Using Pathways for Navigating and Personalised Access to Cultural Heritage Materials Paul Clough The Information School University of SheffieldPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
The Information School • Formerly known as the Department of Information Studies – Formed in 1963 (PG School of Librarianship) – Now in the faculty of social science – http://www.shef.ac.uk/is/ • Leading researchers past and present include – Tom Wilson – Micheline Beaulieu – Steve Whittaker – Mark Sanderson – Peter Willett – Nigel Ford • Now part of the emerging iSchool movementPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Sheffield IR group• Four academics – Prof. Nigel Ford (group leader) – Dr. Paul Clough – Dr. Robert Villa – Prof. Elaine Toms (currently Dalhousie University)• Four RAs – Paula Goodale and Mark Hall (PATHS) – Evangelos Kanoulas (EFireEval) – Monica Paramita (ACCURAT)• Currently 6 PhD students – Mixture of library and information science and computer science backgroundsPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
My areas of research http://ir.shef.ac.uk/cloughie/• Text re-use and plagiarism detection• Multilingual information access• Geographical Information Retrieval (GIR)• Multimedia retrieval (images)• Evaluation of IR systems• User interfaces and interaction• Construction of corpora and evaluation resourcesPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Recent and current research projects• Mining imprecise regions from the Web (EPSRC and Ordnance Survey)• Improving Information Finding at the UK National Archives (TNA)• User-Centered Design of a Recommender System for a Universal Library Catalogue (AHRC and OCLC Inc.)• Analysis and evaluation of Comparable Corpora for Under Resourced Areas of machine Translation (EU FP7)• Personalised Access to Cultural Heritage Spaces (EU FP7)Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Providing Personalised Access to Cultural Heritage Spaces http://www.paths-project.eu/ Clough, P. Stevenson, M & Ford, N. (2011) Personalising Access to Cultural Heritage Collections using Pathways, In Proceedings of Workshop on Personalised Access To Cultural Heritage (PATCH ‘11), IUI 2011.Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Information access in Cultural Heritage • Significant amounts of CH material available online – Web portals, digital libraries, aggregated portals (e.g. Europeana), Wikipedia, … • Users may find it difficult to navigate and interpret wealth of information – keyword-based access provides limited success – many users are not domain or subject experts – limited support for knowledge exploration and discovery • Contrast with traditional mechanisms (e.g. museums) • Cultural institutions looking at new ways of providing rich user experiences to support lifelong learning – user participation (e.g. web2.0), personalisation, …Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Personalisation in Cultural Heritage • Over 20 years of research in using personalisation to improve the user experience in cultural heritage – adapt the suggestion and presentation of information (adaptive hypermedia systems) for physical and virtual worlds – well-suited application domain for personalisation • Involves modelling users, groups and communities to provide appropriate content – provides personalised learning experiences – Recent emphasis on semantic and social web – development of collection-specific ontologies (e.g. CHIP) – user-generated content seen as a useful form of metadata – Derived from: Ardissono et al. (forthcoming 2011)Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Typical user groups in cultural heritage• General user – e.g. cultural tourist• School child• Academic user Derived from Europeana – students user studies – teachers http://www.europeana.org• Expert researcher – e.g. museum curators• Professional user, – e.g. librarian, archivist, etcPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Uses of cultural heritage websites• For entertainment/leisure Derived from – general interest, browsing Europeana user studies• To gain new knowledge http://www.europeana.org – specific interest, targeted• To locate interesting items – purposive, pre-visit• To develop communities of interest – sharing – opinions, knowledge, personal artefacts – social platformPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Information seeking behaviours• Information tasks by professionals (Amin et al., 2008) – information gathering (63.0%) • Topic search – information exchange (13.0%) • Comparison • Combination – fact-finding (10.2%) • Exploration – keeping-up-to-date (8.3%) • Relationship search – information maintenance (5.6%)• Information seeking by non-experts (Skov & Ingwersen, 2008) – focus on virtual museum visitors • Highly visual experience – broad coverage of needs/characteristics • Meaning making – educational purposes including making • Known-item searching sense of items in a collection • Exploratory behaviourPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Related projects • Steve: the museum social tagging project – http://www.steve.museum/ • The SmartMuseum project – http://www.smartmuseum.eu/ • Personal Experience with Active Cultural Heritage – http://peach.fbk.eu/home.html • Cultural Heritage Information Personalisation – http://www.chip-project.org/ • Personalisation of the Digital Library Experience – http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/imls/poodle/ • The Ensemble (Walden’s Paths) project – http://ensemble.tamu.edu/walden_infoPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Personalised Access To cultural Heritage Spaces (PATHS) • STREP funded under the FP7 programme • Duration of 36 months – 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013 • Budget – 3,199,299 euros in total – 2,300,000 euros EU grant • 6 partners in 5 countries • Project management – 334 person months – 8 work packages – 22 deliverablesPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
The consortium • Two universities – Sheffield University – Universidad del Pais Vasco • Two technology enterprises – i-sieve technologies Ltd – Asplan Viak Internet Ltd • Two cultural heritage enterprises – MDR Partners – Alinari 24 Ore Spa • Additional content provider – EuropeanaPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Additional user groups • Wiltshire Heritage Museum • Imperial War Museum • The UK National Archives • Archaeology Data Service • Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze • Biblioteca Virtual Cervantes • Biblioteca Nacional de EspañaPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
The project vision• Provide functionality to support user’s knowledge discovery and exploration• The use of pathways/trails to help users navigate and explore the information space• The use of personalisation (e.g. recommender systems) to adapt views/paths to specific users, groups or communities of users• Show links to other items within and external to an item to help users contextualise and interpret the itemPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Project objectives• Analysis of users’ requirements for discovering knowledge and construction of pathways/trails• Automated organisation and enrichment of Cultural Heritage content for use within a navigation system• Implementation of a system for navigating Cultural Heritage resources applied to multiple data sources• Techniques for providing personalised access to Cultural Heritage content (e.g. recommender systems)• Versions for use on mobile devices and Facebook• Evaluation with user groups and field trialsPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Research areas• Information Access – user-driven navigation through collections of information – knowledge of users’ requirements for access to cultural heritage collections – modelling of user preferences and navigational context• Educational Informatics – adapting to individual learners in relation to being directed and being allowed the freedom to explore autonomously• Content Interpretation and Enrichment – representation and sharing of information about items in Digital Libraries – identifying background information related to the items in cultural heritage collections (e.g. links to Wikipedia pages)Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Pathways for navigation and personalisation• Navigation through the information space is based around the metaphor of “paths” – flexible model of navigation and exploration onto which various levels of personalisation can be added• Paths can provide the following information Which can be – a history of where the user has been adapted and – suggestions of where the user might go next mapped to an – a narrative/story through a set of items individual’s learning styles• Items in a path can be ordered – chronologically – thematically Can be done manually or automatically – ...Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Paths/trails have been studied in many fields• Trails (Memex, 1945) – Associative trails explicitly created by users forming links between stored materials to help others navigate• Destinations (search engines and web analytics) – Origin/landing page (from query), intermediate pages and destination page• Search strategies (information seeking) – Users moving between information sources, perhaps due to changes in their information needs (e.g. Berrypicking)• Guided tours (hypertext) – authors create sequence of pages useful to others (manual) – automatically generated trails to assist with web navigation – used in educational informatics and cultural heritagePresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Existing paths/trails in cultural heritage• The Ensemble (Walden’s Paths) project – http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/walden/ – allow educators to arrange web pages into a series of sequential paths on specific topics – educators can add comments at each node – highly prescriptive and users cannot deviate from paths• Thematic trails – Louvre – http://www.louvre.fr/llv/activite/liste_parcours.jsp?bmLocale=en – selection of works that typify a period, artistic movement or theme (routes provide narrative when viewing physical objects) – trails can be viewed online or printed prior to visit to museum – prescriptive with limited interactivity and personalisationPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Example producedby Jillian Griffiths(MMU) Creating paths: an example Existing subject knowledge
Aeneas Telling Dido of the Disaster at Troy, 1815 by Pierre Narcisse GuérinDido and Aeneas is an opera in a prologue and three acts by the EnglishBaroque composer Henry Purcell to a libretto by Nahum Tate. The first knownperformance was at Josias Priests girls school in London no later than thesummer of 1688. The story is based on Book IV of Virgils Aeneid
Joh. Heinrich d.Ä. Tischbein "Dido and Aeneas escape to a cave before the thunderstorm"The opera recounts the love story of Dido, Queen of Carthage and the Trojanhero Aeneas, and her despair at his abandonment of her.
The Death of Dido, by Andrea SacchiDido, also known as Elissa, was, according to ancient Greek and Romansources, the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia). Sheis best known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid.
Aeneas defeats Turnus, by Luca Giordano, 1634‐1705Aeneas in Greco-Roman mythology, was a Trojan hero, the son of the princeAnchises and the goddess Aphrodite. His father was the second cousin of KingPriam of Troy. The journey of Aeneas from Troy (with help from Aphrodite),which led to the founding of the city Rome, is recounted in Virgils Aeneid.
Henry Purcell, by John Closterman (died 1711)Dido and Aeneas is a monumental work in Baroque opera, it is remembered as one ofPurcells foremost theatrical works. It was Purcells first (and only) all-sung opera and isamong the earliest English operas. It owes much to John Blows Venus and Adonis, bothin structure and overall effect. It is notable for its use of a Ground bass or basso ostinato(obstinate bass) - a type of variation form in which a bass line, or harmonic pattern isrepeated as the basis of a piece underneath variations
Nahum Tate (1652, Dublin – July 30, 1715, Liberty of theMint) was an Irish poet, hymnist, and lyricist, who becameEnglands poet laureate in 1692.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_50zj7J50U Dame Janet Baker sings one of the most beautiful arias of all opera, from Purcells Dido and Aeneas.Glyndebourne, 1966. Conductor: Charles MackerrasOne of the most well known arias is Dido’s Lament, otherwiseknown as ‘When I am laid in earth’
Further paths• Virgil• Virgils Aeneid, Book IV• Dido, Queen of Carthage• Carthage - in modern-day Tunisia• Aeneas• Troy• The founding of the city Rome• Baroque music• Ground bass• Henry Purcell• John Blow• John Blows Venus and Adonis• Nahum Tate• Famous performances and recordings• ...• ...
Our view of pathways• A path is a ‘route’ through an information space – defined as collections of cultural heritage resources – consists of nodes and links to connect nodes (graph)• Nodes can be connected in different ways – pre-computed based on similarity between items – computed on-the-fly (automated) and personalised – defined by system/designers (guided paths) – defined by users (individual or collectively)• Exist as information objects in their own right – can be indexed, organised and shared with others, and will be potential learning objects that can be offered to users alongside the cultural heritage contentPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Paths through an information space Subject knowledge Destination (e.g. taxonomy)search Start recommendations e.g. WW II Start Knowledge discovery / storytelling Destination Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Independent paths• Users can construct their own “independent paths” – can be saved for future reference, edited or shared with others – e.g. “Sheffield steel industry”, “my favourite works by Rembrandt” or “items seen during my trip to London on 6th Feb 2010”• More than a simple list of items in a collection that the user has visited (i.e. bookmarks) – also contain information about the links between the items (relationships) – descriptive text (e.g. annotations, tags) – details of others items connected to them – connections to information both within and outside the collection that provides contextPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Guided paths• Users can also follow pre-defined “guided paths” – created by domain experts, such as scholars or teachers• Provide an easily accessible entry point to the collection – can be followed in their entirety – or left at any point to create an “independent path”• Guided paths can be based around any theme – artist and media (“paintings by Picasso”) – historic periods (“the Cold War”) – places (“Venice”) – famous people (“Muhammed Ali”) – emotions (“happiness”) – events (“the World Cup”) – or any other topic (e.g. “Europe”, “food”)Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Collaborative paths• Groups of users can work collectively to create “collaborative paths” – adding new routes of discovery and annotations that can build upon the contributions made by others• Could be used to encourage social interaction – students working on a group project - the output of which is a trail/pathways – experts working in collaboration to create exhibitions or trails• Paths may also help identify individuals interested in the same topics and themes – identifying where the pathways cross-overPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Users and their goals• Some users may want to create paths as their specific goal (e.g. instructors and curators) – producers – locate and save nodes related to certain themes or subjects – creating learning resources for non-experts by constructing narratives – these experts manually create guided paths but may benefit from assistance with locating and constructing paths• Some users specifically come with the intention of following trails (e.g. students and museum visitors) - consumers – non-experts following static paths created by experts – may deviate from static paths and create individual paths• Other users may not intend generate or follow paths per se – don’t specifically save nodes during their searching – may benefit from paths as a record of interaction for future use – generate paths through user-system interaction, allow post-editingPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
User studies• Focus on studying the activities of people who create pathways – curators, educators, professional historians … – currently interviewing subjects from a range of cultural heritage and educational organisations (from the user groups)• Want to find out the following – Who creates paths and for what purpose(s)? – What processes/tasks are involved in creating paths? – What criteria are used to select items to include in paths? – How are paths adapted to specific audiences? – What tools are used to help create paths and how are they presented? – Where do paths begin and where do they end?• Also want to gather the requirements/needs of the consumers – based on user characteristics, how do users follow paths?Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Desk research: review of previous user studies, comparisons of Contextual analysis and published paths and path‐making tools, sentiment competitor analysis analysis Iterative system Quantitative: user profiles, development and testing info needs and behaviour, cognitive styles User requirements Qualitative: meanings and uses of paths, task analysis Research Literature Explicit pathways: Prototyping expert‐generated Explicit pathways: System refinements user‐generated Implicit pathways: Final system design log data analysis User‐based evaluation criteria: System evaluation
Adapting to individuals and groups• Different users will have differing needs from pathways – system will make user-specific recommendations about items of potential interest as individuals navigate through the collection• Build up knowledge and understanding of users – cognitive styles – expertise/subject knowledge – age explicit User model – gender – language abilities – system interactions (implicit)• User will be offered links to information both within and outside the collection – provide contextual and background information, individually tailored to each user and their contextPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Learning and knowledge discovery• A particular area of focus in PATHS will be on learning and knowledge discovery – help people as they use cultural heritage resources to learn and discover new knowledge• People learn and solve problems differently – some people require a lot of guiding; others are self-directed – some people welcome irrelevant material; others are intolerant – some people creatively explore and come up with new ideas; others want to simply answer a set problem• Users may perform information seeking – must navigate through information spaces – different people may require different levels of assistancePresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Local (analytic) Global Learning/problem-solving goalsConvergent goals. Divergent goals.“Find an answer”. Creatively explore.Learn pre-defined content. Come up with new ideas. Process goalsConcerned with procedures Concerned with conceptual Adopting a navigation path thatand vertical deep detail overview and horizontal broad inter- matches one’s predominant style(procedure building). relationships (description building). can influence the effectiveness of Navigation styles the resultant learning.Serialist navigation style Holist navigation styleNarrow focus. Broad global focus.One thing at a time. Many things on the go at the sameShort logical links between time. Autonomousnodes. Rich links between nodes.Intolerance of strictly Welcoming of enrichment (butirrelevant material. strictly irrelevant) material.Finish with one topic before Layered approach returning to nodesgoing on to the next. at different level of detail. Local Global (analytic) Positive learning outcomesGood grasp of detailed Well developed conceptualevidence. overview.Deep understanding of Broad inter-relationship of ideas. Dependentindividual topics. Good grasp of the “big picture”.In-depth understanding of the Key cognitive dimensions (Pask and Witkin)parts. Characteristic learning pathologiesPoor appreciation of topic Poor grasp of detail.inter-relationships. Over-generalisation.Failing to see the “bigpicture”.
Realising our vision• Stage 1 leads towards functionality of prototype 1 – simple functionality for allowing registration of users – functionality to allow users to manually generate, organise and share static paths – visualisations of document space and provision of basic functionality for searching and browsing• Stage 2 leads towards functionality of prototype 2 – focus on personalisation and recommendation (creating paths dynamically and navigating the document space) – advanced visualisation and search/browse functionalities• Stage 3 generates the additional applications – adapt functionality for Facebook and mobile devicesPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Supporting exploration and discovery• Explore different visualisations – provide representations of the document space (nodes and connections) users can explore and drawing trails – personalise views to reduce irrelevant information• Develop search and browse functionality – jump to specific nodes (e.g. query or through subject ontology) – explore relationships between nodes (e.g. “X student of Y”) – support for more exploratory search behaviours• Supporting adaptation to specific user model – personalised views of results and the collection – personalised navigational paths through the collection – different forms of contextualisation for items (e.g. linking)Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Creating, managing and sharing paths• User registration and definition of custom settings – workspace area for registered users• Functionality (and user interfaces) to allow people to create paths – save nodes discovered during search and browse – arrange and organise nodes – add metadata to nodes (e.g. description and annotations) – edit and refine paths (e.g. add and delete nodes) – automatically suggest nodes to add to paths• Create paths as goal vs. create paths as side effect of interaction• Functionality to allow management of paths (as objects)• Functionality to allow users to follow created paths (users) – presentation/visualisation of path (e.g. history list, graph) – path overlaid on document space (contextualised)Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Developing user interfaces• Advanced visualisations and overviews of info space – spatial metaphors for user interface – different types of collection overview and browsing – document space ordered thematically and hierarchically• Automatic creation of themed collections and paths• Encouraging engagement with pathways – games/quizzes, surprises and use of images – social interaction – diversity in recommendations• Browsing using ostensive relevance feedback models – use past items (not one) to guide future direction of navigation• Approaches for evaluating pathwaysPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Summary• Pathways offer powerful metaphor for navigation onto which personalisation can be added – main focus and areas of novelty for the project• Paths can be used to support various styles of cognitive information processing – surface as different routes taken through information space• Offering users suggested routes will – help them locate information in large collections – help encourage information exploration and discovery – help them fulfil broader activities (e.g. constructing knowledge)• Ultimately paths could help enhance user’s information access experience of digital library resources – but we need to understand users and their specific needs for creating, managing and sharing pathwaysPresentation at York University, 2nd June 2011
Contact Thanks for listening email@example.com PATHS is being funded from the European Communitys Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 270082. We acknowledge the contribution of all project partners involved in PATHS in this presentation (see: http://www.paths-project.eu)Presentation at York University, 2nd June 2011