Lorms2 uneven devt reasons

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Lorms2 uneven devt reasons

  1. 1. COMMON TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE (Chap 9 Reasons for uneven development)TYPE 1 LORMS“X factors are the only factors affecting a country’s level of development.“Do you agree?Explain your answer. [8] e.g. Historical factors are the only factors affecting a country’s level of development.“Do you agree? Explain your answer. [8] Answer in PEEL structure State your stand Explain GF: historical factor Explain OF: any other factor Conclusion (your stand)Historical factorP Firstly, historical factors like colonialism can affect the development of a country. Colonialism refers to the domination of colonial powers over their colonies, usually for raw materials that cannot be found in their own country.E Colonial powers are usually more developed than their colonies as they are develop at their expense. Due to an abundance of readily available unskilled workers in the colonies, colonial powers are able to obtain raw materials at low prices. They also had the technology to convert the raw materials into value-added useful products which could be sold for higher profits. Thus they became richer from the sale of these products, allowing them to improve the infrastructure of their countries and achieve developed country (DC) status quickly. However, in the colonies, development was slow as they gained little profits from the export of low-value raw materials.E For example, the Portuguese colonised Angola in the 15thcentury as there were favourable physical conditions for growing cash crops like cotton and coffee and available labour. Portugal was able to develop quickly from value-adding the raw materials and selling them for higher profits, while Angola earned little profits from the sale of raw materials and developed slowly.L Therefore, historical factors like colonialism can cause core countries to develop faster thanperiphery countries.
  2. 2. Physical factorsP Other than historical factors, physical factors like presence of natural resources and suitable climate for crop growth can also affect the development of a country.Ex1 Countries that are well-endowed with natural resources can usually develop faster than countries without. This is because the money earned from selling the raw materials can be spent on infrastructural improvement projects like improved housing and water treatment plants. These projects will increase the country’s level of development.Eg1 For example, Norway is well-endowed with timber and crude oil which are important raw materials that can be converted into value-added products like furniture and petrol. Thus Norway is able to develop quickly by using the profits from the sale of these products to improve the country’s infrastructure.Ex2 Also, countries experiencing the temperate climate are usually more developed than those experiencing the arid tropical climates. This is because the temperate climate is suitable for growing cash crops which can generate profits. These can be used for infrastructural improvement projects that can develop the country.Eg2 For example, the temperate climate in Canada and USA favours the growing of wheat and oat. Thus they are able to develop quickly by using the profits earned from the sale of the cash crops to improve the infrastructure in their countries and become more developed.L Thus, physical factors like presence of natural resources and suitable climate for crop growth can affect the development of countries.Economical factorsP Other than _(dependent on Qn)_ factors, economical factor of cumulative causation between core and periphery areas can also affect the development of a country.E Core areas are DCs while periphery areas are LDCs. This is due to cumulative causation where the core develop at the expense of periphery by draining LDCs of labour and raw materials. Core areas usually have well-built infrastructure and skilled labour which attracts investments for development of industries. With employment opportunities in core, workers are attracted from periphery. With more people living and working in core, the demand for goods and services increase. This encourages further investments in the core, leading to expansion of existing industries and setting up of new businesses. More jobs are generated so profits and incomes increase, leading to an increase in the overall wealth of the country. The government can receive more tax revenue to improve the country’s infrastructure, which again attracts further investments. This multiplier effect drives core areas to develop quickly. Conversely, the periphery countries are drained of labour and earn little profits from the sale of raw materials, thus develop slowly.E For example, the core area Singapore developed quickly when it was able to attract workers from periphery countries like Bangladesh and the Philippines. However, the development of periphery countries was slower with the draining of labour and raw materials.L Thus, economical factor of cumulative causation can affect the development of countries.
  3. 3. Social factorsP Other than _(dependent on Qn)_ factors, social factors of education and population growth can also affect the development of a country.Ex1 DCs usually have higher literacy rate and therefore develop faster than LDCs. This is because the governments of DCs have wealth to build schools and train teachers to educate its people. The people in DCs gain knowledge and skills and can be employed in the secondary and tertiary industries. These industries are involved in the production and sale of value-added products, resulting in higher profits. The people in DCs thus have higher incomes that contribute to a higher standard of living in their country.Eg1 For example, Italy had a high GDP per capita of more than US$25,000, so it had wealth to provide schools and train teachers. As such, the adult literacy rate was also high at 98.5%.Ex2 DCs also usually have lower population growth and therefore develop faster than LDCs. This is because high population growth often leads to problems of over-population like insufficient food and housing. With lower population growth, countries are able to utilize limited resources more effectively to improve the living conditions for its people and develop quickly.Eg2 For example, since the introduction of the ‘One-child Policy’ in 1979, China has experienced lower population growth with total fertility rate of 1.8 child per woman compared to more than 5 before the implementation of the policy. Thus China has been able to devote limited resources to improve the living conditions in the country, and develop rapidly.L Hence, social factors like education and population growth can affect the development of countries.Political factorsP Other than _(dependent on Qn)_ factors, political factors like political conflict and type of governance can also affect the development of a country.Ex1 LDCs are more likely to experience political conflicts and develop slowly compared to DCs. Conflicts like war or political instability can result in violence and bloodshed. This results in the disruption of businesses and investments. People also become displaced as they flee from their homeland. Tourism is also affected as people are not willing to risk their lives. The economies of such countries will suffer, leading to low development.Eg1 For example, Sierra Leone has experienced political conflict and social instability due to a civil war since early 1990s. This has caused Sierra Leone to be one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world, and is ranked almost the last on the HDI index (2005).Ex2 DCs are likely to experience good governance and develop quickly compared to LDCs. This is because good governments are efficient and have capable leaders who are forward looking and care for both the economic development and the well-being of its people. Thus DCs experience peace and stability, thus attracts investments to develop quickly.Eg2 For example, the government of Norway ensures that there is a profit cap for petroleum producers so that the rest of the money earned goes to its people. This ensures that the wealth generated from Norway’s petroleum industry is shared among its people. They can enjoy a higher standard of living and rate of development.L Thus political factors like political conflict and type of governance can affect the development of countries.
  4. 4. TYPE 2 LORMSDiscuss how X and Y factorscan affect a country’s level of development. Use examples tosupport your answer. e.g. Discuss how historical and economical factors can affect a country’s level of development. Use examples to support your answer. Answer in PEEL structure Introduce how GF1 and GF2 can affect a country’s level of development Explain how GF1 causes LDCs to grow slowly Explain how GF1 may also result in LDCs growing quickly Explain how GF2 causes LDCs to grow slowly Explain how GF2 may also result in LDCs growing quickly Conclusion (your stand)Historical factorP Firstly, historical factors like colonialism can affect the development of a country. Colonialism refers to the domination of colonial powers over their colonies, usually for raw materials that cannot be found in their own country.Ex1 Colonial powers are usually more developed than their colonies as they are develop at their expense. Due to an abundance of readily available unskilled workers in the colonies, colonial powers are able to obtain raw materials at low prices. They also had the technology to convert the raw materials into value-added useful products which could be sold for higher profits. Thus they became richer from the sale of these products, allowing them to improve the infrastructure of their countries and achieve developed country (DC) status quickly. However, in the colonies, development was slow as they gained little profits from the export of low-value raw materials.Eg1 For example, the Portuguese colonised Angola in the 15thcentury as there were favourable physical conditions for growing cash crops like cotton and coffee and available labour. Portugal was able to develop quickly from value-adding the raw materials and selling them for higher profits, while Angola earned little profits from the sale of raw materials and developed slowly.Ex2 However, not all colonies are less developed. Colonial powers usually only developed the transport infrastructure to facilitate the movement of cash crops, thus colonies remain poor. If they provided colonies with social improvement projects like providing education, colonies could develop quickly as well.Eg2 For example, the British colonial powers in Singapore set up schools like Raffles Institution to improve the skills and knowledge of the locals. Thus Singapore was able to develop quickly and achieve DC status even though it was a former colony.L Therefore, historical factors like colonialism affect the development of countries.
  5. 5. Physical factorsP Physical factors like presence of natural resources can affect the development of a country.Ex1 Countries that are well-endowed with natural resources can usually develop faster than countries without. This is because the money earned from selling the raw materials can be spent on infrastructural improvement projects like improved housing and water treatment plants. These projects will increase the country’s level of development.Eg1 For example, Norway is well-endowed with timber and crude oil which are important raw materials that can be converted into value-added products like furniture and petrol. Thus Norway is able to develop quickly by using the profits from the sale of these products to improve the country’s infrastructure.Ex2 However, not every country with an abundance of natural resources always develop quickly. When countries do not use the profits earned from the sale of raw materials appropriately, they remain poor.Eg2 For example, Nigeria is well-endowed with crude oil but large majority of people in the rural areas of Nigeria remain poor because the money earned from oil exports has been mainly used to develop urban areas instead of improving the lives of the rural poor.L Thus, physical factors like presence of natural resources affect the development of countries.Economical factorsP Economical factor of cumulative causation between core and periphery areas can also affect the development of a country.Ex1 Core areas are DCs while periphery areas are LDCs. This is due to cumulative causation where the core develop at the expense of periphery by draining LDCs of labour and raw materials. Core areas usually have well-built infrastructure and skilled labour which attracts investments for development of industries. With employment opportunities in core, workers are attracted from periphery. With more people living and working in core, the demand for goods and services increase. This encourages further investments in the core, leading to expansion of existing industries and setting up of new businesses. More jobs are generated so profits and incomes increase, leading to an increase in the overall wealth of the country. The government can receive more tax revenue to improve the country’s infrastructure, which again attracts further investments. This multiplier effect drives core areas to develop quickly. Conversely, the periphery countries are drained of labour and earn little profits from the sale of raw materials, thus develop slowly.Eg1 For example, the core area Singapore developed quickly when it was able to attract workers from periphery countries like Bangladesh and the Philippines. However, the development of periphery countries was slower with the draining of labour and raw materials.Ex2 However, periphery areas do not necessarily remain less developed. This is due to the spread effect that will spread of wealth and knowledge throughout the periphery from the core. This occurs when governments of periphery countries deliberately encourage investments from core countries. With such investments, cumulative causation can occur in the periphery countries also, enabling them to gain economic development.Eg2 For example, the government of China attracted core countries to invest and set up industries. Transnational brand names like Nike and McDonalds flocked to China, creating jobs and improving the incomes of the people.L Thus, economical factor of cumulative causation affect the development of countries.
  6. 6. Social factorsP Social factors of education and population growth can affect the development of a country.Ex1 DCs also usually have lower population growth and therefore develop faster than LDCs. This is because high population growth often leads to problems of over-population like insufficient food and housing. With lower population growth, countries are able to utilize limited resources more effectively to improve the living conditions for its people and develop quickly.Eg1 For example, since the introduction of the ‘One-child Policy’ in 1979, China has experienced lower population growth with total fertility rate of 1.8 child per woman compared to more than 5 before the implementation of the policy. Thus China has been able to devote limited resources to improve the living conditions in the country, and develop rapidly.Ex2 However, DCs with very low population growth may not necessarily experience a fast rate of growth. This is because they may experience an ageing population where a large proportion of the elderly population is dependent on the smaller workforce. The elderly are more likely to experience healthcare problems and incur a greater social cost. In order to fund their needs, taxes would need to be raised so that the elderly can be taken care of.Eg2 For example, ageing societies in Europe and Japan are now experiencing slower rates of development as the smaller workforce is unable to attract many foreign investors.L Hence, social factors like population growth affect the development of countries.Political factorsP Political factors like type of governance can also affect the development of a country.Ex1 Countries with good governance usually develop quickly. This is because good governments are efficient and have capable leaders who are forward looking and care for both the economic development and the well-being of its people. Thus these countries experience peace and stability, attracting investments to develop quickly.Eg1 For example, since 1978, the new leadership of China dedicated itself to build the economy of the country and to improve the standard of living of its people. Economic reform has helped to open China’s economy to the world, attracting foreign trade and investments. As a result, China has the highest economic growth rate in the world today.Ex2 Although good governance can advance economic growth, not every government official is honest and has integrity when helping the country achieve progress.Also, instead of using the profits earned from economic reform to improve the standard of living of the poor, corrupt officials use the profits for their own benefits, hindering development.Eg2 For example, China still experiences many bureaucratic corruption cases that can cause foreign investors to withdraw their investments. China was ranked 80th out of 176 countries in the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index.L Thus political factors like type of governance can affect the development of countries.

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