Cloud Computing In telecom Sector: Opportunites and Challenges


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Cloud Computing In telecom Sector: Opportunites and Challenges

  2. 2. Cloud Computing Trends in India PROJECT COMPLETION CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that project titled “CLOUD COMPUTING TRENDS IN INDIA” issuccessfully done by Mr Vivek Swaminathan in partial fulfillment of his two years fulltime course „Post Graduation Diploma in Management‟ recognized by AICTE throughthe Print. L. N. Welingkar Institute of Management Development & Research, Matunga,Mumbai.This project in general is done under my guidance. ___________________________ (Signature of Faculty Guide) Name: Prof. Shashikant Shirahatti CISA, CGEIT, CCSK, ISO27001-LA, ISO9001-LA Date: ______________________2
  3. 3. Cloud Computing Trends in India TABLE OF CONTENTSWorldwide Computing Market size v/s Indian market ................................................................... 4Adoption Status of Cloud Computing across Verticals ................................................................... 5Key Drivers .................................................................................................................................. 6Key Constraints ............................................................................................................................ 6Cloud Ecosystem .......................................................................................................................... 7Pricing Models ............................................................................................................................. 9ENISA Risks and Recommendations: My Learnings ...................................................................... 11The Cloud Landscape in India ..................................................................................................... 13Adoption of Cloud in India: A Summary ...................................................................................... 18Primary Research ....................................................................................................................... 19Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 27Bibliography .............................................................................................................................. 283
  4. 4. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaWorldwide Computing Market size v/sIndian marketCloud computing is a new way of delivering computing resources, not a new technology. Computingservices ranging from data storage and processing to software, such as email handling, are nowavailable instantly, commitment-free and on-demand. Since we are in a time of belt-tightening, thisnew economic model for computing has found fertile ground and is seeing massive globalInvestment according to IDC’s analysis, the worldwide forecast for cloud services in 2009 will be inthe order of $17.4bn. The estimation for 2013 amounts to $44.2bn, with the European marketranging from €971m in 2008 to €6,005m in 2013.The key point to keep in mind is that the cloud’s economies of scale and flexibility are both a friendand a foe from a security point of view. The massive concentrations of resources and data present amore attractive target to attackers, but cloud-based defences can be more robust, scalable and cost-effective. This document portrays an assessment of the security risks and benefits of using cloudcomputing - providing security guidance for potential and existing users of cloud computing.4
  5. 5. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaAdoption Status of Cloud Computingacross VerticalsBanking and Financial Services:•Large banks with an inherent need for top-notch security are increasingly building internal privateclouds. Yes Bank has announced its plans of moving all its application to their private cloud by 2011.•Financial Inclusion Projects which intend to penetrate banking in rural areas by end of FY 2012 areextremely capital intensive. Indian Bank in partnership with TCS had adopted a cost saving approachto this project based on cloud computing benefits.Telecommunications:•With the advent of 3G and popularity of Mobile VAS, PaaS products like Flypp that enable telcoswith faster go-to market applications and reduce risk and operational overheads are predicted tosee increased adoption.Manufacturing:•Adoption of IaaS and ERP based SaaS applications are predicted to pick up in the SMEmanufacturing segment typically from discrete manufacturing, industrial engineering and logisticsindustries.Healthcare:•With medical tourism flourishing, India is slowly becoming a haven for healthcare services.Healthcare industry is also advancing its IT platforms to touch the global standards.•This industry’s key worry of system consolidation can be addressed by IaaS and SaaS solutions.Various players are aggressively targeting this vertical.IT/ITeS:•IT services companies like Wipro are not just providers but also consumers of cloud technology.Wipro built an internal private cloud that could facilitate self-service provisioning of hardware.Government and Public Sector:•With current e-governance initiatives driving on a PPP model, immense investments are beingmade on the IT Infrastructure front. For projects like Aadhaar, the UIDAI is contemplating on theadoption of a cost-effective cloud based model that can provide effective and scalable processing oflarge databases.5
  6. 6. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaKey Drivers  Competitive business environments demand flexibility, elasticity and scalability in IT expansion  Economizing of capital expenditures, leading enterprises to opt for new generation business models such as pay-per-use, pay-per-profit, etc.  Workforce increasingly becoming mobile, with need to access applications from Smartphones, tablets, etc.  An operating expenditure payment structure to have more control /visibility into IT requirements /investments and reduced total cost of ownership.  Need for shorter time-to-market period for new productsKey Constraints  Security concerns about hosting critical data over a public network.  Lack of regulatory clarity regarding data ownership, etc.  Challenges of migrating applications from on premise to a cloud environment.  Consistency of tools and functionality offered.  Lack of Eco-system maturity.  Network connectivity issues leading to accessibility concerns.6
  7. 7. Cloud Computing Trends in India Source: DeloitteCloud EcosystemThe Cloud unlike previous technology shifts is not a mere collection of technologies but atransformational concept which requires the ecosystem to be developed. The Cloud ecosystemconsists of the components as shown below:7
  8. 8. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaAs is evident from the above description of the Cloud ecosystem, India is currently challenged inavailability of several ecosystem components excepting IT skills. While we have the required IT skills,we lack the other essential components of. power, connectivity, real estate, the enabling regulatoryframework and other adoption enablers.In this regard, the NTP 2012 plans to “Encourage recognition and creation of synergistic alliance ofpublic sector and other organizations of Department of Telecommunications (DoT) throughappropriate policy interventions and support for optimum utilization of their resources and strengthsin building a robust and secure telecom and information infrastructure of the country.”While the Government is one of the primary pillars to help overcome these challenges, involvementof the private sector is also equally important for swift and effective enablement. Hence, the Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) model is one of the best mechanisms for setting up entities which shallhelp overcome the above challenges.An example of the PPP implementation is setting up of joint SEZs wherein the Government will assistin land acquisition and channelizing utilities such as power and security, while the private sectorwould bring in the required investment and knowhow for setting up of the required infrastructure.In addition, special financial provisions should be made available by the Indian Government for theprivate players who wish to build infrastructure for cloud computing.Cloud Infrastructure - Private Cloud players should be allowed to procure raw infrastructure such asservers, firewalls etc at a subsidized rate for setting up the Cloud infrastructure.Loans - Government should incentivize Banks to extend loans at concessional rates to entrepreneursplanning to set up Cloud services.Tax incentives - CSPs should be granted exemption from paying regular taxes for a limited period oftime from the time of setting up the Cloud operations.Land - State governments should be directed to provide land at subsidized rates for setting up CloudDatacenters8
  9. 9. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaPricing ModelsCloud service delivery is divided among three archetypal models and various derivativecombinations. The three fundamental classifications are often referred to as the “SPI Model,”where “SPI” refers to Software, Platform or Infrastructure (as a Service), respectively.  Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web- based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.  Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations.  Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which could include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems; storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls). Examples of Cloud Services |Source : INGRAM MICRO9
  10. 10. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaCloud Pricing Models Product/Service Business Metric Usage Based based Based • Usage based pricing can • This model is adopted by • Business metrics based be based on instances or SaaS providers wherein pricing is a strategic opted configuration of emphasis is on the futuristic model. This will CPU,memory, RAM, functionality used. It can make an idealmeasure to bandwidth, IP addresses, be described as Pay-per- calculate ROI. operating system or per feature user (SaaS). • For example, for a SaaS program in the marketing • Plans can also be fixed or domain, pricing will be elastic in nature based on number of depending on the campaigns, number of dynamic nature of customers, number of applications /resource prospects, etc. consumption.10
  11. 11. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaENISA Risks and Recommendations: MyLearningsWe recommend priority areas of research in order to improve the security of cloud computingtechnologies. The following are the categories we have considered with a few examples of specificareas from the full list:Building trust in the cloud• Effects of different forms of breach reporting on security• End-to-end data confidentiality in the cloud and beyond• Higher assurance clouds, virtual private clouds etcData protection in large scale cross-organizational systems• Forensics and evidence gathering mechanisms.• Incident handling - monitoring and traceability• International differences in relevant regulations including data protection and privacyLarge scale computer systems engineering• Resource isolation mechanisms - data, processing, memory, logs etc• Interoperability between cloud providers• Resilience of cloud computing. How can cloud improve resilience?TOP SECURITY RISKSThe most important classes of cloud-specific risks identified are:LOSS OF GOVERNANCE:in using cloud infrastructures, the client necessarily cedes control to the Cloud Provider (CP) on anumber of issues which may affect security. At the same time, SLAs may not offer a commitment toprovide such services on the part of the cloud provider, thus leaving a gap in security defences.LOCK-IN:There is currently little on offer in the way of tools, procedures or standard data formats or servicesinterfaces that could guarantee data, application and service portability. This can make it difficult forthe customer to migrate from one provider to another or migrate data and services back to an in-house IT environment. This introduces a dependency on a particular CP for service provision,especially if data portability, as the most fundamental aspect, is not enabled.11
  12. 12. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaISOLATION FAILURE:Multi-tenancy and shared resources are defining characteristics of cloud computing. This riskcategory covers the failure of mechanisms separating storage, memory, routing and even reputationbetween different tenants (e.g., so-called guest-hopping attacks). However it should be consideredthat attacks on resource isolation mechanisms (e.g.,. against hypervisors) are still less numerous andmuch more difficult for an attacker to put in practice compared to attacks on traditional OSs.COMPLIANCE RISKS:Investment in achieving certification (e.g., industry standard or regulatory requirements) may be putat risk by migration to the cloud: • If the CP cannot provide evidence of their own compliance with the relevant requirements • If the CP does not permit audit by the cloud customer (CC).In certain cases, it also means that using a public cloud infrastructure implies that certain kinds ofcompliance cannot be achieved (e.g., PCI DSS (4)).12
  13. 13. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaThe Cloud Landscape in IndiaWhen analysing Cloud computing solutions, companies should assess the Cloud provider’scapabilities at the sub-segment level (i.e. CRM, SCM, ERP) due to large differences in the sub-segments maturity. Consequently, their viability should be a central question when consideringthese vendors. Where the known, main players of the computer industry (Google, SAP, Oracle) donot represent a true viability risk at first sight, it does not necessarily mean that smaller players willnot survive the growth to eventually become market leaders. Looking at Cloud from a Technological Perspective| Source: DeloitteOpportunities presented by Cloud in various sectors 1. Education The Educational sector is one of the cornerstones of socio-economic development. It is widely accepted that education contributes to poverty reduction and increased economic growth, which in turn leads to an improved standard of living. It also enables the individual to participate in wealth generating activities, leads to the creation of employment, and the overall development of society. Growth of the Indian economy in the recent past is putting pressure on the educational sector to enhance the quality of discourse, expand the curriculum to include new subjects, make education affordable and improve its reach. While technology can play a significant role in accelerating the expansion of the Education sector in India, the digital divide hinders its reach.13
  14. 14. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaChallenges The primary challenges associated with the educational sector in India are: • Poor quality of education • Reach of education to remote corners of the country • Increasing cost of education • Low engagement of studentsSolutionsThe educational sector can be transformed into an inclusive, collaborative and efficient ecosystemby using Cloud based services. The Cloud can not only help in short term tactical solutions to reach alarge population, but also pave way for transformation of the learning process into a futuristic modelwhich will result in an overall improvement in the quality of learning.In order to encourage the adoption of the Cloud and creating a suitable technical and regulatoryenvironment for implementation of the Cloud in India, the following is recommended: • Encourage set up of education content databases with universal access • Provide incentives to education Cloud providers to develop content in Indian languages. Textbooks in various languages should be made available online at low costs. • Create a policy with guidelines for usage of Cloud in education. • Provide incentives to telecom providers to rollout high speed broadband access to educationalinstitutions.14
  15. 15. Cloud Computing Trends in India 2. Healthcare Seventy percent of the Indian population lives in rural India and most of them lack access to hospitals, physicians, trained medical personnel, critical medicine supply and medical equipment. India has only an elementary network of public hospitals and clinics (around 25,000 primary health centres). Public hospitals are also scarce outside large cities, and their service standard varies and lack even basic healthcare records management systems.Challenges Unlike the healthcare sector in developed economies, the Indian healthcare ecosystem is at a nascent stage of adopting technology. Currently, the Indian healthcare industry is evaluating technology deployment models for digitization of health records like EMRs and remote patient monitoring; futuristic trends such as centralized healthcare record management are not even thought of.15
  16. 16. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaSolutionsHospitals: Using third party SaaS applications housed in the Cloud, patients can be provided accessto their health, history and information so that hospitals can streamline the admissions, care anddischarge processes. Hospitals can connect to their own web portals and access patient data storedin the Cloud. Standard based services can also be used to build value added web-applications forpatients so that their healthcare can extend beyond the boundaries of the hospital covering theirentire lifecycle.Physicians: With the Cloud, people can provide their health history and information to theirphysicians anywhere, anytime, including data uploaded from health and fitness devices, to helpphysicians make more informed decisions.Pharmacies: People can administer or manage their prescriptions and associated information suchas dosage, amount and frequency, and provide this information to their healthcare provider.Laboratories and imaging centres: Patient’s diagnostic results can be transferred via suitable Appsonto Cloud based platforms, e.g. Google Health or Microsoft Healthvault. This eliminates the needfor in-house storage and helps retain historic information in a systematic manner. Healthcareproviders can access these results with the patient’s permission, to help them make more informedhealth decisions.Pharmaceuticals/Drug manufacturers: The IaaS model could provide a drug manufacturer with On-Demand computing resources to perform drug research analysis, eliminating the need to retain highpower computing capabilities and related IT expertise in-house.Application Providers: Health and wellness companies can design and deliver health and wellnesssolutions compatible with Cloud platforms to offer a rich user experience and ease of managing theuser’s sensitive personal health information.16
  17. 17. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaDevice manufacturers: Health and fitness devices can be designed to work with Cloud platforms andApps, so users can upload device data and share it with their doctors and families.Insurance Companies: Insurance providers through transparent access to medical records canprovide better services to their customers. They can also offer customers with innovative toolswhich giving members’ access to richer wellness information thereby increasing effectiveness of caremanagement programs which can help reduce claims costs. Insurance companies can alsoincentivize customers to keep their health records updated.17
  18. 18. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaAdoption of Cloud in India: A Summary  Creation of a nodal agency for laying baselines for Cloud adoption.  Empowering the nodal agency to develop a Cloud policy for adoption of Cloud by Govt. bodies and Indian citizens and organizations.  Empowering the nodal agency to interpret existing laws such as IT Act 2000 in context of Cloud to ensure the interest of Indian entities in the Cloud.  Empowering nodal agency to work with various government departments and ministries including state government to incentivize Cloud adoption in India.  Launching specific projects in the area of Healthcare and Education for accelerating the use of various facilities.  Defining policies and enact rules / regulations for incentivizing setup of Cloud providers in India.18
  19. 19. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaPrimary ResearchAbstractThis paper looks at adoption and applicability of cloud computing to e-governance in India. Data hasbeen gathered via structured questionnaire from stakeholders of various businesses - public &private sector of India, including Indian IT companies that offer cloud computing solutions to clients.The study takes a balanced and unbiased view of cloud computing with focus on India, to figure outthe key factors that lead to its adoption using factor analysis and whether these factors could be thedrivers for its adoption in e-governance. Cloud computing has picked up in developed markets and isstarting to pick up in India. For enterprises, SMB, Government, NGO & individuals reduces initialinvestments, results in cost savings, gives flexibility, scalability, service on demand, deviceindependency and anytime accessibility and reduces key data loss in the event of hardware crash,loss or theft. However, it has issues like confidentiality, information security, legal & regulatorychallenges and malicious attacks as data gets stored in a distributive internet cloud, generallybeyond any nations geography.Research MethodologyA survey was conducted to measure awareness and attitudes towards cloud computing services .36respondents participated in the study.AnalysisThe main factors which would be responsible for the adoption of cloud computing in India have beenextracted using Factor analysis. The respondents ratings were subjected to Principal ComponentAnalysis to reduce multicollinearity among items, with the Varimax Rotation method. This methodwas Factor Analysis which is the method of extracting hidden factors.Thirty one items were reduced to four components where Factor 1 had Initial Eigen value of 25.1with 80.9% of variance. Factor 2 had Initial Eigen value of 2.6 with 8.4% of variance. Factor 3 hadInitial Eigen value of L2 with 4.0% of variance, and Factor 4 had Initial Eigen value of 0.7 with 2.4% ofvariance.19
  20. 20. Cloud Computing Trends in India Questionnaire Cloud Computing Trends in India A survey to determine the current cloud adoption and its sentiment in India * Required Are you aware of Indian governments e-governance initiatives for Cloud Computing? * Yes No Is it prefrable that the CSP(Cloud Service Provider) allow a customer to select a specific location for the use and/or storage of the customer’s data? * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Select a value from a range of 1,Strongly Agree, to 5,Stron gly Disagree,. Strongly Disagree Does the CSP provide any technical enforcement to prevent a customer’s data from moving through or to a customer priscribed location? * Yes No Does the CSP provide customers with controls over its data to ensure that data can or cannot be aggregated according to customer needs and/or restrictions? * Yes No What technical enforcement mechanisms does a CSP use to prevent the commingling of data with other cloud users? * VLAN Unique UID login Storage Side security Cloud Containers AES 256 Bit Encryption Domain Segregation Do you think it is necessary for the CSP to adhere to any established governance framework(s) involving data security controls * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Select a value from a range of 1,Strongly Agree, to 5,Stron gly Disagree,. Strongly Disagree If yes, does the CSP undergo any regular (e.g. annual) 3rd party audit(s) for compliance with any established governance framework(s)? * Yes No Is it prefrable that the CSP allow customers to audit the CSP’s data security controls? * 20
  21. 21. Cloud Computing Trends in India 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Select a value from a range of 1,Strongly Agree, to 5,Stron gly Disagree,. Strongly Disagree Do you think it is necessary for the CSP to provide end to end encryption for data in transit? * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Select a value from a range of 1,Strongly Agree, to 5,Stron gly Disagree,. Strongly Disagree Does the CSP offer data back-up and recovery services for customers? * Yes No If yes, is the specific location for such selectable by the customer? * Yes No Does the CSP’s method of handling data remanence or persistence meet any identified standard(s)? * Yes No Are you a Public or a Private CSP? * Public Private What is the category you are providing the Cloud Services? * HRM Procurement Finance Database Applications Web Applications Rate the foll parameters on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being most important 5 being least) * Strongly Strongly Agree Cant Say Dont Agree Agree Disagree Awareness Trustworthy Secure to use Used for Multiple Applications 21
  22. 22. Cloud Computing Trends in India Strongly Strongly Agree Cant Say Dont Agree Agree DisagreeCostFlexibilityAccessibilityScalibilityEasy to implementService QualitySharing of ResourcesEasy availability of info toCitizensFaster RolloutPerformance after rolloutCustomizationRegulatory Requirements SubmitNever submit passwords through Google Forms.22
  23. 23. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaPercentage of Customers who are aware of E- Governance initiatives in India. E Governance Awareness Yes 36% No 64%Percentage of Customers who feel CSPs prevent a customer’s data from moving through variouslocations. Control over Data No 42% Yes 58%23
  24. 24. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaRotated Component Matrix (a) for extracting the main factors responsible for Adoption of CloudComputing in India Parameters Components 1 2 3 4 Awareness 0.501 0.509 0.861 0.618 Trustworthy 0.627 0.527 0.627 0.627 Secured to use 0.861 0.861 0.561 0.861 Private services 0.458 0.584 0.728 0.861 Public services 0.569 0.598 0.437 0.861 Hybrid services 0.485 0.459 0.426 0.492 Used for multiple applications 0.458 0.914 0.728 0.843 Cost reduction 0.861 0.914 0.728 0.843 Flexibility 0.563 0.914 0.453 0.531 Accessibility 0.861 0.914 0.453 0.564 Elastic scalability 0.834 0.556 0.453 0.492 Easy to implement 0.834 0.556 0.509 0.843 Service quality 0.834 0.556 0.71 0.843 Non critical applications 0.709 0.637 0.627 0.531 Latest software’s 0.54 0.558 0.589 0.564 Sharing of resources 0.861 0.561 0.458 0.564 Availability of info to citizens 0.861 0.728 0.861 0.564 No need to travel for information 0.861 0.437 0.563 0.861 Reducing corruption 0.492 0.426 0.861 0.492 Faster rollout of services 0.843 0.728 0.834 0.843 increase in satisfaction 0.843 0.728 0.834 0.843 Security concerns 0.531 0.453 0.834 0.444 Performance concerns 0.564 0.453 0.709 0.594 Availability concerns 0.492 0.453 0.54 0.643 integrity concerns 0.843 0.509 0.861 0.618 Ability to customize 0.843 0.71 0.861 0.618 High investment 0.531 0.627 0.861 0.618 Regulatory requirements 0.564 0.589 0.492 0.549 Not enough suppliers 0.564 0.728 0.843 0.584 Company should invest 0.564 0.458 0.492 0.598 Concerns to be overcome 0.834 0.556 0.71 0.843From the above table, the main factors (having component value greater than 0.4) which would leadto adoption of Cloud Computing in India for implementing E-governance projects have beenextracted. From Factor 1, Computing in India various items which explains the Benefits of CloudComputing for egovernance projects are cost reduction, accessibility, sharing information, travel,rollout of services, satisfaction. From Factor 2, various items that were retrieved which explain theConcerns of Cloud Computing for egovernance projects are performance, availability, integrity andcustomization. Items from Factor 3 could not be taken as the values got converged in the values ofFactor 1 and Factor 224
  25. 25. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaApplicationsAlmost all the respondents had shown interest in implementing multiple applications using cloudComputing services viz. Human Resource Management, Customer Relationship Management,Enterprise Resource Planning, Virtualized server environment. Database applications and Webapplications. Few of the respondents seemed to be interested in Procurement, Finance and usingcloud computing services. Applications Responses Percentage HRM 11.2 Procurement 14.4 ERP 15.8 CRM 15.8 Finance 11.2 Database Applications 15.8 Web Applications 15.8Observations and SummaryCloud computing has low levels of end to end awareness, trust and adoption among Governmentofficials in India (despite all the attention cloud computing receives as one of the leading IT trends).They were not fully familiar with cloud computing, and do not trust it fully. Awareness and trust arelacking even among professionals who are familiar with it and may be responsible for securingenterprise systems and information. While cloud adoption is expected to grow, respondentsInexperience with cloud computing, security concerns (and in some cases, lack of concem) anduncertainty about governance could make it difficult for Government organizations to effectivelyimplement cloud computing or realize full value from it.Apart from awareness of cloud computing, the end to end infrastructure (ecosphere) built by serviceproviders is very limited in India. The security of data is very important and Government definitelywould like to ensure that the privacy and accessibility of confidential data is properly handled. Also,many a times there is dire need that data must not leave shores of the nation as data and privacylaws are varied in different countries. So in the scenario of data theft abroad, it would be reallydifficult for the Government to bring the guilty to the book. The outlook for cloud computingadoption in Government depends on how well cloud service providers tackle these issues. Also, theyneed to raise the levels of awareness and trust in the model. The data reflects barriers to adoption,but adoption rates and user experiences show the barriers can be reduced. Respondents, who knowcloud computing well, trust it most. For example, those who are familiar with cloud computing tendto implement it, those who implement expand their use by accessing multiple applications throughthe cloud, and professionals who are most involved in cyber security have more trust in cloud25
  26. 26. Cloud Computing Trends in Indiacomputing. Against this backdrop, the author recommends organizations to take the followingactions as specified in the recommendations below to assess the suitability of cloud computing forGovernment agencies and to prepare them for implementation.Recommendations and LearningsSpecifically designed seminar and customized workshops for various Central / State / Semi / QuasiGovernment agencies. Municipal corporations and committees. Government departments andautonomous bodies must be done so that they become aware about the, benefits, usage andapplications of cloud computing for citizen services. Cloud service providers must ensure dataprivacy and integrity and Adoption of Cloud they need to have very tight processes for handlingconfidential data. This Computing in India data must not pass beyond Indian shores via any mediumor channel.Quick e-delivery of citizen services must be done for Government sector which can be mutuallyevolved and Proof of Concept (PoC) or dry run can be done to give confidence & win trust of keystakeholders. A common Governrnent Cloud, which would essentially be co-owned by Governmentand consortium of cloud service providers to bring standardizations and shared responsibility of allstakeholders, could be initiated so that adoption increases quickly, in the wider benefit of commoncitizen of India.Limitations of the studyThis study has certain limitations that .are required to be taken into account while considering itscontributions. The main limitation of the study was a relatively small sample size. In this study, thewide-ranging conclusions have been made from a narrow empirical perspective. Moreover, thestudy focused on primary data collection from officials who are working or planning to work on theimplementation of cloud computing projects in India. This was a challenging task for the researcheras the respondents were not willing to share the detailed information. For these reasons, thesefindings cannot be generalized to a broader community.26
  27. 27. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaConclusionThe Integrated Project has helped us get a panoramic view of the Cloud Computing Trends in India. Ithas also helped us familiarize the working of the Indian Cloud. Every subject has taught us somethingnew and interaction with the employees has also given us new insight about how the mind-set ofpeople in the industry prevails.The key takeaways in every subject has enriched me in many ways and I would like to thank ourmentor Prof. Shashikant Shirahatti and Prof Pradeep Pendse for their constant support andproviding me with such an opportunity and guiding us every time we ran into a roadblock.27
  28. 28. Cloud Computing Trends in IndiaBibliography 1. Adoption of Cloud Computing In India , By Anudeep Rawal (Institute of International Management and Technology, Gurgaon) 2. Guidelines on Security and Privacy in Public Cloud Computing (Journal of E-Governance ) 3. Pricing and Positioning Cloud Computing Services (MSP University) 4. Security Guidance in Critical Areas for Cloud Computing (CSA Guidebook ) 5. Benefits , Risks and Recommendations For Information Security (ENISA) 6. Frost and Sullivan – Cloud Computing Services 7. Confederation of Indian Industries – The Indian Cloud Revolution 8. TCS’s Service Offerings in Cloud Computing 9. Cloud Computing Services – TechMahindra 10. Security in Cloud Computing: An Analysis of Key Drivers and Constraints (Information Security Journal , Taylor and Francis Group) 11. Data security concern in public cloud computing , Muhammed A. Badamas, Morgan State University, USA 12. Data Protection Challenges in Cloud Computing , An Indian Perspective – NASCOMM 13. 14. Forrester’s SaaS Maturity Model, Forrester, August 2008 15. Cloud computing, Redefining IT Delivery, IBM. 16. Amazon S3 Service Level Agreement, 17. 79428