Outline:• His Life• Concept of Man• Religious Experience (Revelation)• Conclusion
Abbreviations:• MP- Man’s Place (Philosophical Anthropology)• GW- GesammelteWerke(collections of the manuscripts/works of Scheler) -”On the Eternal in Man,1921”
• Max Ferdinand increasingly non- Scheler (August 22, committal around 1874 – May 19, 1928) 1921. was • After 1921 he a German philosopher disassociated himself known for his work in public from in phenomenology, ethi Catholicism and cs and philosophical the Judeo- anthropology. Christian God• Max Scheler was born committing himself in Munich, Germany with philosophical on August 22, 1874, to anthropology. a Lutheran father and an Orthodox Jewish mother.• As an adolescent, he turned to Catholicism, Max Scheler likely because of its conception of love, although he became
• Scheler studied medicine in Munich and Berlin, both philosophy and sociology under Wilhelm Dilthey and Georg Simmel in 1895. He received his doctorate in 1897 and his associate professorship (habilitation thesis) in 1899 at the University of Jena, where his advisor was Rudolf Eucken, and where he became Privatdozent in 1901.• Scheler has exercised a notable influence on Catholic circles to this day, including his student Stein and Pope John Paul II who wrote his Habilitation and many articles on Schelers philosophy.• Along with other Munich phenomenologists such as Reinach, Pfänder and Geiger, he co-founded in 1912 the famous Jahrbuch für Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung, with Husserl as main editor.
• Scheler also advocated an international university to be set up in Switzerland and was at that time supportive of programs such as continuing education and of what he seems to have been the first to call a United States of Europe.• He deplored the gap existing in Germany between power and mind, a gap which he regarded as the very source of an impending dictatorship and the greatest obstacle to the establishment of German democracy.• Five years after his death, the Nazi dictatorship (1933–1945) suppressed Schelers work.
The Concept of Man“If we ask an educated person in the western world what he means by the word „man‟?...” (MP, 5)
• His philosophical anthropology can be found in his work; Man’s Place ().• It is an attempt to answer the question “What is man?” but he never finish it because of his sudden death in .• He argued that man is distinct from all other creatures yet considered the essences of plants and animals (vitalness of it).
• Furthermore, Scheler defines man as a unique fusion of vital and spiritual being, both part of and yet distinct from mammal and vertebrates.
The Structure of man compared to animals and plants Plants and Vital being animals Vital Being Man Spiritual Being
Vital Being• It is the source of all energy.• It is a mere orientation or a striving toward something or away from it.• It is present in all living organisms.
Spiritual Being• Scheler argued that Spirit “is a genuinely new phenomena which cannot be derived from the natural evolution of life” (MP,36).• It transcends psychophysical life (vital being).
• Scheler argued that spirit “is genuinely new phenomena which cannot be derived from the natural evolution of life” (MP, 36).• Spirit transcends psychophysical life (vital being).
Four Essential Characteristics of the Spirit:1. It opens to the world- can detached himself from his environment making it as the object of contemplation.2. It is the door to self-consciousness.3. It is a pure activity and not a substantial thing (concrete entity).4. Through spirit and the repression of the vital drives, human being has access to the phenomenological intuition of essences.
More over…• Spirit is distinct and has its own nature to the vital being of man.• The spirit of man is capable of objectifying his drives and his environment but cannot objectify itself (spirit) because it is beyond spacio-temporal order yet the spirit of man is impotent and devoid of energy and depends on the vital being to acquire energy coined by Scheler as the process of sublimation- the energy of the lower sphere (vital) is made available to the higher sphere (spirit).
• For Scheler, the experience of the holy/divine is given through rational proof yet in distinct manner of revelation/experience (GW V, 150).• All proofs assume the revelation and this come too late in the attempt to grasp how the holy/divine is experienced/revealed.• A phenomenology of religious experience is a description of the essential characteristics and meaning of revelation.
• Scheler defines revelation as “the type of givenness wherein the divine/holy is given” (GW V, 249).• Thus, givenness is a term used by Scheler and other phenomenologists to name that which is experience in a particular manner.• To suggest that revelation is a peculiar mode of givenness means that the divine is given to the person in a unique manner wholly distinct from rational judgements.
Three Distinct Characteristics of theReligious Act (the act of revelation)
1. The intention of the religious act is ‘world transcending’.- it means that what is posited/suggested in act of revelation is always other than this world, a meaning transcending the finite.2. Related to this intention is the object that fulfils it.- Only the divine/holy fulfils the intention of the religious act. In addition, he is arguing that what is soughtin religious experience is precisely that inprinciple could not be experience in this world:
Divine/Holy-initiates to be given and to be experienced In spite of man’s eagerness ...because he is a spiritualto experience the divine, he being capable of transcending cannot because he is finite ordinary experience to a religious experience. yet he can transcend...
Scheler argued further that we are seeking happiness that would never be possible on the earth and we are hoping in the religious act for that which is impossible and unimaginable (GW V,246)3. The religious act is only fulfilled through a being taken in (aufnahme) by a being of a divine character that reveals itself and gives itself to the human being (GW V, 245)
• In addition, Scheler’s claim that for these to be a religious act, the divine must be given in experience.• The givenness of the divine is the proof of the religious experience or revelation.• For him, religious act is ultimately rooted in an investigation of the human being that is the fundamental and essential aspect of being human (GW V,226).
• Thus, human being executes the intention towards the absolute/divine and is always responding the givenness of it. Human being is a God-seeker (an intention of the absolute).• Scheler claimed, “Every finite spirit believes in a God or in an idol (GW V,261) and an idol is a finite subject that is revered and as if it was a god (GW V, ibid.)
As the student-researcher exposed the Philosophy of Religion and Man, theresearcher analyses the following base on his class lectures and research and try to find similarities and simple conclusions:
• Religious experience from the past lectures presents that it is found in being oriented toward the presence of the divine same for Scheler as he argued that man tends toward the absolute/divine as he is known to be a “God- seeker”.
• It(religious experience) does not represent within the broad human experience but in a specific mode of experience same with Scheler as he claimed that it is personal.
• Religious experience of man for both tends toward the divine as to be found exclusively in the rapport with the ‘transcendent’; e.i. with the beyond.
• The initiative of the divine is clearly seen and noticed. Thus it is first the initiative of the divine to reveal himself to us, human beings.
• Lastly, Man crosses from the finite world (transcending) of the superior power(divine).