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Conference Presentations
The person who presents the research gets 
the credit 
• Paul Chu: first superconductor with a boiling 
point above liquid nitrogen 
• Maw-Kuen Wu and Jim Ashburn declined to 
speak and are not remembered
The presenter gets the credit 
• Zhengzhi Sheng, a postdoctoral researcher at the 
University of Arkansas, discovered another 
superconductor at an even higher temperature. 
• Because Sheng was not a good speaker, the 
department chair, Allen Hermann, spoke at the 
press conference. Although Hermann repeatedly 
acknowledged the contribution of Sheng, 
Hermann was the one who received most of the 
credit.
Bad conference presentations 
• You’ve seen poor conference presentations 
• The speaker: 
• Sits 
• Reads 
• Speaks in a dead, low voice 
• Uses sentences which are long and complex 
• Uses technical words and phrases. 
• Emphasizes complicated details 
• Runs out of time
• An effective talk must do two things: 
1. Persuade you audience with evidence 
2. Be interesting and entertaining. 
Principles of effective conference presentations 
Talk, instead to reading 
Stand up 
Move around 
Make eye contact with your audience 
Don’t only look at one side of the room 
Imitate excellent speakers
Why do smart people give poor talks? 
• Poor speaking is a reaction to fear. 
• Presentations are not journal articles. They're a 
completely different communication, and they 
require different skills.
Bohr vs. Nusslein-Volhard 
Bohr: 
“Whereas Einstein tried to grasp a hidden essence by 
disregarding anything he thought irrelevant, Bohr 
insisted that nothing be left out.” – Edward 
MacKinnon 
“Bohr was much worse. His failing was that he used too 
many words to express any idea, wandering about as 
he spoke, often inaudibly.” – Sir Mark Oliphant 
Nusslein-Volhard: 
Scope moves from simple to specific 
Simple short sentences
Bohr’s Nobel prize acceptance speech 
• “Today, as a consequence of the great honor the Swedish 
Academy of Sciences has done me in awarding me this 
year’s Nobel Prize for Physics for my work on the 
structure of the atom, it is my duty to give an account of 
the results of this work, and I think that I shall be acting 
in accordance with the traditions of the Nobel Foundation 
if I give this report in the form of a survey of the 
development which has taken place in the last few years 
within the field of physics to which this work belongs.”
Nies Bohr: Nobel prize acceptance 
• “The present state of atomic theory is characterized by the 
fact that we not only believe the existence of atoms to be 
proved beyond a doubt, but also we even believe that we 
have an intimate knowledge of the constituents of the 
individual atoms. I cannot on this occasion give a survey of 
the scientific developments that have led to this result—I 
will only recall the discovery of the electron toward the 
close of the last century, which furnished the direct 
verification and led to the conclusive formulation of the 
conception of the atomic nature of electricity which had 
evolved since the discovery by Faraday of the fundamental 
laws of electrochemical theory, and its greatest triumph in 
the electrolytic dissociation theory of Arrhenius.”
Einstein on Bohr 
• Bohr stated “his opinions like one perpetually 
groping and never like one who believes 
himself to be in possession of definite truth.”
Christine Nusslein-Volhard 
• In the life of animals, complex forms alternate with 
simple ones. An individual develops from a simple 
one-celled egg that bears no resemblance on the 
complex structure and pattern displayed in the 
juvenile and adult form. The process of embryonic 
development with its highly ordered increase in 
complexity accompanied by perfect reproducibitiy, is 
controlled by a subset of the animal genes. Animals 
have a large number of genes. The exact number is 
not known for any multicellular organism, nor is it 
known how many and which are required for the 
development of complexity, pattern, and shape 
during embryogenesis. To identify these genes and 
to understand their functions is a major issue in 
biological research.
Scientific presenters 
• Successful scientific presenters 
– Ludwig Boltzmann 
– Albert Einstein 
– Richard Feynman 
– Rita Levi-Montalcini 
– Linus Pauling 
• Became strong presenters later in their careers 
– Heinrich Hertz, 
– J. Robert Oppenheimer 
– Chien-Shiung Wu 
• Rise above those obstacles to make successful 
presentations 
– Marie Curie
Michael Faraday on presenting 
• “[Lectures] depend entirely for their value on 
the manner in which they are given. It is not 
the matter, not the subject, so much as the 
man.”
Scientists who used analogies, 
examples, and stories 
• Otto Frisch when describing the size of a nucleus: “If 
an atom were enlarged to the size of a bus, the 
nucleus would be like the dot on this i.” 
• Einstein used the analogy of “shooting sparrows in 
the dark”7 to describe the likelihood of producing 
nuclear energy with alpha particles striking nitrogen 
nuclei. 
• Fred Soechting when describing his work with 
turbine blades in gas turbine engines: “The amount 
of power produced by a single gas turbine blade 
equals that of a Masarati sports car.”8
Issac Asimov on Linus Pauling 
• “On March 21, 1949, I attended a lecture 
given by Linus Pauling.... That talk was the 
best talk by anyone on any subject that I had 
ever heard…. The talk was more than a talk to 
me. It filled me with a desire of my own to 
become a speaker.”
James Watson on Pauling’s presentations 
• “Pauling’s talk was made with his usual dramatic flair. 
The words came out as if he had been in show business all 
his life. A curtain kept his model hidden until near the end 
of his lecture, when he proudly unveiled his latest creation. 
Then, with his eyes twinkling, Linus explained the specific 
characteristics that made his model—the α-helix— 
uniquely beautiful…. Even if he were to say nonsense, his 
mesmerized students would never know because of his 
unquenchable self-confidence.”
David L. Goodstein on Robert Feynman 
• “[Feynman] absolutely riveted the attention of 
everyone in the room for the entire time he was there. 
His need to do that helps explain some of the racy 
stories he liked to tell about himself, but it also lies 
close to the core of what made him a great teacher. 
For Feynman, the lecture hall was a theater, and the 
lecturer a performer, responsible for providing drama 
and fireworks as well as facts and figures. This was 
true regardless of his audience, whether he was 
talking to undergraduates or graduate students, to his 
colleagues or the general public.”
Professor David Goodstein on Robert 
Feynman 
“But even when he thought he was explaining things 
lucidly to freshmen or sophomores, it was not always 
really they who benefited most from what he was 
doing. It was more often us, scientists, physicists, 
professors, who would be the main beneficiaries of 
his magnificent achievement, which was nothing less 
than to see all of physics with fresh new eyes.”
Oppenheimer’s early lectures 
• Consider J. Robert Oppenheimer’s early 
lectures given at California-Berkeley in 1929. 
Only twenty-five years old, but already well 
known for his work on the quantum theory, 
Oppenheimer began his teaching that first 
semester with a class full of eager graduate 
students. 
• Halfway through the semester, though, the 
number of students registered for his course 
had dropped to one.
Daniel J. Kelves on Robert Oppenheimer 
• “Desperately eager to reach his students, his 
sensitivities sharpened by his own past difficulties, 
Oppenheimer made it a point to pay as much attention 
to the troubles of his charges as to the intricacies of 
his subject. His language evolved into an oddly 
eloquent mixture of erudite phrases and pithy slang, 
and he learned to exploit the extraordinary talent for 
elucidating complex technical matters.”
Result of Oppenheimer’s 
practice 
• Later students found him to be “the most 
stimulating lecturer they had experienced.”
Nobel Prize winner Hans Bethe about 
Oppenheimer 
• “Probably the most important ingredient 
Oppenheimer brought to his teaching was his 
exquisite taste. He always knew what were 
the important problems, as shown by his 
choice of subjects. He truly lived with those 
problems, struggling for a solution, and he 
communicated his concern to the group.”
Lise Meitner on Ludwig Boltzmann 
(the developer of the statistical treatment of atoms) 
“Boltzmann had no inhibitions whatsoever about 
showing his enthusiasm when he spoke, and this 
naturally carried his listeners along. He was fond of 
introducing remarks of an entirely personal character 
into his lectures.”
Lise Meitner on Ludwig Bolzmann 
• “[The lecturing of Boltzmann] was the most 
beautiful and stimulating thing I have ever 
heard.... He was so enthusiastic about 
everything he taught us that one left every 
lecture with the feeling that a completely new 
and wonderful world had been revealed.”
Eve Curie on her mother Marie 
Curie 
• “On Monday and Wednesday, my mother was nervous and 
agitated from the time she got up. At five o’clock on these 
days she lectured. After lunch she shut herself into her study in 
the Quai de Béthune, prepared the lesson, and wrote the heads 
of chapters of her lecture on a piece of white paper. Towards 
half-past four she would go to the laboratory and isolate 
herself in a little rest room. She was tense, anxious, 
unapproachable. Marie had been teaching for twenty-five 
years; yet every time she had to appear in the little 
amphitheater before twenty or thirty pupils who rose in unison 
at her entrance she unquestionably had “stage fright.”
10 tips to develop confidence in conference 
presentations 
1. Expect to be nervous 
2. Prepare 
3. Practice 
4. Breathe 
5. Rehearse 
6. Focus on your audience 
7. Simplify 
8. Picture success 
9. Connect with your audience 
10. Pretend to be confident
Advantages and disadvantages of 
different sources for speech 
Sources Advantages Disadvantages 
Speaking from 
points 
Credibility earned 
Ease of adjusting speech 
Eye contact 
Natural pace 
Wording not exact 
Long preparation time 
Memorizing Precision 
Smooth delivery 
Credibility earned 
Eye contact 
Potential for disaster 
Unnatural pace 
Inability to adjust speech 
Long preparation time 
Reading Precision 
Smooth delivery 
Credibility undercut 
Lack of eye contact 
Unnatural pace 
Inability to adjust speech 
Long preparation time 
Speaking off the cuff No preparation time 
Eye contact 
Natural pace 
Potential for disaster 
Difficulty in organizing 
Lack of visual aids
Situations appropriate for each 
source of speech 
Sources Situation 
Speaking from points Conference presentation 
Presentation at business meeting 
University lecture 
Memorizing First few words of presentation 
Short introduction of a speaker 
Reading Press conference 
Quotation within a presentation 
Complex wording within presentation 
Speaking off the cuff Answering a question 
Asking a question
Voice quality 
• You should vary your voice, so it can be more interesting for 
your audience. You can vary your voice in at least three ways: 
– speed: Speak at a normal speed, faster, more slowly, and you can stop 
completely! You can also pause to get your audience's attention. 
– tone: Change the pitch of your voice. Speak in a high tone or speak in 
a low tone. 
– volume: you can speak at a normal volume, loudly and you can speak 
quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can attract your 
audience's interest. 
• The important point is not to speak in the same, flat voice throughout 
your presentation. This will put your audience to sleep.
Face the audience and speak loudly and clearly 
• Don’t look at your slides makes you to speak to the screen. 
This quiets your voice and breaks your contact with the 
audience. 
• Look at slides on your laptop screen in front of you 
• If you must look at the main screen, look at it quickly and 
then face the audience. 
• Make simple slides with short text, so you won’t have trouble 
knowing where you are when you quickly look at the screen.
Think about your presentation goals 
• In conference talks you should have at least two goals: 
1. leave your audience with a clear picture of your 
contribution, 
2. make them want to read your paper.
Focus on the main points 
• Your audience is not going to remember details. So, less is more. 
• You do not need to provide all the background on how you reached 
this interpretation. 
• You do not need to defend the validity of your idea. 
• You don't need to give a literature review. 
• Give short, take-home points that they’ll remember. They can always 
read your paper later, but if you don’t interest them, they will not 
read it. 
• Don't summarize popular ideas. 
• Don't assume that a critic familiar to you is familiar to everyone else. 
• Consider the audience to whom you are speaking.
Think about your audience 
• Most audiences should be targeted in layers: 
– some are experts in your specific area, 
– some are experts in the general area 
– others know little or nothing. 
• Who is most important to you? Can you still leave others with 
something? For example, target the body to experts, but 
make the prediction and summary to everybody.
Timeline showing presenter reaching multiple 
audiences by beginning at surface of the topic, diving 
into a subject, and then surfacing to gather entire 
audience.
• Audience attention 
Don’t try to say too much, use handouts for 
all supplemental materials. 
Never go longer than 45 minutes — most 
people’s maximum attention span. 
If you exceed this limit, you’ll lose them at 
the crucial point; your conclusion.
Have a timing device 
• Use a watch or cell phone with a timing function. 
• PowerPoint’s “Presenter Tools” has a stopwatch. The 
problem is remembering to start the stopwatch at the 
beginning of your talk. 
• Develop your sense of timing by always using the same slide 
format. 
• Decide in advance which slides you can skip 
• As a beginning speaker, don’t leave your outline 
– Don’t try to do something unplanned during a talk. 
– Practice telling a joke or a story and make your audience 
think you just thought of it
A short conference talk outline 
• Title/author/university (1 slide) 
• Abstract (1 slide) -Give the basic problem and answer. 
• Outline (1 slide) -Give the talk structure. 
• Motivation and Problem Statement (1-2 slides) -Why does 
anyone care? 
• Related Work (0-1 slides) -Talk briefly about this, or you can 
eliminate this section and refer people to your paper. 
• Methods (1 slide) -Cover quickly in short talks and refer 
people to your paper. 
• Results (4-6 slides) -Present key results with implications. This 
is the main body of the talk. Do not cover all the results. 
Cover the key result well. 
• Summary (1 slide) 
• Future Work (0-1 slides) 
• Backup Slides (0-3 slides)
Using quotes in your speech 
• If you quote another source, pause and indicate the quote by 
saying "quote . . . . . end quote." 
• Don't use long quotes or quote too much material. Your audience 
wants your ideas, not what you have found from others. 
• If it is necessary to include long quotes, give the audience a 
handout 
• Read the speech out loud as you revise. 
• Be careful criticizing other scholars.
• About PowerPoint 
– PowerPoint saves time compared to writing on the whiteboard. 
– Don’t use all PowerPoint’s fades, transitions, backgrounds and sound 
effects. 
• Talk to the audience, not the screen 
– One of the worst presenter mistakes is to face the screen while 
talking. If you do this, the audience will be looking at your back, and 
they won't be able to hear you.
• Prepare for computer problems 
– many things can go wrong with the computer, the projector, the 
software, the connector cables, your USB, or your presentation. 
– Don’t assume that what works on a PC will work on a Mac. 
– Don’t assume your host will have the same version of PowerPoint that 
you do. 
• Bring backup 
– Begin making backups several days before the talk. 
– Use a USB, a CDROM, or some other common format. 
– Internet backup isn't reliable, you can't be sure you'll have a 
connection. 
• Bring printed notes or outlines 
– If the computer or the projector dies in the middle of your talk, you'll 
have no time to fix it. 
– Be prepared to deliver your talk without the slides. Bring printed 
notes.
Other presentation problems 
• Someone asks a question about an issue you plan to discuss 
later. 
– Answer the question briefly, and say you plan to go into detail later. 
• You lose your thought in mid-sentence. 
– Smile, say "excuse me" and start again. 
• You plan to go through a handout page by page but people 
are moving ahead of your speech. 
– Don't give handouts until after the presentation is over. 
– Give people a rough idea of where different parts are located, then 
people are more likely to stay with you. 
• Your throat dries out 
– Roll a tiny piece of paper into a small ball and place it between your 
gum and your facial tissue in the back of your mouth. It will stimulate 
the flow of saliva.
• Someone starts a private conversation while you are 
speaking. 
– First, ask if there are questions. 
– Second, ask if you can do anything to clarify. 
– If they will not stop, continue your presentation but move 
nearer to them. Lower your voice or pause. 
• Notice your audience and respond to their needs 
• Take control of the environment 
• Distribute copies of your paper
• Conference presenters can use humor to help the audience: 
– Remember the main points 
– See the big picture 
– Retain information longer 
– Interact with members of the audience 
– Present a sensitive idea without the audience getting 
angry 
– Feel free to express themselves 
• Humor takes practice 
– You need to make a connection with the audience by 
promoting interaction and openness. 
– You can develop humor by talking to some of the audience 
before the presentation
Inappropriate humor for conferences: 
• Don’t do the following in conference presentations: 
1. Use prepared jokes that have no connection to your 
purpose 
2. Read your jokes and stories. 
3. Laugh at your own jokes; or start laughing before you tell 
them. 
4. Announce that you are going to tell a joke; and apologize 
if it is bad. 
5. Criticize the audience for not laughing. 
6. Tell stories that make fun of others or make them look 
bad. 
7. Act like you are better than others. 
8. Use humor that the audience may not understand. 
9. Embarrass people. 
10. Tell dirty stories.
Using PowerPoint at 
Conferences
Don’t Write Everything and Read 
• Your PowerPoint presentation should: 
– Clarify ideas 
– Emphasize key points 
– Show relationships 
– Provide visual information to ensure the audience 
understands your message
Slides Should be Short 
• Slides help you, and your audience, follow the flow of 
the talk. 
• Not too full: 6 lines of text per slide is enough; 9 lines is 
a lot; 12 lines is unreadable. 
• Bullet points should be a few words, not complete 
sentences. 
• If you need more space, use more slides.
Use Big Type 
Change the font size in the Preferences of the browser, 
when using a web presentation.
Determining Font Size 
• Your audience may be look at the screen from 
70 feet away. 
• Fonts should be 24 points or larger
Choosing a Font 
• From a distance, you’ll notice that the serif (Times) 
font and the ‘narrow’ or condensed font are more 
difficult to read. Don’t sacrifice readability for style. 
Your job is to communicate.
Use the Correct Font for Easy 
Reading 
• For handouts or take-home material, use a serif 
font. 
• For projecting on a screen, using a slide, overhead 
or multimedia projector, use a sans serif font. 
Because serif fonts can look fuzzy when projected.
• Choosing a color 
– Yellow with black letters is considered the most readable. 
• Color blindness 
– Unwanted light affects color contrast by turning dark reds 
and greens much lighter. 
– About 10% of people have difficulty with reds and greens. 
• Use contrasting colors 
– A dark background with light text is easily readable 
– Use drop shadows 
– Avoid busy backgrounds 
– Avoid using red text 
– AVOID ALL CAPS!
Choose White or Light Colored 
Slide Backgrounds 
• Dark text on light colored slides can usually be read 
with lights on. 
• Avoid dark images that won’t show up well on a 
screen. 
• Be aware that sunlight shining directly on your 
screen will make it less visible.
Presenting with Charts 
• Simplify charts 
– Changing the chart format 
– How do you know when to use which chart? That depends 
on how well you’ve stated the message. 
– Your heading should always tell people what you want 
them to look for on a chart. 
• Choosing the chart 
– Once you have an action statement as a heading, look at 
the verbs in the statement to get an idea of the best chart 
to use to present your data.
→ Showing Change Over Time 
• Look for a key word 
– Grow 
– Decline 
– Trends 
Line chart 
• Line charts are best when a variable has more than 
four or five data point. 
• The slope of the line quickly tells the audience the 
direction of the trends.
→ Comparing Items at One Point in Time 
• Look for a key word 
– Ranks 
– Compares 
– Highest profit 
– The lowest interest rate 
– The most products sold 
Bar chart 
– Rank variables from largest to smallest 
• Bar charts are often the best way to compare a set of individual 
items or several sets of related items. 
• The bar’s length corresponds to its ranking; the bar’s label identifies 
the item.
→ Comparing Parts of a Whole 
• Look for key words 
– Percentage 
– Portion 
– Share 
• The number of pie slices should not be more than 
five, and each slice should be easy to see and 
interpret. 
Pie chart
→ Comparing Data by Geographic Location 
• Look for key words 
– Country 
– Area 
Segmented bar chart 
• Distinguish among regions by using different colors, 
shadings, or symbols.
Additional Tips for Graphs and Charts 
1. Show one message per chart. Make the message the heading. 
2. Make the chart easy to read. Make the most important text largest, the 
most important data lines or sections darkest. 
3. Be accurate. Always start a numerical axis at zero. Compare only like 
variables. 
4. Eliminate all unnecessary details. 
5. Use no more than four colors per visual. 
6. To focus attention, use color, shading, or images such as arrows to 
highlight key words or concepts. 
7. Write in upper and lower case. Words written in all capitals letters are 
hard to read. 
8. Make bars and columns wider than the spaces between them.
Don’t Get too Technical 
• The more advanced the technology, the more likely 
there are to be “technical problems.” Speakers often 
come in at the last minute and are completely 
destroyed when their equipment doesn’t work. It 
creates panic for everyone. Always send a copy of 
your presentation to the conference office in 
advance so it can be loaded and tested.
Don’t Apologize for Errors 
• Don’t apologize for poor English speaking, it wastes 
time and adds no value to your talk. Don’t comment 
on spelling, grammatical, or other mechanical errors 
in your presentation. Most of the audience won’t 
notice unless you apologize.
Buy a Laser Pointer and Wireless 
Mouse 
• They are inexpensive, and are extremely useful. It 
is helpful to be able to change pages from across 
the room and point out key graphs and charts.
The Last Thing on Your 
PowerPoint 
• At the end of your presentation while answering 
questions, leave up a contact info slide containing 
your name, e-mail, address, and website URL related 
to the talk if you have one.
Handling Q&A
Why Are Questions and Answers 
Important? 
• Questions and answers are important for several 
reasons: 
– Get attention 
– Create interest 
– Get feedback 
– Make points easy to remember 
– Create audience interaction 
– Promote new thoughts 
• To get comfortable with Q&A sessions and questions, 
start asking questions throughout your presentations.
Before the Presentation 
• Prepare for criticism by telling your ideas to a critical 
friend. 
• Bring a list of references when answering questions. 
• Take notes of questions and suggestions. 
• Don’t be afraid to say you don’t know the answer to 
a particular question. 
• If you are using slides, save several slides and use 
them to answer expected questions.
At the End of the Presentation 
• There are two endings to a presentation with a final Q&A 
session. 
Example: 
“At this point, I want to get your opinion on this approach. 
This side of the room first.” 
• The second close is after the questions to summarize the 
main points of your presentation. 
Example: 
“As you can see from the questions and comments, this topic 
is confusing and we don’t have all the answers but here is 
what you can do for now...”
After the Presentation 
• Sometimes question time is so exciting that you can’t 
answer all the questions with the time you have. Tell 
people ways to contact you and when and how you 
will respond. Think of ways to share these questions 
and answers with all members of the audience 
through an e-mail list or Web site.
12 Ways to Encourage Audience 
Questions 
• 1. Announce the question session in an open, 
conversational way. 
• 2. Design questions into your content and delivery: 
– Title: Why Knowledge Management? —and Why 
Now? 
– Opening: What is the biggest problem facing 
researchers today? 
– Content: “My presentation is about four key 
questions.” 
– Ending: Considering these facts, how can you not act?
• 3. Ask a question, pause and then give the answer yourself. 
• 4. Bring up questions you have been asked by other audience. 
• 5. Let the audience know in the beginning there is a Q&A 
session, and “when” it is and “how long” it is. 
• 6. Provide a seating arrangement where the audience can 
see each other. 
• 7. List questions in the presentation announcement or 
brochure. 
• 8. Provide a white board for the audience to write a 
question at any time. Start your Q&A session by answering 
these questions.
• 9. Pass out paper for the audience to submit their 
questions. They may forget what they were 
going to ask earlier. This is often used at public 
meetings and when the audience is large. 
• 10. Don’t ask for feedback and then start to pack up 
your laptop or your notes. This sends the clear 
signal that you are done and ready to go. 
• 11. Arrange for someone in the audience to ask the 
first question to start the process. 
• 12. Ask yourself what questions you hope no one asks 
and then prepare to answer them.
Why Do People Ask Questions? 
– Because they want to know the answer 
– Because they want to make a point 
– To impress the audience 
– To see if you know the answer 
– To see how you handle questions and the stress 
– To attack your methodology 
– To make you look bad (for example, if they are 
competing with you for a job) 
– Some ask questions that are in fact a personal attack 
(but not often)
• Don’t let an interesting but unrelated question 
start you on a new speech. 
• Don’t let your presentation continue on thinking 
the Q&A time is extra time for your presentation. 
• Consider questions as an honor your presentation. 
Good ideas create questions. Boring presentations 
make people leave.
3 Step Template for Answering 
Questions 
1. Listen to the entire question before you 
answer 
2. Thank each person for asking the question. 
3. Then follow the template below. 
Repeat→Respond→Review
Additional Tips on Handling 
Questions 
• Ask people to stand up when they ask a question. 
This does two things: 
1. It shows you who is asking the question 
2. Makes it easier for the audience to hear the 
question
What If You Don’t Know the 
Answer? 
– Suggest someone in the audience more qualified answer 
the question. “Professor M. has studied this extensively.” 
– Delay, “That’s a good question...” 
– Ask a question: “Can you clarify what you mean?” 
– Admit you don’t know but will research it for them. 
– Repeat the question in a different way: “Is this what you 
are asking?” [Then say a question you can answer] 
– If you don’t have a good answer after these delaying 
tactics, say: “Let’s talk about that after my talk.”
What If You Can Think of Nothing 
to Say? 
1. Smile: People always like people who smile. 
2. Tell a story: Stories take time and you can be thinking 
about your next point. 
3. Change the topic of the question to something you 
know about. 
If you don’t know the answer to a question, than 
answer a different question.
What If You Don’t Understand the 
Question Because of the Speaker’s Poor 
English? 
• If you don’t understand the English, ask the speaker 
to repeat the question. 
• If the questioner still asks and you still don’t 
understand, say, “Great question, but it quite specific 
to your field and does not concern everyone here, 
see me after the talk and we can go into more detail 
about it.” 
• Quickly move to another question or conclude your 
session.
What If Someone Keeps 
Interrupting You While You Are 
Talking? 
• If it’s just a clarifying question and it’s short, 
answer it and keep speaking. 
• If somebody keeps making long, loud comments, 
or begins to argue with you in the middle of your 
talk. This can be very stressful, especially if you are 
a grad student or new professor.
Don’t Let Your Time Get Wasted 
• Speech times don’t get extended for time wasted by 
the audience. You need to develop a strategy for 
keeping control. The best ways to do this follow. 
– look at whoever is chairing the conference session, or your 
sponsor at a job talk. 
– you can wait politely for a pause in the attack, and then say 
as calmly as possible something like: “Thank you for your 
comment. I’d like to respond, but if you don’t mind I’d like 
to wait for the question period.”
Your Final Solution to An 
Attacking Attendee 
• You need to say loudly but firmly, as strongly as 
you can: “Sir, please allow me to finish my talk.” 
• Then, proceed and ignore further interruptions 
from that person.
Remain After Your Presentation 
Session 
• Be available to answer additional questions if you 
can. 
• Make notes about the questions, suggestions, new 
thoughts you can use these comments to improve a 
paper for publication and your reviewers may be in 
the audience.
For details and bookings contact:- 
Parveen Kumar Chadha… THINK TANK 
(Founder and C.E.O of Saxbee Consultants) 
Email :-saxbeeconsultants@gmail.com 
Mobile No. +91-9818308353 
Address:-First Floor G-20(A), Kirti Nagar, New 
Delhi India Postal Code-110015

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Conference presentations

  • 2. The person who presents the research gets the credit • Paul Chu: first superconductor with a boiling point above liquid nitrogen • Maw-Kuen Wu and Jim Ashburn declined to speak and are not remembered
  • 3. The presenter gets the credit • Zhengzhi Sheng, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Arkansas, discovered another superconductor at an even higher temperature. • Because Sheng was not a good speaker, the department chair, Allen Hermann, spoke at the press conference. Although Hermann repeatedly acknowledged the contribution of Sheng, Hermann was the one who received most of the credit.
  • 4. Bad conference presentations • You’ve seen poor conference presentations • The speaker: • Sits • Reads • Speaks in a dead, low voice • Uses sentences which are long and complex • Uses technical words and phrases. • Emphasizes complicated details • Runs out of time
  • 5. • An effective talk must do two things: 1. Persuade you audience with evidence 2. Be interesting and entertaining. Principles of effective conference presentations Talk, instead to reading Stand up Move around Make eye contact with your audience Don’t only look at one side of the room Imitate excellent speakers
  • 6. Why do smart people give poor talks? • Poor speaking is a reaction to fear. • Presentations are not journal articles. They're a completely different communication, and they require different skills.
  • 7. Bohr vs. Nusslein-Volhard Bohr: “Whereas Einstein tried to grasp a hidden essence by disregarding anything he thought irrelevant, Bohr insisted that nothing be left out.” – Edward MacKinnon “Bohr was much worse. His failing was that he used too many words to express any idea, wandering about as he spoke, often inaudibly.” – Sir Mark Oliphant Nusslein-Volhard: Scope moves from simple to specific Simple short sentences
  • 8. Bohr’s Nobel prize acceptance speech • “Today, as a consequence of the great honor the Swedish Academy of Sciences has done me in awarding me this year’s Nobel Prize for Physics for my work on the structure of the atom, it is my duty to give an account of the results of this work, and I think that I shall be acting in accordance with the traditions of the Nobel Foundation if I give this report in the form of a survey of the development which has taken place in the last few years within the field of physics to which this work belongs.”
  • 9. Nies Bohr: Nobel prize acceptance • “The present state of atomic theory is characterized by the fact that we not only believe the existence of atoms to be proved beyond a doubt, but also we even believe that we have an intimate knowledge of the constituents of the individual atoms. I cannot on this occasion give a survey of the scientific developments that have led to this result—I will only recall the discovery of the electron toward the close of the last century, which furnished the direct verification and led to the conclusive formulation of the conception of the atomic nature of electricity which had evolved since the discovery by Faraday of the fundamental laws of electrochemical theory, and its greatest triumph in the electrolytic dissociation theory of Arrhenius.”
  • 10. Einstein on Bohr • Bohr stated “his opinions like one perpetually groping and never like one who believes himself to be in possession of definite truth.”
  • 11. Christine Nusslein-Volhard • In the life of animals, complex forms alternate with simple ones. An individual develops from a simple one-celled egg that bears no resemblance on the complex structure and pattern displayed in the juvenile and adult form. The process of embryonic development with its highly ordered increase in complexity accompanied by perfect reproducibitiy, is controlled by a subset of the animal genes. Animals have a large number of genes. The exact number is not known for any multicellular organism, nor is it known how many and which are required for the development of complexity, pattern, and shape during embryogenesis. To identify these genes and to understand their functions is a major issue in biological research.
  • 12. Scientific presenters • Successful scientific presenters – Ludwig Boltzmann – Albert Einstein – Richard Feynman – Rita Levi-Montalcini – Linus Pauling • Became strong presenters later in their careers – Heinrich Hertz, – J. Robert Oppenheimer – Chien-Shiung Wu • Rise above those obstacles to make successful presentations – Marie Curie
  • 13. Michael Faraday on presenting • “[Lectures] depend entirely for their value on the manner in which they are given. It is not the matter, not the subject, so much as the man.”
  • 14. Scientists who used analogies, examples, and stories • Otto Frisch when describing the size of a nucleus: “If an atom were enlarged to the size of a bus, the nucleus would be like the dot on this i.” • Einstein used the analogy of “shooting sparrows in the dark”7 to describe the likelihood of producing nuclear energy with alpha particles striking nitrogen nuclei. • Fred Soechting when describing his work with turbine blades in gas turbine engines: “The amount of power produced by a single gas turbine blade equals that of a Masarati sports car.”8
  • 15. Issac Asimov on Linus Pauling • “On March 21, 1949, I attended a lecture given by Linus Pauling.... That talk was the best talk by anyone on any subject that I had ever heard…. The talk was more than a talk to me. It filled me with a desire of my own to become a speaker.”
  • 16. James Watson on Pauling’s presentations • “Pauling’s talk was made with his usual dramatic flair. The words came out as if he had been in show business all his life. A curtain kept his model hidden until near the end of his lecture, when he proudly unveiled his latest creation. Then, with his eyes twinkling, Linus explained the specific characteristics that made his model—the α-helix— uniquely beautiful…. Even if he were to say nonsense, his mesmerized students would never know because of his unquenchable self-confidence.”
  • 17. David L. Goodstein on Robert Feynman • “[Feynman] absolutely riveted the attention of everyone in the room for the entire time he was there. His need to do that helps explain some of the racy stories he liked to tell about himself, but it also lies close to the core of what made him a great teacher. For Feynman, the lecture hall was a theater, and the lecturer a performer, responsible for providing drama and fireworks as well as facts and figures. This was true regardless of his audience, whether he was talking to undergraduates or graduate students, to his colleagues or the general public.”
  • 18. Professor David Goodstein on Robert Feynman “But even when he thought he was explaining things lucidly to freshmen or sophomores, it was not always really they who benefited most from what he was doing. It was more often us, scientists, physicists, professors, who would be the main beneficiaries of his magnificent achievement, which was nothing less than to see all of physics with fresh new eyes.”
  • 19. Oppenheimer’s early lectures • Consider J. Robert Oppenheimer’s early lectures given at California-Berkeley in 1929. Only twenty-five years old, but already well known for his work on the quantum theory, Oppenheimer began his teaching that first semester with a class full of eager graduate students. • Halfway through the semester, though, the number of students registered for his course had dropped to one.
  • 20. Daniel J. Kelves on Robert Oppenheimer • “Desperately eager to reach his students, his sensitivities sharpened by his own past difficulties, Oppenheimer made it a point to pay as much attention to the troubles of his charges as to the intricacies of his subject. His language evolved into an oddly eloquent mixture of erudite phrases and pithy slang, and he learned to exploit the extraordinary talent for elucidating complex technical matters.”
  • 21. Result of Oppenheimer’s practice • Later students found him to be “the most stimulating lecturer they had experienced.”
  • 22. Nobel Prize winner Hans Bethe about Oppenheimer • “Probably the most important ingredient Oppenheimer brought to his teaching was his exquisite taste. He always knew what were the important problems, as shown by his choice of subjects. He truly lived with those problems, struggling for a solution, and he communicated his concern to the group.”
  • 23. Lise Meitner on Ludwig Boltzmann (the developer of the statistical treatment of atoms) “Boltzmann had no inhibitions whatsoever about showing his enthusiasm when he spoke, and this naturally carried his listeners along. He was fond of introducing remarks of an entirely personal character into his lectures.”
  • 24. Lise Meitner on Ludwig Bolzmann • “[The lecturing of Boltzmann] was the most beautiful and stimulating thing I have ever heard.... He was so enthusiastic about everything he taught us that one left every lecture with the feeling that a completely new and wonderful world had been revealed.”
  • 25. Eve Curie on her mother Marie Curie • “On Monday and Wednesday, my mother was nervous and agitated from the time she got up. At five o’clock on these days she lectured. After lunch she shut herself into her study in the Quai de Béthune, prepared the lesson, and wrote the heads of chapters of her lecture on a piece of white paper. Towards half-past four she would go to the laboratory and isolate herself in a little rest room. She was tense, anxious, unapproachable. Marie had been teaching for twenty-five years; yet every time she had to appear in the little amphitheater before twenty or thirty pupils who rose in unison at her entrance she unquestionably had “stage fright.”
  • 26. 10 tips to develop confidence in conference presentations 1. Expect to be nervous 2. Prepare 3. Practice 4. Breathe 5. Rehearse 6. Focus on your audience 7. Simplify 8. Picture success 9. Connect with your audience 10. Pretend to be confident
  • 27. Advantages and disadvantages of different sources for speech Sources Advantages Disadvantages Speaking from points Credibility earned Ease of adjusting speech Eye contact Natural pace Wording not exact Long preparation time Memorizing Precision Smooth delivery Credibility earned Eye contact Potential for disaster Unnatural pace Inability to adjust speech Long preparation time Reading Precision Smooth delivery Credibility undercut Lack of eye contact Unnatural pace Inability to adjust speech Long preparation time Speaking off the cuff No preparation time Eye contact Natural pace Potential for disaster Difficulty in organizing Lack of visual aids
  • 28. Situations appropriate for each source of speech Sources Situation Speaking from points Conference presentation Presentation at business meeting University lecture Memorizing First few words of presentation Short introduction of a speaker Reading Press conference Quotation within a presentation Complex wording within presentation Speaking off the cuff Answering a question Asking a question
  • 29. Voice quality • You should vary your voice, so it can be more interesting for your audience. You can vary your voice in at least three ways: – speed: Speak at a normal speed, faster, more slowly, and you can stop completely! You can also pause to get your audience's attention. – tone: Change the pitch of your voice. Speak in a high tone or speak in a low tone. – volume: you can speak at a normal volume, loudly and you can speak quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can attract your audience's interest. • The important point is not to speak in the same, flat voice throughout your presentation. This will put your audience to sleep.
  • 30. Face the audience and speak loudly and clearly • Don’t look at your slides makes you to speak to the screen. This quiets your voice and breaks your contact with the audience. • Look at slides on your laptop screen in front of you • If you must look at the main screen, look at it quickly and then face the audience. • Make simple slides with short text, so you won’t have trouble knowing where you are when you quickly look at the screen.
  • 31. Think about your presentation goals • In conference talks you should have at least two goals: 1. leave your audience with a clear picture of your contribution, 2. make them want to read your paper.
  • 32. Focus on the main points • Your audience is not going to remember details. So, less is more. • You do not need to provide all the background on how you reached this interpretation. • You do not need to defend the validity of your idea. • You don't need to give a literature review. • Give short, take-home points that they’ll remember. They can always read your paper later, but if you don’t interest them, they will not read it. • Don't summarize popular ideas. • Don't assume that a critic familiar to you is familiar to everyone else. • Consider the audience to whom you are speaking.
  • 33. Think about your audience • Most audiences should be targeted in layers: – some are experts in your specific area, – some are experts in the general area – others know little or nothing. • Who is most important to you? Can you still leave others with something? For example, target the body to experts, but make the prediction and summary to everybody.
  • 34. Timeline showing presenter reaching multiple audiences by beginning at surface of the topic, diving into a subject, and then surfacing to gather entire audience.
  • 35. • Audience attention Don’t try to say too much, use handouts for all supplemental materials. Never go longer than 45 minutes — most people’s maximum attention span. If you exceed this limit, you’ll lose them at the crucial point; your conclusion.
  • 36. Have a timing device • Use a watch or cell phone with a timing function. • PowerPoint’s “Presenter Tools” has a stopwatch. The problem is remembering to start the stopwatch at the beginning of your talk. • Develop your sense of timing by always using the same slide format. • Decide in advance which slides you can skip • As a beginning speaker, don’t leave your outline – Don’t try to do something unplanned during a talk. – Practice telling a joke or a story and make your audience think you just thought of it
  • 37. A short conference talk outline • Title/author/university (1 slide) • Abstract (1 slide) -Give the basic problem and answer. • Outline (1 slide) -Give the talk structure. • Motivation and Problem Statement (1-2 slides) -Why does anyone care? • Related Work (0-1 slides) -Talk briefly about this, or you can eliminate this section and refer people to your paper. • Methods (1 slide) -Cover quickly in short talks and refer people to your paper. • Results (4-6 slides) -Present key results with implications. This is the main body of the talk. Do not cover all the results. Cover the key result well. • Summary (1 slide) • Future Work (0-1 slides) • Backup Slides (0-3 slides)
  • 38. Using quotes in your speech • If you quote another source, pause and indicate the quote by saying "quote . . . . . end quote." • Don't use long quotes or quote too much material. Your audience wants your ideas, not what you have found from others. • If it is necessary to include long quotes, give the audience a handout • Read the speech out loud as you revise. • Be careful criticizing other scholars.
  • 39. • About PowerPoint – PowerPoint saves time compared to writing on the whiteboard. – Don’t use all PowerPoint’s fades, transitions, backgrounds and sound effects. • Talk to the audience, not the screen – One of the worst presenter mistakes is to face the screen while talking. If you do this, the audience will be looking at your back, and they won't be able to hear you.
  • 40. • Prepare for computer problems – many things can go wrong with the computer, the projector, the software, the connector cables, your USB, or your presentation. – Don’t assume that what works on a PC will work on a Mac. – Don’t assume your host will have the same version of PowerPoint that you do. • Bring backup – Begin making backups several days before the talk. – Use a USB, a CDROM, or some other common format. – Internet backup isn't reliable, you can't be sure you'll have a connection. • Bring printed notes or outlines – If the computer or the projector dies in the middle of your talk, you'll have no time to fix it. – Be prepared to deliver your talk without the slides. Bring printed notes.
  • 41. Other presentation problems • Someone asks a question about an issue you plan to discuss later. – Answer the question briefly, and say you plan to go into detail later. • You lose your thought in mid-sentence. – Smile, say "excuse me" and start again. • You plan to go through a handout page by page but people are moving ahead of your speech. – Don't give handouts until after the presentation is over. – Give people a rough idea of where different parts are located, then people are more likely to stay with you. • Your throat dries out – Roll a tiny piece of paper into a small ball and place it between your gum and your facial tissue in the back of your mouth. It will stimulate the flow of saliva.
  • 42. • Someone starts a private conversation while you are speaking. – First, ask if there are questions. – Second, ask if you can do anything to clarify. – If they will not stop, continue your presentation but move nearer to them. Lower your voice or pause. • Notice your audience and respond to their needs • Take control of the environment • Distribute copies of your paper
  • 43. • Conference presenters can use humor to help the audience: – Remember the main points – See the big picture – Retain information longer – Interact with members of the audience – Present a sensitive idea without the audience getting angry – Feel free to express themselves • Humor takes practice – You need to make a connection with the audience by promoting interaction and openness. – You can develop humor by talking to some of the audience before the presentation
  • 44. Inappropriate humor for conferences: • Don’t do the following in conference presentations: 1. Use prepared jokes that have no connection to your purpose 2. Read your jokes and stories. 3. Laugh at your own jokes; or start laughing before you tell them. 4. Announce that you are going to tell a joke; and apologize if it is bad. 5. Criticize the audience for not laughing. 6. Tell stories that make fun of others or make them look bad. 7. Act like you are better than others. 8. Use humor that the audience may not understand. 9. Embarrass people. 10. Tell dirty stories.
  • 45. Using PowerPoint at Conferences
  • 46. Don’t Write Everything and Read • Your PowerPoint presentation should: – Clarify ideas – Emphasize key points – Show relationships – Provide visual information to ensure the audience understands your message
  • 47. Slides Should be Short • Slides help you, and your audience, follow the flow of the talk. • Not too full: 6 lines of text per slide is enough; 9 lines is a lot; 12 lines is unreadable. • Bullet points should be a few words, not complete sentences. • If you need more space, use more slides.
  • 48. Use Big Type Change the font size in the Preferences of the browser, when using a web presentation.
  • 49. Determining Font Size • Your audience may be look at the screen from 70 feet away. • Fonts should be 24 points or larger
  • 50. Choosing a Font • From a distance, you’ll notice that the serif (Times) font and the ‘narrow’ or condensed font are more difficult to read. Don’t sacrifice readability for style. Your job is to communicate.
  • 51. Use the Correct Font for Easy Reading • For handouts or take-home material, use a serif font. • For projecting on a screen, using a slide, overhead or multimedia projector, use a sans serif font. Because serif fonts can look fuzzy when projected.
  • 52. • Choosing a color – Yellow with black letters is considered the most readable. • Color blindness – Unwanted light affects color contrast by turning dark reds and greens much lighter. – About 10% of people have difficulty with reds and greens. • Use contrasting colors – A dark background with light text is easily readable – Use drop shadows – Avoid busy backgrounds – Avoid using red text – AVOID ALL CAPS!
  • 53. Choose White or Light Colored Slide Backgrounds • Dark text on light colored slides can usually be read with lights on. • Avoid dark images that won’t show up well on a screen. • Be aware that sunlight shining directly on your screen will make it less visible.
  • 54. Presenting with Charts • Simplify charts – Changing the chart format – How do you know when to use which chart? That depends on how well you’ve stated the message. – Your heading should always tell people what you want them to look for on a chart. • Choosing the chart – Once you have an action statement as a heading, look at the verbs in the statement to get an idea of the best chart to use to present your data.
  • 55. → Showing Change Over Time • Look for a key word – Grow – Decline – Trends Line chart • Line charts are best when a variable has more than four or five data point. • The slope of the line quickly tells the audience the direction of the trends.
  • 56. → Comparing Items at One Point in Time • Look for a key word – Ranks – Compares – Highest profit – The lowest interest rate – The most products sold Bar chart – Rank variables from largest to smallest • Bar charts are often the best way to compare a set of individual items or several sets of related items. • The bar’s length corresponds to its ranking; the bar’s label identifies the item.
  • 57. → Comparing Parts of a Whole • Look for key words – Percentage – Portion – Share • The number of pie slices should not be more than five, and each slice should be easy to see and interpret. Pie chart
  • 58. → Comparing Data by Geographic Location • Look for key words – Country – Area Segmented bar chart • Distinguish among regions by using different colors, shadings, or symbols.
  • 59. Additional Tips for Graphs and Charts 1. Show one message per chart. Make the message the heading. 2. Make the chart easy to read. Make the most important text largest, the most important data lines or sections darkest. 3. Be accurate. Always start a numerical axis at zero. Compare only like variables. 4. Eliminate all unnecessary details. 5. Use no more than four colors per visual. 6. To focus attention, use color, shading, or images such as arrows to highlight key words or concepts. 7. Write in upper and lower case. Words written in all capitals letters are hard to read. 8. Make bars and columns wider than the spaces between them.
  • 60. Don’t Get too Technical • The more advanced the technology, the more likely there are to be “technical problems.” Speakers often come in at the last minute and are completely destroyed when their equipment doesn’t work. It creates panic for everyone. Always send a copy of your presentation to the conference office in advance so it can be loaded and tested.
  • 61. Don’t Apologize for Errors • Don’t apologize for poor English speaking, it wastes time and adds no value to your talk. Don’t comment on spelling, grammatical, or other mechanical errors in your presentation. Most of the audience won’t notice unless you apologize.
  • 62. Buy a Laser Pointer and Wireless Mouse • They are inexpensive, and are extremely useful. It is helpful to be able to change pages from across the room and point out key graphs and charts.
  • 63. The Last Thing on Your PowerPoint • At the end of your presentation while answering questions, leave up a contact info slide containing your name, e-mail, address, and website URL related to the talk if you have one.
  • 65. Why Are Questions and Answers Important? • Questions and answers are important for several reasons: – Get attention – Create interest – Get feedback – Make points easy to remember – Create audience interaction – Promote new thoughts • To get comfortable with Q&A sessions and questions, start asking questions throughout your presentations.
  • 66. Before the Presentation • Prepare for criticism by telling your ideas to a critical friend. • Bring a list of references when answering questions. • Take notes of questions and suggestions. • Don’t be afraid to say you don’t know the answer to a particular question. • If you are using slides, save several slides and use them to answer expected questions.
  • 67. At the End of the Presentation • There are two endings to a presentation with a final Q&A session. Example: “At this point, I want to get your opinion on this approach. This side of the room first.” • The second close is after the questions to summarize the main points of your presentation. Example: “As you can see from the questions and comments, this topic is confusing and we don’t have all the answers but here is what you can do for now...”
  • 68. After the Presentation • Sometimes question time is so exciting that you can’t answer all the questions with the time you have. Tell people ways to contact you and when and how you will respond. Think of ways to share these questions and answers with all members of the audience through an e-mail list or Web site.
  • 69. 12 Ways to Encourage Audience Questions • 1. Announce the question session in an open, conversational way. • 2. Design questions into your content and delivery: – Title: Why Knowledge Management? —and Why Now? – Opening: What is the biggest problem facing researchers today? – Content: “My presentation is about four key questions.” – Ending: Considering these facts, how can you not act?
  • 70. • 3. Ask a question, pause and then give the answer yourself. • 4. Bring up questions you have been asked by other audience. • 5. Let the audience know in the beginning there is a Q&A session, and “when” it is and “how long” it is. • 6. Provide a seating arrangement where the audience can see each other. • 7. List questions in the presentation announcement or brochure. • 8. Provide a white board for the audience to write a question at any time. Start your Q&A session by answering these questions.
  • 71. • 9. Pass out paper for the audience to submit their questions. They may forget what they were going to ask earlier. This is often used at public meetings and when the audience is large. • 10. Don’t ask for feedback and then start to pack up your laptop or your notes. This sends the clear signal that you are done and ready to go. • 11. Arrange for someone in the audience to ask the first question to start the process. • 12. Ask yourself what questions you hope no one asks and then prepare to answer them.
  • 72. Why Do People Ask Questions? – Because they want to know the answer – Because they want to make a point – To impress the audience – To see if you know the answer – To see how you handle questions and the stress – To attack your methodology – To make you look bad (for example, if they are competing with you for a job) – Some ask questions that are in fact a personal attack (but not often)
  • 73. • Don’t let an interesting but unrelated question start you on a new speech. • Don’t let your presentation continue on thinking the Q&A time is extra time for your presentation. • Consider questions as an honor your presentation. Good ideas create questions. Boring presentations make people leave.
  • 74. 3 Step Template for Answering Questions 1. Listen to the entire question before you answer 2. Thank each person for asking the question. 3. Then follow the template below. Repeat→Respond→Review
  • 75. Additional Tips on Handling Questions • Ask people to stand up when they ask a question. This does two things: 1. It shows you who is asking the question 2. Makes it easier for the audience to hear the question
  • 76. What If You Don’t Know the Answer? – Suggest someone in the audience more qualified answer the question. “Professor M. has studied this extensively.” – Delay, “That’s a good question...” – Ask a question: “Can you clarify what you mean?” – Admit you don’t know but will research it for them. – Repeat the question in a different way: “Is this what you are asking?” [Then say a question you can answer] – If you don’t have a good answer after these delaying tactics, say: “Let’s talk about that after my talk.”
  • 77. What If You Can Think of Nothing to Say? 1. Smile: People always like people who smile. 2. Tell a story: Stories take time and you can be thinking about your next point. 3. Change the topic of the question to something you know about. If you don’t know the answer to a question, than answer a different question.
  • 78. What If You Don’t Understand the Question Because of the Speaker’s Poor English? • If you don’t understand the English, ask the speaker to repeat the question. • If the questioner still asks and you still don’t understand, say, “Great question, but it quite specific to your field and does not concern everyone here, see me after the talk and we can go into more detail about it.” • Quickly move to another question or conclude your session.
  • 79. What If Someone Keeps Interrupting You While You Are Talking? • If it’s just a clarifying question and it’s short, answer it and keep speaking. • If somebody keeps making long, loud comments, or begins to argue with you in the middle of your talk. This can be very stressful, especially if you are a grad student or new professor.
  • 80. Don’t Let Your Time Get Wasted • Speech times don’t get extended for time wasted by the audience. You need to develop a strategy for keeping control. The best ways to do this follow. – look at whoever is chairing the conference session, or your sponsor at a job talk. – you can wait politely for a pause in the attack, and then say as calmly as possible something like: “Thank you for your comment. I’d like to respond, but if you don’t mind I’d like to wait for the question period.”
  • 81. Your Final Solution to An Attacking Attendee • You need to say loudly but firmly, as strongly as you can: “Sir, please allow me to finish my talk.” • Then, proceed and ignore further interruptions from that person.
  • 82. Remain After Your Presentation Session • Be available to answer additional questions if you can. • Make notes about the questions, suggestions, new thoughts you can use these comments to improve a paper for publication and your reviewers may be in the audience.
  • 83. For details and bookings contact:- Parveen Kumar Chadha… THINK TANK (Founder and C.E.O of Saxbee Consultants) Email :-saxbeeconsultants@gmail.com Mobile No. +91-9818308353 Address:-First Floor G-20(A), Kirti Nagar, New Delhi India Postal Code-110015