Sustainability of housing in cities- Atul Rajmani Pathak
Atul PathakB.Arch First YearDepartment ofArchitectureBIT Mesra,PatnaCampus
Contents to be discussed:1.What is Housing? a)Types of Housing2. The term “SUSTAINABILITY” a)The postulates of “SUSTAINABILITY” b) Sustainability in Architecture c)Goals of Sustainable Housing d)Sustainable Architecture in houses: How can we achieve it?3.Housing as a Design Process a)Environment , Society and Economy Relation b)Knowledge Transfer During the Housing Process c)Feature demand : Housing Designers VERSUS Potential Purchasers4. Housing Demand: A Datasheet a)Urbanization & Population Growth b) Urbanization & Housing Demand-Supply Dynamics5. Sustainable Housing Methodologies a) Common Approaches b)Designing the elements of a typical house c)The assessment toolkit6.Contemporary Methods on Sustainable Housing a)Works of Charles Correa : Architectural expressions with dominance of natural climate controlmeasures b) E-House c)Green rating for housing d)Modern Sustainable Techniques
1.What is Housing? Housing generally refers to the social problem of insuring that members of society have a home to live in, whether this is a house, or some other kind of dwelling, lodging, or shelter
2.The term “SUSTAINABILITY”:a)The postulates of “SUSTAINABILITY”: Sustainable design recognizes the interdependence of the built and natural environments; It seeks to harness natural energy flows and biological processes Eliminate reliance on fossil fuels and toxic materials, and improve resources and efficiency. In the short run, the impact of these changes will reduce the environmental impact of our designs. In the long run, the goal is to create buildings that are not only not harmful but actually part of natural systems and restorative of those systems.“Sustainable design is concerned with the quality of our environment as a whole system”
b)Sustainability in Architecture: SUSTAINABLE MANKIND – LIVING & INTERACTING WITH OUR ARCHITECTURE ENVIRONMENT IN A WAY SO THE ART & SCIENCE OF THAT MANKIND & THE BUILDING ENVIRONMENT REMAIN (CREATIVE & TECHNICAL) HEALTHY & LONG SUSTAINING RESOURCES WASTE ENERGY
c)Goals of Sustainable Housing: • Waste nothing • Adapt to place • Use “free” resources • Optimize rather than maximize • Create a livable environment • Sustainable design is built to last longer • The materials used can be re-used or recycled • More energy efficient, which in the long term saves on utility bills • Can benefit profit margins of builders
d)Sustainable Architecture in houses: How can we achieve it? -ENERGY EFFICIENCY: -SMALL IS GOOD -PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN -ACTIVE SOLAR DESIGN -HIGH LEVELS OF INSULATION -EFFICIENT HEATING OF AIR & WATER -THERMAL MASS -VENTILATION -EFFICIENT LIGHTING -WASTE MANAGEMENT: -THROUGH DESIGNING IN MODULES -RECYCLING WHILE BUILDING -GREY WATER SYSTEMS -LOW FLOW TAPS & SHOWERS -BUILDING MATERIALS: -USE OF RENEWABLE, NON TOXIC MATERIALS -USE OF RECYCLABLE/RECYCLED MATERIALS -LOCALLY SOURCED TO REDUCE TRANSPORT WHY IS ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT THE TOP?
3.Housing as a Design Process:: a)Environment,Society and Economy Relation: Sustainability: Human Well Being EnvironmentEconomy Society Architecture:Technical Response
b)Knowledge Transfer During the Housing Process: Knowledge Knowledge about about Constraints: Design Legislators Top-down Decision-making Strategy Restrictions & Solutions:Design is a Encouragements Risks &transformation between Possibilitiesareas of knowledgebearing on a particular Designersproject, aiming for Designconsensus of problem Knowledge s nel Csolving. t i Lawson B. R. Knowledge Gap about Occupants between ce D pu m tt o B Design Knowledge - o Problems: Transformation Needs & Requirements
c)Feature demand : Housing Designers VERSUS Potential Purchasers Users – General Public Designers - Professionals
4.Housing Demands : A Datasheeta)Urbanization & PopulationGrowth
5.Sustainable Housing Methodologies: a)Common Approaches: Vernacular approach to design (passive architecture, local materials, use of local labor): Low income/low cost housing and mass housing programme of the government; certain pockets in India (Kerala and Auroville) Adoption of Energy conservation building code in envelope design, labeled appliances for households; particularly applicable to middle and high income group housing Green rated housing : Energy and resource efficiency looked at holistically in addition to indoor environmental quality and societal issues
b) E-House: Used local lumber Preserved mature trees Recycled demolition materials High-efficiency doors and windows Integrated central vacuum Insulated chimney systems High efficiency lighting-control systems Uses wind power Used local labor Accounted for daylight and natural ventilation in planning
c)Green rating for housing• GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment)• LEED rating for homes• Eco housing programme in Pune (Western India)• Tool to facilitate design, construction, operation of a green building ,and in turn ….measure “greenness” of a building in India
Incentives for GRIHA Rated Green Buildings (governmentprojects only)• Reimbursement of rating-cum- registration fee for buildings with higher rating.• Incentives to architects/ design consultants• Capital subsidy for under Ministry’s scheme• Promotional activities (training, awareness generation, capacity building programme)• Incentives to Urban Local Bodies• First 200 Government buildings exempted from paying registration fees in advance. “What gets measured gets managed”
Key highlights of GRIHA • Sets out guidelines for design, construction and Building types operation (new constructions) • Sets performances benchmarks for key Commercial resources like, energy and water Residential • Facilitates integration of traditional knowledge on architecture with present day technology 5 climatic zones Hot – Dry • Integrates all relevant Indian codes and Warm – standards (e.g NBC 2005, ECBC 2007, IS Humid codes) Composite • Is in complete alignment with government Temperate policies and programs (e.g Environmental Cold clearance by the MoEF: GRIHA pre certification gets fast track EIA clearance)
d)Modern Sustainable Techniques: -ENERGY EFFICIENCY -HIGH LEVELS OF INSULATION -EFFICIENT HEATING OF AIR & WATER
-BUILDING MATERIALS -USE OF RENEWABLE, NON TOXICMATERIALS -USE OF RECYCLABLE/RECYCLEDMATERIALS -LOCALLY SOURCED TO REDUCETRANSPORT
7.Conclusion:Henceforth, Sustainable eco-friendly construction is the practice of creating structures using resources that are environmentally responsible and energy- efficient.It encompasses factors such as internal and external design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction.Aim of this is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment.
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DO YOU NEED TO BE AN ARCHITECT TO CONTRIBUTETOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE????HOW ABOUT…..-BUILDER-PRODUCT DEVELOPER-RESEARCHER, OR….-A TEACHER-A HOME OWNER-YOU! NOW! SUSTAINABILITY IS AN ATTITIUDE. IT IS A WAY YOU CAN CHOOSE TO LIVE YOUR LIFE. ---------------------------------------THANK YOU-----------------------------------