CONTAINERISATION : AN INTROduCTION SUBMITTED BY, Astha Pathak Roll no: 66
HISTORY OF CONTAINERISATION• Containerization started in England in 18 th century• In olden days wooden containers were used• The horse-drawn wheeled wagons on the Gangway took the form of containers, which, loaded with coal, could be transshipped from canal barges on the Derby Canal• First vessels purpose-built to carry containers began operation in Denmark in 1951
CONTAINERISATION INITIATION• Obtaining Order of shipment• Withdrawing the cargo from warehouse• Packaging and lifting the cargo manually and by equipments• Unitizing of cargo and transporting it to the port/ place of pickup.• Multiple handling – Can result in delay and loss.
WHAT IS CONTAINERISATION• It is a system of inter-modal cargo transport using standard ISO containers that can be loaded on containerships , railroad cars/trains and trucks• At the beginning containers were made of Steel frames with either Aluminium , Steel or Fibre Glass.• The 3 common standard lengths 20’ ( 6.1M) , 40’ ( 12.2M ) or 45’ (13.7M)• Container capacity of Ships, Yards , Terminals are measured in TEU = Twenty foot Equivalent Units or FEU = Forty foot Equivalent Units .
Pictorial flowchart Shipper books WHL advises port depot to shipment with WHL release empty to Shipper Port depot releases Released empty is taken At Shipper’s premises empty to Shipper to Shipper’s premises shipment stuffed into Contr. laden box taken to vsl side Stuffed laden box upon for loading Stuffed laden box returned return to port is stacked inAt Shipper’s premises to port by Shipper CYshipment stuffed intoContr. laden box is loaded to vsl Ship sails out with the shipment
Types of Containers: VENTILATED Ideal for cargo CONTAINER requiring ventilation 20 BULK CONTAINER For bulk cargoes 20 TANK CONTAINER For transportation of 20 liquid chemicals and food stuffs
Continued……FLAT RACK For over width and heavy20 and 40 cargoPLATFORM For extra length and heavy20 and 40 cargoINSULATED For additional insulation ofCONTAINER sensitive cargo20 and 40
Continued…..DRY FREIGHT General purposeCONTAINER container20 and 40HIGH CUBE CONTAINER 96" High - For over40 and 45 height and voluminous cargoOPEN TOP CONTAINER Removable tarpaulin for20 and 40 top loading of over height cargo
Continued……. REEFER CONTAINER For cooling, freezing or 20 and 40 heating of foods or chemicals 96" High - For over HIGH CUBE REEFER height and voluminous CONTAINER cargo requiring cooling 40 and 45 or freezing
ADVANTAGE• Time Saving• Flexibility between different types of transport• Handling eliminated• Labour Saving• Little Damage• Special containers• Avoid Thefts & Pilferage
DISADVANTAGE• Cost at Labours• Not suitable to transport smaller amount of goods• Delays in delivery• Heavy loads- damaged roads