Entendiendo a Europa y sus mercados


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Entendiendo a Europa y sus mercados

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Entendiendo a Europa y sus mercados

  1. 1. The European Union:493 million people – 27 countries Member states of the European Union Candidate countries
  2. 2. Founding fathers New ideas for lasting peace and prosperity… Konrad Adenauer Alcide De Gasperi Winston Churchill Robert Schuman Jean Monnet
  3. 3. The EU symbols The European anthem The European flag Europe Day, 9 May The motto: United in diversity
  4. 4. 23 official languages
  5. 5. Eight enlargements 1952 1973 1981 1986 1990 1995 2004 2007
  6. 6. The big enlargement:healing the division of Europe 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall – end of Communism EU economic help begins: Phare programme 1992 Criteria set for a country to join the EU: • democracy and rule of law • functioning market economy • ability to implement EU laws 1998 Formal negotiations on enlargement begin 2002 Copenhagen summit agrees enlargement 2004 10 new EU members: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia 2007 Bulgaria and Romania join the EU © Reuders Candidates Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey
  7. 7. The Lisbon treaty - taking Europe intothe 21st century The Treaty will make the European Union: More efficient Simpler processes, full-time president for the Council, etc. More democratic Stronger role for the European Parliament and national parliaments, "Citizens initiative", Charter of Fundamental Rights, etc. More transparent Clarifies who does what, greater public access to documents and meetings, etc. More united on High Representative for Foreign Policy, etc. the world stage More secure New possibilities to fight climate change and terrorism, secure energy supplies, etc. Signed in December 2007 – enter into force when ratified by all 27 EU countries.
  8. 8. A transparent Union at your service The website of the European Union europa.eu One and a half million documents available to the public Europe Direct contact centre Answers your questions: 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 Europe Direct relays Over 400 EU Info Points across the EU European Union Documents Access to internal documents upon request The European Ombudsman Deals with complaints over EU administration Nikoforos Diamandouros, the EU ombudsman
  9. 9. EU population in the world Population in millions, 2007 1322 497 301 128 142 EU China Japan Russia United States
  10. 10. The area of the EU compared to the restof the world Surface area, 1 000 km² 16 889 9327 9159 4234 365 EU China Japan Russia United States
  11. 11. How rich is the EU compared to the restof the world? 37 300 27 800 24 700 10 793 10 035 10 000 6 400 3676 1 326 468 EU China Japan Russia United States EU China Japan Russia United States Size of economy: Gross Domestic Product in Wealth per person: Gross Domestic Product billion of euros, 2006 per person in Purchasing Power Standard, 2007
  12. 12. France 544.0 Spain 506.0 Sweden 410.3 Germany 357.0 Poland 312.7 Finland 304.5 Italy 295.1United Kingdom 243.8 Romania 230.0 Greece 130.7 Bulgaria 111.0 Hungary 93.0 Portugal 91.9 Austria 82.5 How big are the EU countries?Czech Republic 77.3 Ireland 68.4 Lithuania 62.7 Latvia 62.3 Surface area 1 000 km² Slovakia 49.0 Estonia 43.4 Denmark 43.1 Netherlands 33.8 Belgium 30.3 Slovenia 20.1 Cyprus 9.3 Luxemburg 2.6 Malta 0.3
  13. 13. Germany 82.4 France 63.4United Kingdom 60.9 Italy 59.1 Spain 44.5 Poland 38.2 Romania 21.6 Netherlands 16.3 Greece 11.2 Portugal 10.6 Belgium 10.5Czech Republic 10.3 Hungary 10.1 Sweden 9.0 Austria 8.3 How many people live in the EU? Bulgaria 7.7 497 million Denmark 5.4 Slovakia 5.4 Population in millions, 2007 Finland 5.3 Ireland 4.3 Lithuania 3.4 Latvia 2.3 Slovenia 2.0 Estonia 1.3 Cyprus 0.8 Luxemburg 0.5 Malta 0.4
  14. 14. GDP per inhabitant: the spread of wealth GDP per inhabitants in Purchasing Power Standards, 2007 Index where the average of the 27 EU-countries is 100 280 144 131 129 127 123 121 118 117 113 113 104 102 100 94 89 87 79 77 75 67 66 63 58 56 53 38 37 Spain Portugal Ireland Hungary Finland Poland Belgium EU-27 Cyprus Greece Czech Republic Sweden United Kingdom Germany Italy Estonia France Slovenia Luxembourg Denmark Malta Slovakia Netherlands Latvia Romania Bulgaria Lithuania Austria
  15. 15. How is the EU’s money spent? Total EU budget 2008: 129.1 billion euro = 1.03% of Gross National Income Citizens, freedom, security and justice 1% The EU as a global player: including development aid Other, administration 6% 6% Natural resources: Sustainable growth: agriculture, new jobs, cohesion, environment research 43% 45%
  16. 16. Climate change – a global challenge To stop global warming, EU leaders decided in 2007 to:  reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020 (30% if other developed countries do likewise)  improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020  raise the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020 (wind, solar, hydro power, biomass)
  17. 17. Energy sources in a changing world Types of fuel used for making Import dependency: share of fuel imported from energy in the 27 EU countries, 2005 outside the EU-countries, 2005 100% 82% Gas Oil 35% 37% 57% 50% 39% Nuclear Coal 14% 18% Renewables 0% 7% Coal Oil Gas Nuclear Renewables All types (uranium) of fuel
  18. 18. Jobs and growth Challenges: Demography: Europeans live longer, have fewer children Globalisation: European economy faces competition from other parts of the world Climate change: Emission of greenhouse gases must come down Solutions: European leaders have therefore agreed on a joint strategy for: More research and innovation A more dynamic business environment Investing in people A greener economy
  19. 19. Research - investing in the knowledge society Spending on research and development in percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 2006 3.3% 3.0% 2.6% 1.8% 1.3% EU EU objective China Japan United States for 2010
  20. 20. Solidarity in practice: the EU cohesion policy 2007-2013: 347 billion euro invested for infrastructure, business, environment and training of workers for less well-off regions or citizens  Regional fund  Social fund  Cohesion fund Convergence objective: regions with GDP per capita under 75% of the EU average. 81.5% of the funds are spent on this objective. Regional competitiveness and employment objective.
  21. 21. The euro – a single currency for Europeans Can be used everywhere in the euro area Coins: one side with national symbols, one side common Notes: no national side EU countries using the euro EU countries not using the euro
  22. 22. Beating inflation European Economic and Monetary Union: stable prices Average annual inflation in the 15 EU-countries that used the euro in 2008
  23. 23. The single market: freedom of choiceSince 1993: 2.5 million new jobs prices of phone calls and airfares halved Four freedoms of movement: goods services people capital © Getty Images
  24. 24. Free to move “Schengen”:  No police or customs checks at borders between most EU countries  Controls strengthened at EU external borders  More cooperation between police from different EU countries  Youcan buy and bring back any goods for personal use when you travel between EU countries © Corbis
  25. 25. Going abroad to learn Over two million young people have studied or pursued personal development in other European countries with support from EU-programmes: Comenius: school education Erasmus: higher education Leonardo da Vinci: vocational training Grundtvig: adult education Youth in Action: voluntary work and non-formal education© Getty Images
  26. 26. Improving health and the environment Pollution knows no borders – joint action needed EU action has helped bring us:  Cleaner bathing water  Much less acid rain  Lead-free petrol  Free and safe disposal of old electronic equipment  Strict rules on food safety from farm to fork  More organic and quality farming  More effective health warnings on cigarettes  Registration and control of all chemicals (REACH)© Van Parys Media
  27. 27. An area of freedom, security and justice  Charter of Fundamental Rights  Joint fight against terrorism  Policeand law-enforcers from different countries cooperate  Coordinatedasylum and immigration policies  Civil law cooperation © European Union Police Mission
  28. 28. The EU: an exporter of peace and prosperity  World trade rules  Common foreign and security policy  Development assistance and humanitarian aid EU runs the peacekeeping operations and the rebuilding of society in war-torn countries like Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  29. 29. The EU – a major trading power Share of world trade Share of world trade in goods (2006) in services (2005) EU EU 17.1% 26% Others Others 44.9% 50.5% United States 16% Japan United States 6.6% 18.4% China China Japan 9.6% 3.8% 6.9%
  30. 30. The EU is the biggest provider of development aidin the world The EU provides 60% of all development aid 93€ 53€ 44€ EU Japan United States Official development assistance per citizen, 2007
  31. 31. Three key players The European Parliament - voice of the people Hans-Gert Pöttering, President of the European Parliament The council of Ministers - voice of the Member States Javier Solana, Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union and High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy The European Commission - promoting the common interest José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission
  32. 32. Three pillars The European Union European Common Police and Community foreign and judicial domain security cooperation (most of policy in criminal common matters policies) The Treaties
  33. 33. The EU institutions European Council (summit) Council of Ministers European Parliament (Council of the EU) European Commission Court of Court of Economic and Social Justice Auditors Committee Committee of the Regions European Investment Bank Agencies European Central Bank
  34. 34. How EU laws are made Citizens, interests groups, experts: discuss, consult Commission: makes formal proposal Parliament and Council of Ministers: decide jointly National or local authorities: implement Commission and Court of Justice: monitor implementation
  35. 35. The European Parliament – voice of the people Decides EU laws and budget together with Council of Ministers Democratic supervision of all the EU’s work Number of members elected in each country Austria 18 Finland 14 Latvia 9 Romania 35 Belgium 24 France 78 Lithuania 13 Slovakia 14 Bulgaria 18 Germany 99 Luxembourg 6 Slovenia 7 Cyprus 6 Greece 24 Malta 5 Spain 54 Czech Republic 24 Hungary 24 Netherlands 27 Sweden 19 Denmark 14 Ireland 13 Poland 54 United Kingdom 78 Estonia 6 Italy 78 Portugal 24 Total 785
  36. 36. The European political parties Number of seats in the European Parliament per political group (March 2008) Alliance of Liberals and Independence/ Democrats for Europe Democracy 101 European People’s Party 24 Greens/European (Christian Democrats) Free Alliance and European Democrats 43 288 Socialist Group Union for Europe 215 of the Nations 44 Total : 785 Non-attached members and European United temporarily empty seats Left - Nordic Green Left 29 41
  37. 37. Council of Ministers – voice of the member states One minister from each EU country Presidency: rotates every six months Decides EU laws and budget together with Parliament Manages the Common Foreign and Security Policy
  38. 38. Council of Ministers – number of votes percountry Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom 29 Spain and Poland 27 Romania 14 Netherlands 13 Belgium, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary and Portugal 12 Austria, Bulgaria and Sweden 10 Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovakia and Finland 7 Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg and Slovenia 4 Malta 3 Total: 345 “Qualified majority” needed for many decisions: 255 votes and a majority of member states
  39. 39. Summit at the European Council Summit of heads of state and government of all EU countries Heldat least 3 times a year Sets the overall guidelines for EU policies
  40. 40. The European Commission – promotingthe common interest 27 independent members, one from each EU country  Proposes new legislation  Executive organ  Guardian of the treaties  Represents the EU on the international stage
  41. 41. The Court of Justice – upholding the law 27 independent judges, one from each EU country  Rules on how to interpret EU law  Ensures EU laws are used in the same way in all EU countries
  42. 42. The European Central Bank:managing the euro Ensures price stability Controls money supply and decides interest rates Works independently from governments Jean-Claude Trichet President of the Central Bank
  43. 43. The European Economic and Social Committee:voice of civil society 344 members Represents trade unions, employers, farmers, consumers etc Advises on new EU laws and policies Promotes the involvement of civil society in EU matters
  44. 44. The Committee of the Regions:voice of local government 344 members Represents cities, regions Advises on new EU laws and policies Promotes the involvement of local government in EU matters
  45. 45. Civil servants working for the EU Commission: about 24 000 civil servants Other EU institutions: about 10 000 employed Permanent civil servants Selected by open competitions Come from all EU countries Salaries decided by law EU administration costs 15 euro per EU citizen per year