Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chronic inflammation

Chronic inflammation

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to comment

Chronic inflammation

  1. 1. Chronic Inflammation M Dr. ANAND Asst. Professor
  2. 2. • What is chronic inflamamtion • General Features • Sytemic effects of chronic inflammation • Cells involved • Types • Granuloma
  3. 3. Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is inflammation of prolonged duration (weeks or months) in which inflammation, tissue injury, and attempts at repair coexist, in varying combinations.
  4. 4. CAUSES OF CHRONIC INFLAMMATION 1.Persistent Infection 2. Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases 3. Toxic Agents/FOREIGN BODY
  5. 5. • DOES SURGERY ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC INFLAMMATION • YES • HOW COME? • SUTURE MATERIAL
  6. 6. GENERAL FEATURES
  7. 7. • MONONUCLEAR CELL INFILTRATION • TISSUE DESTRUCTION//NECROSIS • PROLIFERATIVE CHANGES FIBROSIS ANGIOGENESIS
  8. 8. • CHRONIC INFLAMMATION ALWAYS ATTEMPTS TO HEALING
  9. 9. FEATURES Chronic inflammation is characterized by: 1. Infiltration with mononuclear cells, which include macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells 2. Tissue destruction, induced by the persistent offending agent or by the inflammatory cells 3. Attempts at healing by connective tissue replacement of damaged tissue, accomplished by proliferation of small blood vessels (angiogenesis) and, in particular, fibrosis.
  10. 10. • WHAT IS THE KEY PLAYER IN CHRONIC INFLAMMATION??
  11. 11. • MACROPHAGE
  12. 12. • DOES MACROPHAGE DIRECTLY COMES TO CHRONIC INFLAMMATION • NO
  13. 13. • MONOCYTE • MACROPHAGE
  14. 14. WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS SECRETED BY MACROPHAGES??
  15. 15. • CYTOKINES-IL1, IL-2 • INTERFERONS –Y • GROWTH FACTORS- TGF, PDGF, FGF,EGF • [TGF, PDGF------- to stimulate fibroblast] • COMPLEMENT FACTORS[C] • ENZYMES—Proteases, endonucleases, elastases
  16. 16. • Chemotactic factors • NO • Collagenases
  17. 17. • ANY OTHER?? • LYMPHOKINES
  18. 18. • IS NORMAL LYMPHOCYTE SECRETES LYMPHOKINES?? • CD4 Lymphocytes[[Th cells]
  19. 19. THE ROLES OF ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES IN CHRONIC INFLAMMATION : 1.Inflammatory Tissue Injury 2.Repair (Growth Factor Mediated) Fig 2-24 (p72)
  20. 20. MACROPHAGE-LYMPHOCYTE INTERACTIONS IN CHRONIC INFLAMMATION : Fig 2-25 (p73)
  21. 21. TYPES
  22. 22. GRANULOMATOUS INFLAMMATION Granulomatous inflammation is a distinctive pattern of chronic inflammation that is encountered in a limited number of infectious and some noninfectious conditions. Immune reactions are usually involved in the development of granulomas. A granuloma is a cellular attempt to control an offending agent that is difficult to eradicate. .
  23. 23. • In this attempt there is often strong activation of T lymphocytes leading to macrophage activation, which can cause injury to normal tissues
  24. 24. A granuloma is a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages that are transformed into epithelium- like cells, surrounded by a collar of mononuclear leukocytes, principally lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells.
  25. 25. Types of Granulomas I. Foreign body granulomas II. Immune granulomas
  26. 26. Foreign body granulomas Incited by relatively inert foreign bodies. Typically, foreign body granulomas form around material that are large enough to preclude phagocytosis by a single macrophage and do not incite any specific inflammatory or immune response. .
  27. 27. Immune granulomas Caused by agents that are capable of inducing an immune response which produces granulomas usually when the inciting agent is poorly degradable or particulate.
  28. 28. Giant Cells Older granulomas develop an enclosing rim of fibroblasts and connective tissue. Frequently, epithelioid cells fuse to form giant cells in the periphery or sometimes in the center of granulomas. These giant cells may attain diameters of 40 to 50 μm. peripherally (Langhans-type giant cell) or haphazardly (foreign body–type giant cell).
  29. 29. • WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF EPITHELOID CELL • ‘SOLE SHAPE’
  30. 30. SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF CHRONIC INFLAMMATION
  31. 31. • Chronic inflammation is associated with following systemic features: • 1. Fever. Invariably there is mild fever, often with loss of weight and weakness. • 2. Anaemia:chronic inflammation is accompanied by anaemia of varying degree. • 3. Leucocytosis. As in acute inflammation, chronic inflammation also has leucocytosis but generally there is relative lymphocytosis in these cases. • 4. ESR. ESR is elevated in all cases of chronic inflammation.
  32. 32. • Which of the following is always present in chronic inflammation/ • A. Rubor • B. Edema • C. Leucocytosis • D. Increased ESR
  33. 33. MORPHOLOGY
  34. 34. • DRAW A NEAT LABELLED DIAGRAM OF GRANULOMA • PATHOGENSIS OF GRANULOMA • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACUTE &CHRONIC INFLAMMATION

×