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The Importance of Intercultural Competencies
How Organisations Benefit from Expats
CEPA Foundation –
University of North Carolina
Berlin, 09.03.2016
# 2 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Cultural Differences
Please describe your personal
observations and experiences!
# 3 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Imagine…
…there is a company retreat on a small remote
island in the Pacific.
The CEO brought the whole familiy along.
A hurricane warning is issued…
# 4 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Culture – 3 Layers
Artifacts  Visible and feelable
structures and processes
 Observed behavior
Difficult to decipher
Espoused Beliefs
and Values
 Ideals, goals, values,
aspirations
 Ideologies
 Rationalizations
May or may not be congruent
with behavior and other
artifacts
Basic Underlying
Assumptions
 Unconscious, taken-for-
granted beliefs and values
Determine behavior,
perception, thought, and
feeling
(Schein 2010 – Organizational Culture and Leadership)
# 5 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Why is culture important?
(Pattanaik 2013 – Business Sutra)
# 6 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Cultural Identity
Culture is to a group what personality or
character is to an individual.
(Ed Schein)
=> Culture defines the realm of possibilities!
# 7 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
The Impact of Religion in a »Secular« Age
Christian Occident
• One God
• One Lifetime
=> ?
e.g.: India
• Many Gods & Godesses
• Endless Reincanations
=>?
# 8 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Culture and the Organization of Societies
Western World
• Universalism
• »You millions, I
embrace you!«:
The Whole of Mankind
Other Regions
• Family
• Clan
• Tribe
• ROW
# 9 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Intercultural Competencies?
• As long as you can dominate the ROW there
is no need for any intercultural
competencies…
• Maybe a question of attitude?
It‘s the culture, stupid!
# 10 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Social Capital
Trust
# 11 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Trust depends on
• Understanding
• Familiarity
• Experience
• Self-confidence
# 12 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Understanding Social Behavioural Patterns?
• Subliminal
• Experience-based
• reflective
• ?
# 13 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Prerequisite: Respect
Is it wrong?
Or is it just different?
# 14 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
The very beginning
γνῶθι σεαυτόν
Know Thyself!
# 15 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
»Rooted Cosmopolitism«
»Global leaders should not seek to sever or hide their own
roots to become global citizens. Rather, they should
embrace ›rooted cosmopolitism‹ by nurturing their own
roots and branching out beyond them to connect with
counterparts elsewhere who, like themselves, are deeply
rooted in distinct places and cultures. Indeed, studies of
expatriate performance confirm that expats who identify
strongly with both their home and host cultures perform
better than those who identify only with one or with
neither.«
(Ghemawat 2012 – Developing global leaders)
# 16 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
The Role of Expats
• Please give some Examples!
# 17 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
How organizations can benefit from
expats?
# 18 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Benefits – Wrap-up
• …
• …
• …
• …
# 19 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
For further reading…
Al-Jafary, A. A.; Aziz, Abdul; Hollingsworth, A. T. (1989): Leadership styles, Machiavellianism, and needs of Saudi
Arabian managers. In: International Journal of Value-Based Management 2 (1), S. 103–111. Online verfügbar unter
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01714974, zuletzt geprüft am 30.06.2015.
Bouée, Charles-Edouard (2011): China's management revolution. Spirit, land, energy. Houndmills, Basingstoke,
Hampshire,, New York, [Munich]: Palgrave Macmillan; Roland Berger Strategy Consultants. Online verfügbar unter
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/650213805.
Brannen, M. Y.; Thomas, D. C. (2010): Bicultural Individuals in Organizations: Implications and Opportunity. In:
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 10 (1), S. 5–16. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809359580.
Cappelli, Peter (©2010): The India way. How India's top business leaders are revolutionizing management. Boston,
Mass: Harvard Business Press.
Drummond, Helga; Bani Al‐Anazi, Fayyadh (1997): Leadership Styles in Saudi‐Arabia. Public and Private Sector
Organisations Compared. In: Cross Cultural Management 4 (4), S. 3–8. DOI: 10.1108/eb008425.
Ghemawat, Pankaj (2011): Remapping your strategic mind-set. In: McKinsey Quarterly (August), S. 1–12.
Ghemawat, Pankaj (2012): Developing global leaders. In: McKinsey Quarterly (June), S. 1–10.
Hofstede, Geert H. (2001): Culture's consequences. Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations
across nations. 2. Aufl. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
# 20 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
For further reading…
Kessler, Eric H.; Wong-MingJi, D. J. (2010): Cultural mythology and global leadership. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Lee, Yih-teen (2010): Home Versus Host - Identifying With Either, Both, or Neither? The Relationship between Dual
Cultural Identities and Intercultural Effectiveness. In: International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 10 (1), S.
55–76. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809359583.
Lewis, Richard D. (2006): When cultures collide. Leading across cultures : a major new edition of the global guide.
3rd ed. Boston, London: Nicholas Brealey International.
NYU Abu Dhabi Institute (2010): Appreciating and Advancing Leadership for Public Wellbeing. Workshop
Proceedings. Appreciating and Advancing Leadership for Public Wellbeing. Abu Dhabi, UAE, 14.-16.02.2010.
Pattanaik, Devdutt (2013): Business sutra. A very Indian approach to management. New Delhi: Aleph Book
Company.
Sarayrah, Yasin Khalaf (2004): Servant Leadership in the Bedouin-Arab Culture. In: Global Virtue Ethics Review 5 (3),
S. 58–79.
Schein, Edgar H. (2010): Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Wiley (Jossey-Bass Business &
Management).
Spittler, Gerd (1990): Führer und Karawane. In: Hans Oswald (Hg.): Macht und Recht. Festschrift für Heinrich Popitz
zum 65. Geburtstag. Opladen: Westdt. Verl., S. 175–195.
# 21 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de
Centre for Leadership
ZFF - Zentrum für Führung GmbH
Peter Gräser
p.graeser@centre-for-leadership.com
www.centre-for-leadership.com

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The Importance of Intercultural Competencies - How Organisations Benefit from Expats

  • 1. The Importance of Intercultural Competencies How Organisations Benefit from Expats CEPA Foundation – University of North Carolina Berlin, 09.03.2016
  • 2. # 2 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Cultural Differences Please describe your personal observations and experiences!
  • 3. # 3 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Imagine… …there is a company retreat on a small remote island in the Pacific. The CEO brought the whole familiy along. A hurricane warning is issued…
  • 4. # 4 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Culture – 3 Layers Artifacts  Visible and feelable structures and processes  Observed behavior Difficult to decipher Espoused Beliefs and Values  Ideals, goals, values, aspirations  Ideologies  Rationalizations May or may not be congruent with behavior and other artifacts Basic Underlying Assumptions  Unconscious, taken-for- granted beliefs and values Determine behavior, perception, thought, and feeling (Schein 2010 – Organizational Culture and Leadership)
  • 5. # 5 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Why is culture important? (Pattanaik 2013 – Business Sutra)
  • 6. # 6 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Cultural Identity Culture is to a group what personality or character is to an individual. (Ed Schein) => Culture defines the realm of possibilities!
  • 7. # 7 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de The Impact of Religion in a »Secular« Age Christian Occident • One God • One Lifetime => ? e.g.: India • Many Gods & Godesses • Endless Reincanations =>?
  • 8. # 8 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Culture and the Organization of Societies Western World • Universalism • »You millions, I embrace you!«: The Whole of Mankind Other Regions • Family • Clan • Tribe • ROW
  • 9. # 9 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Intercultural Competencies? • As long as you can dominate the ROW there is no need for any intercultural competencies… • Maybe a question of attitude? It‘s the culture, stupid!
  • 10. # 10 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Social Capital Trust
  • 11. # 11 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Trust depends on • Understanding • Familiarity • Experience • Self-confidence
  • 12. # 12 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Understanding Social Behavioural Patterns? • Subliminal • Experience-based • reflective • ?
  • 13. # 13 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Prerequisite: Respect Is it wrong? Or is it just different?
  • 14. # 14 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de The very beginning γνῶθι σεαυτόν Know Thyself!
  • 15. # 15 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de »Rooted Cosmopolitism« »Global leaders should not seek to sever or hide their own roots to become global citizens. Rather, they should embrace ›rooted cosmopolitism‹ by nurturing their own roots and branching out beyond them to connect with counterparts elsewhere who, like themselves, are deeply rooted in distinct places and cultures. Indeed, studies of expatriate performance confirm that expats who identify strongly with both their home and host cultures perform better than those who identify only with one or with neither.« (Ghemawat 2012 – Developing global leaders)
  • 16. # 16 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de The Role of Expats • Please give some Examples!
  • 17. # 17 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de How organizations can benefit from expats?
  • 18. # 18 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Benefits – Wrap-up • … • … • … • …
  • 19. # 19 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de For further reading… Al-Jafary, A. A.; Aziz, Abdul; Hollingsworth, A. T. (1989): Leadership styles, Machiavellianism, and needs of Saudi Arabian managers. In: International Journal of Value-Based Management 2 (1), S. 103–111. Online verfügbar unter http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01714974, zuletzt geprüft am 30.06.2015. Bouée, Charles-Edouard (2011): China's management revolution. Spirit, land, energy. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire,, New York, [Munich]: Palgrave Macmillan; Roland Berger Strategy Consultants. Online verfügbar unter http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/650213805. Brannen, M. Y.; Thomas, D. C. (2010): Bicultural Individuals in Organizations: Implications and Opportunity. In: International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 10 (1), S. 5–16. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809359580. Cappelli, Peter (©2010): The India way. How India's top business leaders are revolutionizing management. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business Press. Drummond, Helga; Bani Al‐Anazi, Fayyadh (1997): Leadership Styles in Saudi‐Arabia. Public and Private Sector Organisations Compared. In: Cross Cultural Management 4 (4), S. 3–8. DOI: 10.1108/eb008425. Ghemawat, Pankaj (2011): Remapping your strategic mind-set. In: McKinsey Quarterly (August), S. 1–12. Ghemawat, Pankaj (2012): Developing global leaders. In: McKinsey Quarterly (June), S. 1–10. Hofstede, Geert H. (2001): Culture's consequences. Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. 2. Aufl. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
  • 20. # 20 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de For further reading… Kessler, Eric H.; Wong-MingJi, D. J. (2010): Cultural mythology and global leadership. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Lee, Yih-teen (2010): Home Versus Host - Identifying With Either, Both, or Neither? The Relationship between Dual Cultural Identities and Intercultural Effectiveness. In: International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 10 (1), S. 55–76. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809359583. Lewis, Richard D. (2006): When cultures collide. Leading across cultures : a major new edition of the global guide. 3rd ed. Boston, London: Nicholas Brealey International. NYU Abu Dhabi Institute (2010): Appreciating and Advancing Leadership for Public Wellbeing. Workshop Proceedings. Appreciating and Advancing Leadership for Public Wellbeing. Abu Dhabi, UAE, 14.-16.02.2010. Pattanaik, Devdutt (2013): Business sutra. A very Indian approach to management. New Delhi: Aleph Book Company. Sarayrah, Yasin Khalaf (2004): Servant Leadership in the Bedouin-Arab Culture. In: Global Virtue Ethics Review 5 (3), S. 58–79. Schein, Edgar H. (2010): Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Wiley (Jossey-Bass Business & Management). Spittler, Gerd (1990): Führer und Karawane. In: Hans Oswald (Hg.): Macht und Recht. Festschrift für Heinrich Popitz zum 65. Geburtstag. Opladen: Westdt. Verl., S. 175–195.
  • 21. # 21 | p.graeser@zentrum-fuer-fuehrung.de Centre for Leadership ZFF - Zentrum für Führung GmbH Peter Gräser p.graeser@centre-for-leadership.com www.centre-for-leadership.com