Critique of Grunigs 4 PR Models

16,169 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
8 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
16,169
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
267
Comments
0
Likes
8
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • - Approach associated with propaganda – truth was not necessary bt the influence of public opinion was paramount. It persuades n manipulate ple to accept their line of thinking.
  • - He was an american showman n business man –started as a store keeper –purchase the right to show a blind n almost paralzed slave woman hu was nt more that 80yrs. Also exploited Tom Thumb the smallest man that ever walked alone. Hu was 4 btsedhe was 11
  • They stretch the truth to promote stories. PublicityBarnum changed the idea about theatre form dens of evil to palaces of edification and delight. He built the largest and most modern theatre which he named moral lecture room to attract large crowds
  • Creating news worthy stories and events to attract media and to gain public notice.
  • Creating news worthy stories and events to attract media and to gain public notice.
  • Creating news worthy stories and events to attract media and to gain public notice.
  • They tell a story n hope some 1 is listening – move among enlighten PR practitoners towards more truthful messages
  • Creating news worthy stories and events to attract media and to gain public notice.Lee encourged the open disclosure of infor to journalists b4 they cld hear the infor s where else. – he sed the public had the right to be informed. He sed the public ought not be damned but infomed. He saw himself as a laisonbetween the public n de org. lee engaged in one-way propadander for clients despised by the piblic.
  • time; truth campaign in 2001, a real phone call to Lorillard, tobacco company
  • outlook of Members of the org. is diff frm how outsiders see the orgControl of costLeaders of the org know best & have more knowledge than publicsChange is undesirable. Outside effort to efect change is resistedPower shld b concentrated in the hands of fewHelps to maintain culture and org stability
  • Screw driver was seen in a pepsi bottle
  • Critique of Grunigs 4 PR Models

    1. 1. • TOPIC – Critique Grunig and Hunt’s four models of Public Relations, drawing out the circumstances under which each model may be used by PR practitioners. • GROUP 3 – ANTOINETTE GYAN – VIVIAN ASIBI – FRED BAIMBILL – JOHNSON
    2. 2. • This presentation seeks to broaden our understanding of PR Models with particular reference to the four models of Grunig and Hunt.• There will be practical examples to aid our understanding
    3. 3. Who are the writers – James E. Grunig and Todd Hunt were the first to define four typical ways in which public relations is practiced. – They came up with these models in 1984 to guide Public Relations Practice. – They were meant to direct, craft, plan and strategize for PR practice.
    4. 4. Definitions• Public relations – the “management of communication between an organisation and its publics” Grunig and Hunt (1984).• Models – conceptual frameworks that describe the application of a theory to particular cases.
    5. 5. What Is it? • Creating news worthy stories and events to attract media and to gain public notice. (Cutlip, Center and broom, 2000). • This is a one-way communication that beams messages from a source to a receiver with the express intention of persuading the recipient to action. (Fraser Seitel, 2003 ). • It is a one-way communication that uses persuasions and manipulations to influence audiences to behave in a way that favours an organisation.
    6. 6. HISTORY • Started in the 19th century and it only worked to influence behaviour. • Phineas Taylor Barnum is the father of Press Agentry. • He combined fantasy and half truths in his circus to sell his messages.
    7. 7. FACTORS OF INFLUENCE. o PROMOTIONS o POPULARISATIONS o CHANGE A BAD REPUTATION
    8. 8. CRITIQUE
    9. 9. BENEFITS• Press agents seek to change behaviours to favour or enhance the personalities and the organisations they work for. For Promotions• It helps to repair lost image• It entertains
    10. 10. DOWNSIDES • This model is a one way communication and the interest of the public is not considered. • It does not do surveys or research to ensure accuracy and credibility - manipulate. • Press Agents sometimes lie and this is not ethical.
    11. 11. Who uses it & when. • SPORTS PEOPLE AND CELEBRITIES – • David Bekham, Michael Essien • John Mahama – personality campaign for election • MOVIE AND LIVE SHOWS – • the premier of Adam’s apple. Samini and Damarco show
    12. 12. PUBLIC INFORMATION
    13. 13. What is it? • it is a one-way communication designed not to necessarily to persuade but rather to inform. Fraser Seitel (2003) • This model uses no research to guide their work. • It moves away from pseudo events and half- truths and this is a significant shift to ethical practice.
    14. 14. HISTORY • According to Grunig and Hunt (1984), the public information model was developed as a reaction to attacks on large corporations by muckracking journalists • Ivy Lee’s work characterised the public information model. • It started in the C20th , when there was a shift towards truth and accuracy • Public information agents acted as ‘Journalist in residence’ • They used press releases and brochures
    15. 15. FACTORS OF INFLUENCEo Timeo Cost of doing researcho Eagerness to promote brand or an idea
    16. 16. CRITIQUE
    17. 17. BENEFITS• They thrive on truth and accuracy• They deal with more ethical practices• It informs the public about government policies and activities.
    18. 18. DOWNSIDES• They do not consider feedback from the audience to be essential in constructing messages.• It is one-way in direction.• They do not undertake research.
    19. 19. Who uses it & When. • Government organisations – • E C Announcement, • Ghana Highways Authority- after constructing new roads. • Businesses – Nestle Nutrition line on joy
    20. 20. • What is it? – Uses research to develop messages that are most likely to persuade publics to behave in a particular as the organization wants. (Grunig & white 1992) – ‘Scientific Persuasion’- the goal is for the public to adjust to the organisations position. – Research and planning – Feedback?
    21. 21. HISTORY– Edward Bernays • Models- women right advocates • Torches of freedom • ‘Lucky strike’ cigarettes
    22. 22. FACTORS OF INFLUENCE• Internal Orientation• Efficiency• Elitism• Conservatism• Central Authority• Tradition
    23. 23. CRITIQUE
    24. 24. BENEFITS• It is very cost effective.• Ability to predict publics’ behavioral patterns.• A strategy could be reviewed if any new information is found.• Incorporates lots of feedback from target audiences and publics• Organization is in control of its information strategy
    25. 25. Downsides• Even though this is a 2 way model it is not mutually beneficial• ‘Persuasion’ sounds suspicious and unethical• Feedback is primarily not to serve the interest of the publics.• Focus is to achieve a short term attitudinal change• Aim of the model is not to reform the organizational behaviors• Under this system, organisation assumes an omniscient role where it believes it knows everything
    26. 26. Who uses it and When– Social causes- AIDS Campaigns, Health Campaigns • Eg. Pepsi hoax in 1993….. ‘Pepsi is pleased to announce …… nothing’ • Zenith Bank annually has a Health walk for its customers.– Competitive businesses – Advertising • Telecoms company (MTN) promotions • Other promos
    27. 27. 2 WAY SYMETRIC MODEL
    28. 28. • What is it? – this model seeks understanding for mutual benefit of both organisation and publics – Information is freely exchanged between both parties – It is largely regarded as the best of the 4 model. – Evaluative research is used to determine the success of each campaign
    29. 29. ELEMENTS OF THE SYMMETRY MODEL• HONESTY• THOROUGH RESEARCH• OPEN COMMUNICATION• MUTUAL RESPECT & UNDERSTANDING• NEGOTIATION AND WILLINGNESS TO ADAPT
    30. 30. FACTORS OF INFLUENCE– INTERDEPENDENCE– OPEN SYSTEM– STABLE IMAGE
    31. 31. CRITIQUE
    32. 32. BENEFITS• It builds mutual trust btn parties• End results are negotiated and are often in the interest of both parties• Trust often leads to loyalty of the publics to the organisation
    33. 33. Downsides• It can be very expensive• Negotiations could delay implementation of strategy• End product might not reflect initial plan of organisation
    34. 34. Who uses it and When• Integrated Institutions : Goldfields and oil companies often liaise with communities in which they operate and provide them with needed amenities in exchange for peaceful co-existence.• NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS: in disbursing and using available funds, USAID and other development Agencies engage beneficiary communities.
    35. 35. • THANKS FOR LISTENING ANNETTE ASIBI FRED ©2012ANY QUESTIONS?

    ×