What is the Crown’s legal “duty to consult”? Dr. M.A. (Peggy) Smith, R.P.F. Faculty of Forestry & the Forest Environment L...
The Legal Duty to Consult <ul><li>Aboriginal title: legal right based on historic occupation & land use; “sui generis” (un...
The Duty to Consult <ul><li>Consultation: more than minimum acceptable standard </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out in “good fai...
Supreme Court of Canada Decisions on Aboriginal & Treaty Rights CASE DATE OUTCOME Calder 1973 Recognition of Nisga’a “owne...
Supreme Court of Canada Decisions   (cont’d) Source: Anderson & Bone 2003: 6 CASE DATE OUTCOME Delgamuukw 1997 Duty to con...
Historic treaties and modern day land claims
The Sparrow Test <ul><li>Is there an existing Aboriginal or treaty right? </li></ul><ul><li>Has there been an infringement...
Justification <ul><li>Is there a  valid legislative objective  to regulation or development? </li></ul><ul><li>Does regula...
Justification   (cont’d) <ul><li>What is a valid legislative objective? </li></ul><ul><li>“ of compelling & substantial im...
“ Meaningful” Consultation <ul><li>Minimal & justified infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Proper notice </li></ul><ul><li>Suff...
Jurisdiction: Pass-the-buck syndrome <ul><li>Constitution gives federal government responsibility for “Indians & lands res...
How does Ontario consult with Aboriginal Peoples? <ul><li>Resource development split between Ministry of Natural Resources...
Ontario’s Mining Act <ul><li>MNDM: Ontario’s Mineral Development Strategy: “initiating discussions with the goal of develo...
Is OMNR fulfilling its legal duty to consult? <ul><li>“ Fundamental barriers exist, such as lack of agreement about the na...
MNR is making attempts, but faces challenges <ul><li>No recognition of Aboriginal & treaty rights </li></ul><ul><li>Passin...
Ontario Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs Current Negotiations: NAN <ul><li>Northern Table with Nishnawbe Aski Nation, 2007- ...
Current Negotiations: Treaty #3 <ul><li>Letter of Intent, Oct. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>To build a new relationship </li></u...
Current Negotiations: Anishinabek Nation <ul><li>Anishinabek Table, Nov 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Good governance </li></ul><...
First Nations in resource stewardship <ul><li>A chance to transform the way we look after lands & resources </li></ul><ul>...
Examples of Co-Management <ul><li>Newfoundland: Co-management with Innu Nation  ( Forestry in Nitassinan  http://www.innu....
References <ul><li>Guirguis-Awadalla, Cathy, Stephanie Allen and Merrell-Ann Phare. 2007. Consulting with the Crown: A Gui...
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Consultation &amp; Sustainability2

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Consultation &amp; Sustainability2

  1. 1. What is the Crown’s legal “duty to consult”? Dr. M.A. (Peggy) Smith, R.P.F. Faculty of Forestry & the Forest Environment Lakehead University KI6 Teach-In, April 21, 2008
  2. 2. The Legal Duty to Consult <ul><li>Aboriginal title: legal right based on historic occupation & land use; “sui generis” (unique) </li></ul><ul><li>Aboriginal & treaty rights recognized & affirmed in s. 35, Constitution Act, 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Crown has fiduciary (trust) obligation to uphold rights; honour of Crown involved </li></ul><ul><li>Aboriginal priority use over others, subject to conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Title must be proven in court; oral testimony allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Rights may be infringed by Crown, but minimally & with justification and compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Justification requires “meaningful” consultation </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Duty to Consult <ul><li>Consultation: more than minimum acceptable standard </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out in “good faith” </li></ul><ul><li>Intent: to substantially addressing concerns of Aboriginal peoples whose lands are at issue </li></ul><ul><li>Case-specific—each community has to negotiate with the Crown </li></ul>
  4. 4. Supreme Court of Canada Decisions on Aboriginal & Treaty Rights CASE DATE OUTCOME Calder 1973 Recognition of Nisga’a “ownership” or “Aboriginal title”; led to land claims Constitution Act, 1982, s. 35(1): “The existing aboriginal & treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed. S. 35(2): &quot;aboriginal peoples of Canada&quot; includes Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples Sparrow 1990 s. 35 must be interpreted liberally; the Sparrow test
  5. 5. Supreme Court of Canada Decisions (cont’d) Source: Anderson & Bone 2003: 6 CASE DATE OUTCOME Delgamuukw 1997 Duty to consult; oral evidence given equal weight with historic written evidence in land claim cases, standards for proving rights based on historic use Haida 2004 Crown (province & federal governments) has major duty to consult, not private companies Mikisew 2005 Duty to consult applies to treaty areas, not just Aboriginal title areas (Treaty #8) Sappier & Gray 2006 Mi’kmaq have right to harvest timber on Crown land for personal use
  6. 6. Historic treaties and modern day land claims
  7. 7. The Sparrow Test <ul><li>Is there an existing Aboriginal or treaty right? </li></ul><ul><li>Has there been an infringement of the right? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the infringement be justified? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Justification <ul><li>Is there a valid legislative objective to regulation or development? </li></ul><ul><li>Does regulation/development honour special trust relationship (fiduciary duty) of the Crown to Aboriginal peoples, upholding the “honour of the Crown”? </li></ul><ul><li>Is infringement minimal ? </li></ul><ul><li>Were Aboriginal people affected by regulation/development consulted prior to ? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Justification (cont’d) <ul><li>What is a valid legislative objective? </li></ul><ul><li>“ of compelling & substantial importance to the community as a whole” ( R. vs Gladstone , 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of agriculture, forestry, mining & hydroelectric power </li></ul><ul><li>General economic development of interior BC </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of environment or endangered species </li></ul><ul><li>Building of infrastructure & settlement of foreign populations to support above aims </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ Meaningful” Consultation <ul><li>Minimal & justified infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Proper notice </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient information </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate consideration of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Means to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for different values & knowledge systems </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, approval & consent of Aboriginal people </li></ul>
  11. 11. Jurisdiction: Pass-the-buck syndrome <ul><li>Constitution gives federal government responsibility for “Indians & lands reserved for Indians” </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial government has authority for management & development of natural resources within prov boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>S. 35 protects Aboriginal & treaty rights </li></ul><ul><li>Whose responsibility? </li></ul>
  12. 12. How does Ontario consult with Aboriginal Peoples? <ul><li>Resource development split between Ministry of Natural Resources (forests/parks), Ministry of Northern Development & Mines (mining), Ministry of Energy (hydro) </li></ul><ul><li>No co-ordinated approach, especially in light of Mikisew ’05 </li></ul><ul><li>New minister of Aboriginal Affairs, Michael Bryant </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral negotiations: Northern Table with Nishnawbe Aski Nation, Anishinabek Nation, Chiefs of Ontario (gaming revenues) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ontario’s Mining Act <ul><li>MNDM: Ontario’s Mineral Development Strategy: “initiating discussions with the goal of developing improved consultation approaches that work for all of us – Aboriginal peoples, Ontario and the minerals industry” </li></ul><ul><li>Holder of a prospector’s licence may prospect for minerals and stake out a mining claim on any Crown lands, surveyed or unsurveyed—”free entry” </li></ul><ul><li>Gives province control over sub-surface rights </li></ul><ul><li>No mention of Aboriginal or treaty rights </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation inadequate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Is OMNR fulfilling its legal duty to consult? <ul><li>“ Fundamental barriers exist, such as lack of agreement about the nature and scope of Aboriginal and Treaty Rights. Issues are complex and progress towards broad solutions requires participation of agencies and levels of government beyond the MNR.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ MNR does not have the legislative mandate to interpret treaties or assess rights. The province of Ontario has historically taken the view that the treaties are to be read literally, while First Nations contend that the spirit & intent of the treaties are quite different from the written documents. This lack of shared premises has hampered negotiations in some instances.” </li></ul>(from Ontario’s State of the Forest Report, 2001)
  15. 15. MNR is making attempts, but faces challenges <ul><li>No recognition of Aboriginal & treaty rights </li></ul><ul><li>Passing buck to federal government </li></ul><ul><li>Struggling to find a way to create shared understanding of meaning of treaties with Aboriginal communities </li></ul><ul><li>Relying on current rules for “consultation” which are no more than “minimum acceptable standard” </li></ul><ul><li>Not providing Aboriginal communities the means to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Not consulting on certain key decisions affecting Aboriginal & treaty rights—allocation of timber resources and licenses </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ontario Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs Current Negotiations: NAN <ul><li>Northern Table with Nishnawbe Aski Nation, 2007- </li></ul><ul><li>Development of MOU between MNR & NAN to implement Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act </li></ul><ul><li>Development of notification protocol for MNR licences & permits for resource development activities </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss land use planning, including approaches for balancing traditional & non-traditional activities for NAN First Nations both in far north & southern parts of NAN </li></ul>
  17. 17. Current Negotiations: Treaty #3 <ul><li>Letter of Intent, Oct. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>To build a new relationship </li></ul><ul><li>One-time capacity investment $100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Council Treaty #3’s Earth Law </li></ul>Minister of Aboriginal Affairs Brad Duguid, student Rochelle Kelly and Grand Council Treaty 3 Ogichidaakwe Diane M. Kelly at Onigaming First Nation.
  18. 18. Current Negotiations: Anishinabek Nation <ul><li>Anishinabek Table, Nov 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Good governance </li></ul><ul><li>Effective institutions and negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and family well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities in economic development and sustainability </li></ul>
  19. 19. First Nations in resource stewardship <ul><li>A chance to transform the way we look after lands & resources </li></ul><ul><li>Creating room for Aboriginal ideas of “keeping the land” </li></ul><ul><li>Aboriginal connection to the land, through hunting, fishing, trapping & gathering & knowledge that comes with it is essential for long-term stewardship </li></ul><ul><li>Will help to ensure a fair share of economic benefits from resource development goes to Aboriginal communities </li></ul>
  20. 20. Examples of Co-Management <ul><li>Newfoundland: Co-management with Innu Nation ( Forestry in Nitassinan http://www.innu.ca/forest/forestindex.htm , Government of Newfoundland & Labrador http://www.gov.nl.ca/releases/2001/forest/0131n03.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Algonquins of Barriere Lake, Trilateral Agreement Cultural information factored into Allowable Cut determination http://www.algonquinnation.ca/ancom/barriere.html# </li></ul><ul><li>James Bay Cree, La Paix des Braves Grand Council of the Crees http://www.gcc.ca/ and Province of Quebec Ministry of Forests http://www.mrnfp.gouv.qc.ca/english/press-release-detail.jsp?id=809 </li></ul><ul><li>Nuu-chah-nulth Comprehensive Planning Board </li></ul>
  21. 21. References <ul><li>Guirguis-Awadalla, Cathy, Stephanie Allen and Merrell-Ann Phare. 2007. Consulting with the Crown: A Guide for First Nations. Centre for Indigenous Environmental Resources, Winnipeg, MB. 43 pp. + appendices. http://www.cier.ca </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald, Michael J. 2003. Aboriginal Forestry in Canada pp. 230-256 in Anderson, R.B. and R.M. Bone, Natural Resources and Aboriginal People in Canada: Readings, Cases and Commentary. Captus Press, Concord, ON. </li></ul><ul><li>Full judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada can be found at http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/. </li></ul>

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