class, are the embedded computers. Embedded Computers: Are computers that are located within other machines to make them act like computers e.g. Speedometer. 2.10.5 CLASSIFICATION BY GENERATION Computers passed through series and chains of development called computer generations. The computer generations are:- 1. First generation Computers 2. Second generation Computers 3. Third generation Computers 4. Fourth generation Computers 5. Fifth generation Computers 6. Sixth generation Computers 47
  48. 48. 2.10.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER The characteristics is that, it is a general purpose device which take input from output devices like mouse, keyboard, bar code reader etc. Some of these characteristics include 1. Speed- Computer works at very high speed. 2. Accuracy- Can do billions of calculation in a second without error. 3. Storage- Can store data permanently. 4. Versatility- Can do various type of job at a time without error. 5. Automation- It can run itself without human interaction. It is an automatic machine because once it start on a job they carry until job is finished. 6. Diligence- Unlike human being, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness and lack of communication. 7. Reliability 8. Convenience 9. Flexibility 10. Power of Remembering 11. Larger Storage 48
  49. 49. 12. No Feeling Wikipedia (2009). 2.10.7 COMPUTER SYSTEM The computer consists of vital components which are very essential for information processing. The component are divided into two main categories namely i. Hardware. ii. Software. HARDWARE includes all equipment or physical devices used in processing data and delivering information. It encompasses everything that is tangible. I.e. any part that can be seen, touched and felt. Hardware can belong to any unit such as the input unit (keyboard, mouse, scanner), output unit (monitor or console, printer, speaker), storage unit ( Hard disk, flash disk, Floppy disk, compact disk, Diskette, memory card) processing unit (Ram, Rom) and other peripheral parts such as power pack, plotter etc. SOFTWARE: - These are the invisible or intangible portions of the computer. A software is a set of instruction the computer programs that are used to command the computer. Computer software are divided into two categories i. System Software. 49
  50. 50. ii. Application Software. System Software is also referred to as operating system. This software provides routines needed to allow application software‟s to interact with the hardware. I.e. it interprets user‟s programme commands. This operating system is a collection of programme modules that act as interface between the computer hardware and the user. Application Software:- These are programmes created specifically to meet the user‟s need. The ones developed by the manufacturer are called Generalized Application Software, while the one developed by the user are called user program or user-define software. Examples of Generalized Applications packages are word processing software‟s, spreadsheet software, Graphics etc. Pelgrum and law (2003) state that near the end of the 1980s, the term computer was replaced by Information Technology (IT). Information Technology according to Ayo,(2001) is the use of computer system and telecommunication equipment in information handling. He identifies three basic component of information technology. These components include a. Electronic processing using the computer. b. Transmission of information using telecommunication equipment. 50
  51. 51. c. Dissemination of information in multimedia. Oketunji, (1999) quotes Marghalana M.A as being of the view that information technology encompasses the notion of application of technologies to information handling. This includes generation, storage, processing, retrieval, dissemination etc. However, Cole (1956) supplied a useful definition which was given by the Department of Trade and Industry in Britain, which states that information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numeric information by a micro-electronic based combination of computing and telecommunication. Some of the IT facilities are computers of various types, scanners, printers, servers, word processors, photocopiers etc and other devices for information acquisition and dissemination such as teleconferencing/video conferencing, Networks, tele-text, facsimile, internet, e-mail and voice mail etc. These signify a shift of focus from computer technology to the capacity to store and retrieve information. This was followed by the introduction of the term ICT (information and communication technology) around 1992, when e-mail started to become available to the general public (Pelgrum, w.J law N, 2003). Literature search revealed quite a number of studies globally on the impact of ICT on teaching, learning and other research activities. However, Itegboye (2002) describes ICT as the application of computers, telecommunication equipment to process, store, retrieve 51
  52. 52. and send information of all kinds. She added that information is power and technology is the bedrock of development of any nation. Adeya, (2002) describes ICT as electronic means of capturing, processing, storing and disseminating information. According to another definition by Adeya, 2002, ICTs are embedded in networks and services that affect the local and global accumulation and flowing of public and private knowledge. But according to united Nation report (1999) say that ICT covers internet services provision, telecommunication equipment and services, information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centres, commercial information providers, Network-based information services and other related information and communication activities. UNESCO (2002) studies on the stages of teaching and learning using ICT facilities, the report draw out some broad stages in the way student and teacher learn about and gain confidence in the use of ICT. These stages are discovering, learning how, understanding how and when, and specializing in the use of ICT tools. It described discovering stage as a link to the emerging approach in the ICT development, which the impact of teaching, learning and research using ICT has not been quantified and the implication is that technology is still not fully explored and hence no research in the classroom is been done. Learning how to use ICT tools, in this stage where learners and teachers begin to make use of ICT tools in different disciplines and this 52
  53. 53. is linked to the applying approach in the ICT development that in most development. This study therefore discovered that in most developing countries, tertiary institutions are generally at this stage, common application of ICT includes editorial work and internet. Actual research on how students learn and use ICT tools has just begun in most institutions. The third stage, understanding how and when to use ICT tools to achieve particular purposes. The ability to recognize situation where ICT will be helpful choosing the most appropriate tool for a particular task, and using these tools in combination to solve real problems. In study, an example was cited using Excel by students to plot graphs of statistical data generated from a classroom exercise. This stage is linked with infusing and transforming approaches in the ICT development. The last stage in the study is specializing in the use of ICT tools, here students study ICT as a subject to become professional as opposed to the general knowledge in the use of ICT where courses are supposed to be handled together with basic ICT tools associated with it. The above four stages are closely related and do provide a framework or a model for an ICT curriculum. Teachers expertise is finely tuned to the teaching and learning setting, what is flexing and responding to the introduction of digital technologies. They further lamented that integration of ICT with teaching and learning activities support knowledge building and consolidation and application to new contexts. Although ICT can be adapted to different needs, its 53
  54. 54. exploitation is limited by forceful constraints‟. These include resourcing, technical and classroom management issues. They concluded that success relies on exploiting dynamic visual representations as a reference point in order to exchange ideas, negotiate meanings, build knowledge, and restructure problems. A supportive classroom culture is characterized by structured activities and interactions which promote teachers insights into teachers thinking and vice versa. These incorporate proactive and responsive guidance that continually assesses and accommodates learners various and shifting needs. In concrete terms, ICT enhances teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive, flexible and engaging content. It provides real opportunities for individualized instruction. Further more, the application of ICT enhances and facilitates teachers pedagogical activities. For instance, e-learning is one most common means of using ICT to provide education to students both on and off campus by means of on-line teaching offered via web based system (Yusuf, 2005; Mutula, 2003). Abifarin, (2003) asserted that the Nigeria educational system cannot afford to ignore the potentials of ICT for its continued survival, because no other delivering model or medium can cope with demand for up-to-date information and ideas across the world. The up- to-date training facilities depend to a very large extent on the ability to harness ICT as a source of knowledge and man power development. 54
  55. 55. However, according to Finger, Russell, Jamieson Proctor and Russell, 2006, p.17) says without adequate infrastructure and technical support meaningful ICT learning experiences by students might not happen at all. Similarly, training and professional development for teacher in ICT use needs to be effective. 2.10.8 ELEMENTS OF ICT Hess, Leal (2001), reported that four elements of ICT are distinguished. a. Equipment or hardware: physical devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones. b. Content/data/information/subject matter: Thing to be learned and to be learned about. c. Connectivity: communication infrastructures which enable data/content to be passed between and shared by the users of hardware devices. d. Software which control and functions and operation of the hardware and communications and allow data/content to be manipulated by users of hardware devices. Software is increasingly built into (embedded in) hardware but may also be passed between devices (just as though it is data) and then used by them to allow new or better functionality. 55
  56. 56. This is of course a much simplified picture: for other purposes it is useful to distinguish many more separate categories. Educational software is any combination of content and software used for educational purposes. For each of the four categories, there is or maybe both a general and an application (education) specific subcategory, with overlaps between them of these categories, content is the most important, the rest are means of improving its effectiveness and delivering. ICT provides many different modes of and tools for information processing, including calculation, text/word processing, spreadsheets, Databases, graphics, animation, sound, communication (e-mail), dissemination, information retrieval and virtual reality. 2.10.9 USES OF COMPUTERS The use of computer and its application areas are a) E-Marketing: This can simply be defined as achieving marketing objectives through use of electronic communications technology. It involves moving elements of marketing strategies and activities to a computerized networked environment such as the internet. It is the strategic process of creating, distributing, promoting and pricing goods and services to a target market over the internet or through digital tools. b) E-Banking: Internet banking or online banking is a term used for performing transactions, payments etc over the internet through 56
  57. 57. a bank‟s secure website. Example is the automated money transfer (ATM). c) Health Service: The automatic monitoring of patient records, diagnosis and therapy administration has been made easy with the use of computers. The auto Doctors, magnetic resonance scanners and computerized axial tomography are inventions brought about by the use of computers. d) E-Business: Electronic business is conducting business on the internet. It includes buying, selling, servicing customers and collaborating with business partners via internet. e) E-Entertainment/Re-creation: The internet offers host of entertainment such as games, music, sports. The presence of film industry on the internet along side with various entertainment and News websites makes the internet an avenue for catching fun. f) Education: Computers can be used in education in the following ways i. On-line Education: This term encompasses any kind of learning that is done exclusively online. At times the learning is through free self study website e.g. WEBCT. ii. Application Packages: Computer aided instruction (CAI) and computer aided learning (CAL) has tremendously 57
  58. 58. reduced the work load of teachers and increased students successes. Internet resources that are used in education includes i. E-Mails (Electronic mail): This is the exchange of electronic messages and computer files between computers that are connected to the internet or other computer network. E-mail can be used by students to communicate with lecturers, teachers and colleagues. ii. Virtual Library: This is one of the best ways of getting library information via the internet. iii. World Wide Web (www): This is a hypermedia based system for browsing internet sites. It is called the web because it is made up of many sites linked together; students can travel from one site to another by clicking on hyperlinks. iv. Usenet: This is the discussion groups on the internet that talks about specific topics. A newsgroup is a repository, usually within the Usenet system where students can post educational topics for discussion. v. File Transfer: This is the transfer of files, software‟s etc between a host and remote computers. vi. Data Conferencing: This is a communication session in which two or more participants are sharing computer based data in real time. Any participants keyboard/mouse can control screens 58
  59. 59. of other participants. Voice mail or voice communication can be out of band using a totally separate voice connected or in- band using a simultaneous voice and data technology. vii. Video Conferencing: It involves the using of a computer, video camera and network such as internet to conduct a live conference between two or more people (students and lecturers/teacher). Video Conferencing is an extremely useful method of communication because it saves people the time and expense of travel and can often accomplish many of the things a physical meeting can. A two person video conference is known as point to point, while more than two people involved in a session is a multipoint conference. viii. Teleconferencing/Web cast: This is the use of electronic channels to facilitate real time communication among groups of people at two or more locations. Teleconferencing is a generic term that refers to a variety of technologies and application including audio-conferencing, audio graphic, video-conferencing, data conferencing, business, television and distance learning or distance education. ix. Gopher: Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval system. It takes a request for information and then scans the internet for it. 59
  60. 60. 2.11 ICT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UK The use of ICT in secondary school has a recent but relatively fast moving history in the school curriculum in the UK. In the early to middle 1960s, computers were rarely seen in the schools and few teachers had any formal training. With the increased availability of computers at the end of the 1970s, computer studies examinations courses became popular and were taught in specialist computer rooms (DES, 1990s). Boyd Barrett (1991) argued that the interest was restricted to male teachers of science and mathematics departments. It was with the introduction of microcomputers in the 1980s, that it became possible to introduce computers into individual classrooms to support the curriculum. However, it was the introduction of national curriculum in 1990 that established a need for computers in the school curriculum. Pupils/students were required to use computers for their lessons to communicate and handle information, design, develops, explore and explore models of real or imaginary situations and measure and control physical variables and movement (DES, 1990b). The latest National curriculum document for design and technology (D & T) highlights the compulsory nature of computer- aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) in secondary schools as an integral part of designing and making (DFEE, QCA, 1999). Similarly, the postgraduate certificate of education (PGCE) students to gain qualified teachers status (QTS) must demonstrate by the end of their courses that they 60
  61. 61. have achieved all the „Standard‟ required on courses of initial teacher training (DFEE,1998). These include knowledge and understanding of, and competence with ICT in the subject to enable them to decide when the use of ICT is appropriate and effective to achieve their teaching objectives. 2.12 ICT AND SECONDARY EDUCATION Secondary education is concerned with acquiring additional knowledge, behavioral and other skills. Possession of basic knowledge, skills and attitudes will be assumed. Presentation of the intellectual content will be ICT-based and largely under the control of the pupil/student. It will involve studying subjects and skills in greater depth. The aim will be to enable each learner to maximize their individual potential in individual subjects. It will be concerned with building on those, so that learners acquire further knowledge and skills according to their aptitudes, needs and preferences. Posen and Michelle (1995). Education and training are fundamental to achieving priorities for the Nigerian economy in the twenty-first century. All Nigerians need to be “enterprising, innovative, adaptable and socially responsible participants in the information economy‟‟ and Nigeria will be at a serious disadvantage in the global knowledge economy if it fails to produce workers, professionals and managers. With the skills to work 61
  62. 62. in the online environment (National Office of the Information Economy, 1999, p.11). These national views also are reflected in the Nigerian Curriculum framework. To meet this challenge, the Nigeria government has invested on information technology in schools. However, increased spending on ICT in schools does not necessarily quarantee improved teaching and learning environments and improved student‟s outcomes. [Centre for Research on information technology and organization, 1999, EDNA, 1999a; While, 1999]. Education has a poor history of successfully meeting the challengers of shifts in information technology (Trinidad, 1998). There has been far too little research into the implementation and educational benefits of technology rich school learning environments. Therefore, this research as part of the larger study is investigating on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in ICT on the secondary school students, as well as the attitudes of students to using ICT in learning food science. Preston (1998) describes some of the information technology (IT) products that would be used in the classroom of the future to include electronic whiteboards, which teachers can use to write on the board in the conventional method while integrating with the computer at the same time; delivery of lesson notes in the form of interactive presentations, which will be projected onto the whiteboard incorporating video animation and sound; and liquid crystal display LCD projectors, which 62
  63. 63. will be used in a similar way to project video images and live television programmes. The white board helps students to develop cognitive skills, enables ICT use to be more integrated into classroom, allow text and images to be moved around the board and/ or changed, and finally allows work to be saved or to be printed out (Gage, 2006). Similarly, detachable LCD displays from laptop computers will be used to give presentations using an overhead projector. To achieve the effective use of these tools, scholars must learn or improve on the use of the new set of skills associated them, such as strategies to search for relevant materials skills in evaluating the quality of documents found, knowledge of such web design skill in using discussion forum and chat rooms and a basic understanding of how to send e-mail attachment(Lacey, 1999 quoted in Ojedokun and Owolabi 2003).The classroom of the future should have a mobile furniture i.e. tables with mounted wheels and rolling chairs. This mobility of furniture allows the students to see the fixed interactive white board and also makes possible to change direction of teaching and gives students more surface to work in groups. This classroom of the future promotes not only a sense of well being and produces a home-like atmosphere and its interior is technically well equipped and designed for effective teaching. Jervis and Steeg (2000) discussed the use of internet in secondary schools in British schools to support teaching and learning. 63
  64. 64. 2.13 TEACHING AND LEARNING STYLES AND ICT People have preferred styles of learning. For example, some people prefer to read or listen while others like a highly visual approach. Research [Carbo, 1986; campell and Campbell, 1999] continues to show what when learners are able to use their own particular styles of learning and processing information on their motivation, initiative and result improve. People have preferred ways of absorbing, processing, and retaining information (schunk, 2000) Not synonymous with academic ability, this preference is called learning or cognitive styles. The term learning styles or cognitive style are often used interchangeable (James and Garduer, 1995). Gregore (1982a) defines learning styles as the way that people perceive, sort, absorb, process and retain information. Within and Good enough (1981) elaborated that cognitive styles are individual differences in how people process information. Similarly, James and Garduer (1995) defined learning style as “the ways individual learners react to overall learning environment” (p.19). While Dunn and Dunn (1993) added that both biological and environment characteristics contribute to a student‟s learning style. Teacher centered learning approaches often our passive reception of knowledge, whereas learner centered approaches encourage a process of active inquiry. Learners are best motivated to learn when 64
  65. 65. they can take responsibility for their own learning as it is an active process. Interactive technologies encourage active learning and with the increased popularity of computers, today‟s students are learning with technology, as opposed to learning about technology. Schweizer, 1999; Nelson, 2001) show, teachers can provide powerful learning opportunities through ICT when students are responsible for their own learning and are active learners defining their learning needs; finding information on their own knowledge base and communicating their discoveries. These ICT (computers) need to be carefully designed, giving thought to the different learning styles of students and the way in which students learning. In the information age, the implication of a move from teacher- centered to learner centered education are that it is important for students to be able to analyze and synthesize enormous amount of information, thus determining what should be learned, how it will be learned and when it will be learned. The specific ICT competencies refer to the special skills a teacher trainee acquires in other to enhance the quality of the teaching and learning that takes place in the school. The special skills cannot be acquired without the general abilities, and the general abilities are not of much benefit if the teacher does not possess specific skills for applying ICTs in his teaching activities. Studies in ICT development in both developed and developing countries identify at least four broad 65
  66. 66. approaches through which ICTs could be adopted for teacher training and professional development. EMERGING APPLYING INFUSING TRANSFORMING Model depicting a continuum of approaches to ICT application for teacher training and development The continuum model above indicates that the skills of teacher trainee flow from the emerging to the applying into the infusing and then culminates in the transforming processes of the educative activities which takes place in schools. The Emerging approach is the first stage of ICTs skills development in teachers, here the focus is on appreciation of technical functions, components and general uses of ICTs, especially for education and training. This approach tends to be theoretical and the practical components involves the personal use of ICT such as the use of word processing to prepare worksheets, locating information on CD-ROMs or on the internet, or communicating with friends and family via e-mail. The emphasis here is on training of teachers in a range of tools and applications, and increasing teachers‟ awareness of the opportunities for applying ICT to their teaching in the future. 66
  67. 67. The next level of the continuum model emphasizes the application of ICTs to teachers‟ subject areas. In the applying approach, teachers use ICT for professional purposes, focusing on improving their subject teaching especially in science subject (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology, Geography etc) in order to enrich how they teach with a range of ICT applications. This approach often involves teachers in integrating ICT to teach specific subject skills and knowledge; beginning to change their methodology in the classroom; and support their training and professional development. The infusing approach involves the inclusion of ICT in all aspects of teacher‟s professional lives in such ways as to improve student learning and the management of learning processes. The approach supports active and creative teachers who are able to stimulate and manage the learning of students, integrating a range of preferred learning styles and uses of ICT in achieving their goals. The infusing approaches other subjects into project based curricula. Transforming teaching through ICTs involves teachers and other support staff in the school system regarding ICT as a natural part of everyday life of the system that they begin to look at the processes of teaching and learning science in new ways. The emphasis changes from a teacher-centric to a learner-centric system where the teachers is seen as a „guide by the side, rather than sage on the stage‟, helping students as the facilitator of their learning experiences to construct 67
  68. 68. new learning paradigms out of the various offerings that the school makes available to them. This shift in emphasis in learners need also calls for new training needs on the part of the teachers, where they would be imbued with such components of knowledge that prepares them to annex the potentials of ICTs in sourcing and disseminating information to their students. 2.14 TEACHER TRAINING IN NIGERIA The initial teacher training process and the continuing professional development of Nigerian teachers is currently besotted by a number of changes. These are directly connected with the incessant modification of the planning policies several times before such policies have been appropriately implemented in its original form. These problems have been further accentuated by the parlous state of economic development, which has made „teaching‟ a less desirable profession for many youth. The NPE (1977, revised 1998, 2005) provided the objectives of teacher education in Nigeria as follows:  To provide highly motivated, conscience and efficient classroom teachers;  To encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers;  To help teachers commitment to the teaching profession. 68
  69. 69. However, many researchers have noted that these „lofty‟ objectives have scarcely been met (Okebukola, 2002; Isyaku, 2002; Ukeje, 2002 & Afemikhe, 2004). For instance, the same policy document provided that the Nigerian Certificate of Education (NCE) shall be the minimum qualification of teachers in any level of education system (NPE, 1997, revised 1998, 2005; p.33), but the reality is completely at variance with this provision. According to the Situations and policy Analysis jointly published by the UNICEF and the Federal Government of Nigeria (1993) the Teachers Grade II certificate is still found among the qualification of teachers in Nigerian primary schools, in many states in Nigeria. Also, with the launching of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) scheme in 1999, when it was found that there exists an inadequacy in the number of available teachers for the compulsory basic education scheme for Nigerian school children. The National Teachers Institute (NTI) was required to introduce the Pivotal Teachers Training Programme (PTTP) to train a cadre of teachers for qualification much lower than the NCE and the teachers Grade II Certificate to cater for the shortage in supply of primary school teacher needed to met the demands of the demands of the UBE scheme (NTI, 2004; Tahir, 2001). Amidst this obvious inadequacy of teacher in sufficient number and quality, Ukeje (2002) echoed the fact that teachers are the foundation of quality in the school; it is upon their number, their quality, their effectiveness, their efficiency, and their 69
  70. 70. education, that depend the quality of the educative process and the education system. Whatever is needed in the society is always made a central part of the school curriculum, so that learners can jointly and severally proffer potent and innovative solutions to social challenges. But this can only be meaningful and successful if we have the right caliber of teachers. All existing teacher education programmes in Nigeria, Diploma in Education, Bachelor of Education, postgraduate Diploma in Technical education and the Nigeria Certificate in Education, all have three major components (Afemikhe, 2004). These are, to wit, the Foundations of education (Historical, Psychological, Sociological, Philosophical and Religious Foundations); Pedagogy courses (classroom Management, Curriculum Design & Development, Counseling, Design & Construction of Methodology, Measurement & Evaluation, Counseling, Design & Construction of Instructional Aids, etc.); and teaching Subjects under the broad categorizations-science, arts, social sciences. In addition, there is usually a teaching practice exercise whose duration varies across institutions. This is what the teacher training model looks like in a Nigerian Teaching education institution. This model is rather restrictive in the sense that it fails to take into cognizance the burgeoning possibilities of information and communication technologies in the teacher production process. Compounding the issues related to 70

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