Multiple Intelligence theory

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Multiple Intelligence theory

  1. 1. M ultiple Inteligences l “Octagen” for the Brain
  2. 2. A brief introduction to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences• O u r s e ns itivity to th e d ive rs e ways in wh ich ch ild re n think, s olv e problems , and expres s thems elves is ofte n lim ite d b oth b y ou r notions of inte llige nce and ou r own inte lle ctu al p re fe re nce s .• Inte ntionally or not te ach e rs d e s ign th e ir clas s room (cu rricu lu m , ins tru ction, as s e s s m e nt) to re fle ct their ideas ab ou t inte llige nce and h ow le arning h ap p e ns as we ll as their own ways of m aking s e ns e of th e world .
  3. 3. • Alm os t all of u s can fall into b e lie ving th at if we can m ake cle ar th e way we have come to unders tand s omething , oth e rs will u nd e rs tand , too.• Bas e d on long and care fu l ob s e rvation, e s p e cially of ch ild re n wh o d o not s e e m to u nd e rs tand e as ily wh at m ay s e e m ob viou s to oth e rs , m any te ach e rs re cognis e th at th e re are , ind e e d , many different ways of perceiv ing the world and multiple ways of making s ens e of one ’s e xp e rie nce s .• A clos e r look at Th e orie s of Inte llige nce s can p rovid e a m id d le grou nd b e twe e n th e id e a th at th e re is a s ing le way in which minds works and th at notion th at every mind is unique.
  4. 4. What is MI Theory and Where does it come from?• Th e th e ory of M u ltip le inte llige nce s (M I th e ory) was firs t p rop os e d in th e Howard G ardners b ook “ Frames of Mind” .• Th e th e ory of m u ltip le inte llige nce s p rovid e s a u s e fu l p e rs p e ctive on th e is s u e s b y d is tingu is h ing am ong e igh t d im e ns ions of h u m an inte lle ctu al fu nctioning.• Wh e re as th e trad itional, u nitary p e rs p e ctive s on inte llige nce – s u ch as a IQ le ad s to a qu e s tion th at “ Is the pers on intelligent , M I th e ory offe rs a p lu ralis tic vie w th at “in what way is the pers on intellig ent”.
  5. 5. • In h is 1 993 p u b lication, ‘M u ltip le inte llige nce s - Th e th e ory in p ractice ’, G ard ne r d e fine s inte llige nce as th e - “Ability to s olve problems , or to fas hion products , that are valued in one or more cultural or community s ettings ”• G ard ne r p oints ou t, ind ivid u als are b orn with p ote ntials in all the eig ht intellig ences . Th e y th e n d e ve lop th is initial inte lle ctu al p rofile in m anifold ways , d e p e nd ing on th e cultural, local and pers onal context within which they g row.• M i th e ory acknowle d ge s th at inte llige nce s d o not work in is olation, b u t rath e r in cons ort and in context to th e p rob le m s in th e re al-world d om ains .
  6. 6. What is that relation between MI theory and Traditional ideas about intelligence• G ard ne r, like oth e r p as t and cu rre nt th e oris ts argu e s for a more pluralis tic notion of intellig ence.• R ath e r th an fixing th e inte llige nce at b irth , as s om e trad itional id e as of inte llige nce im p ly, MI theory s ug g es ts that intellig ences chang e and g row.• In trad itional conce p t of inte llige nce – its s ays th at intellig ence remains the s ame in all s ituations , it d oe s nt ch ange wh e th e r one is s olving a p rob le m , or le arning to d ance , or find ing one s way in th e ne w city.
  7. 7. Accord ing to a trad itional d e finition, intellig ence is a uniform cog nitive capacity people are born with. Th is cap acity can b e e as ily m e as u re d b y s h ort-ans we r te s ts . Accord ing to H oward G ard ne r, inte llige nce is :• The ability to create an effective product or offer a s ervice that is valued in a culture;• A s et of s kills that make it pos s ible for a pers on to s olve problems in life;• The potential for finding or creating s olutions for problems , which involves gathering new knowledge.
  8. 8. S ome common Mis conceptions of MI theory• A s ou rce of confu s ion is th e e qu ation b e twe e n MI and the Learning S tyles .• Le arning s tyle s re fe rs to th e different approaches th at ind ivid u als take wh e n trying to m ake of d ive rs e kind s of conte nt. A le arning s tyle is th ou gh t to cu t cros s all conte nt are as .• E g.if a p e rs on is a tactile learner, s h e will le arn b e s t b y u s ing h e r h and or s e ns e of tou ch wh e n le arning ne w m ate rial – wh e th e r h is tory or cooking.
  9. 9. • Wh e re as th e inte llige nce re p re s e nts potentials or capacities th at are linke d to neurolog ical functions and s tructures th at re s p ond to a p articu lar conte nt.• We cannot as s u m e th at b e cau s e one h as demons trated a g ood memory or ability to focus in mus ic th at h e or s h e will b e h ave s im ilarly wh e n p re s e nte d with lingu is tic or s p atial inform ation.• M ore ove r, u nlike le arning s tyle s , intellig ences have dis tinct developmental paths th at are tie d to th e ach ie ve m e nt of th e valu e d role s in ou r s ocie ty.
  10. 10. Implications for curriculum des ign and ins truction.• If we u nd e rs tand th is , th e n we m u s t know th at s tu d e nts p os s e s s a range of ab ilitie s th at s tand ard clas s room fare ne ith e r acknowledg es , celebrates nor nurtures .• S o, we h ave to as k ou rs e lve s , how can one mode of ins truction and one mode of tes ting e ve r tru ly allow u s to re ach ou t to e ve ry ch ild ?• F or th e im p lication of M I th e te ach e rs s h ou ld b e fam iliar with e ach s tu d e nt’s inte re s ts , s tre ngth s and we akne s s e s , and s hape their ins tructional practices according ly.
  11. 11. • As e d u cators , p are nt, and oth e r ad u lts re cognize th at all children are born with a multitude of intellig ences th e y can b e tte r nu rtu re th e fu ll range of ch ild ’s ab ilitie s .• Be fore a te ach e rs s tarts to ad op t th e M I ap p roach in th e clas s room , it m igh t b e u s e fu l to id e ntify s om e of th e ques tionable ins tructional practices that purportedly follow from MI. M I is not a m and ate to te ach e ve ry top ic in s e ve n or e igh t ways .• M I h e lp s te ach e r to h onor th e s tu d e nts s tre ngth s , h owe ve r ce le b rating th e s tre ngth s is not e nou gh ; th os e s tre ngth s ne e d to b e conne cte d to wh at s tudents need to know and unders tand.
  12. 12. Principles for des igning as s es s mentsTh e p rincip le s of as s e s s m e nt:• As s e s s m e nt s h ou ld b e e m b e d d e d in meaning ful, ong oing , real world activities .• Th e y s h ou ld als o d raw th e m ate rial and tools of th e d om ains , rather than always relying on paper – pencil tes t.• As s e s s m e nt s h ou ld allow for divers e modes of res pons es or multiple ways to demons trate unders tanding . P ortfolios are ofte n fu ll of e xam p le s of d ive rs e ways in wh ich s tu d e nts re p re s e nt th e ir ins igh ts and id e as .
  13. 13. 4. As s e s s m e nts s h ou ld h e lp to track th e g rowth over time of ch ild ’s ab ility to u s e th e ir inte llige nce s . MI s ays that intellig ences are educable. M aintaining th e e vid e nce file s h e lp s te ach e rs for tracking and e xam ining th e growth .5. As s e s s m e nt is a fu nd am e ntal p art of th e le arning p roce s s . Throug h eng ag ing in reflection and s elf as s es s ment s tudents can come to unders tand their own intellig ences and how they work. G ard ne r id e ntifie s two inte llige nce s ove r h e re – inte rp e rs onal and intrap e rs onal.
  14. 14. Tools for as s es s ments• Obs ervation : th e m os t p owe rfu l as s e s s m e nt is th e careful obs ervation on the children at work and play. As G ard ne r’s d e finition of inte llige nce , s im p ly watch ing ch ild re n as th e y e ncou nte r p rob le m s or try to m ake th ings can b e ins tru ctive .• Few things what a teacher s hould look for:• N otice ch ild re ns choices wh e n th e y are give n op tions .• Watch th e roles th e y take wh e n working toge th e r to com p le te a tas k.• O b s e rve h ow th e y handle u nanticip ate d p rob le m s .• N ote wh at captures one ch ild s atte ntion and p as s e s anoth e r b y.
  15. 15. Documenation: is an inform al way of as s e s s m e nt.• Ke e p ing note s of th e ch ild re n (ane cd otal m om e nts ), e s p e cially h e lp th e te ach e rs as th e y s eek to find patterns in th e ways ch ild re n u s e th e ir inte llige nce s .• Maintaining notes of childrens convers ations as th e y lis te n for qu e s tions and id e as th at aris e s p ontane ou s ly.• Portfolios of s tudents work:• Wh e n s tu d e nts are give n as s ignm e nts th at allow for divers e modes of res pons e or m u ltip le ways to d e m ons trate u nd e rs tand ing, th e y ofte n produce complex and s triking work.• P ortfolios can p rovid e vivid e vid e nce of g rowth and development.
  16. 16. • P ortfolios in th e m s e lve s , are only colle ctions of work. As s e s s m e nts h ap p e ns wh e n th e te ach e r and s tu d e nts review thos e portfolios throug h particular lens es , s u ch as :• H ow d o stud e nts ap p roach and sol p rob l m ? ve e• H ow d o stud e nts und e rstand the m e thod s of a p articul acad e m ic d iscipl , d e m onstrate the ir ar ine cap acity to use those m e thod s, and m ake se nse of the ir find ings ?• H ow d o the y com m unicate the ir thoughts and p e rce p tions m ost e ffe ctive ly?
  17. 17. • S tudent reflection and S elf as s es s ment:• Trad itionally, as s e s s m e nt and e valu ation h ave b e e n th e domain of the teacher. S tu d e nts h and in th e ir work and te ach e r j d ge s it. u• Bu t M I cau tions th at b y e xclu d ing th e s tu d e nt in h is as s e s s m e nt m e ans th at a world of ins ig ht is los t as b oth te ach e r and s tu d e nts can le arn im p ortant le s s ons from e ngaging s tu d e nts deeply and reg ularly in re fle cting on and as s e s s ing th e ir own work.
  18. 18. • R e fle ction can b e written or verbal and can occu r at th e m id d le or th e e nd of th e p roj ct, or e ve n m onth s e afte r its com p le tion. It can b e a conve rs ation or a m onologu e .• O nce s tu d e nts are e ngage d in th e ir re fle ction and s e lf as s e s s m e nts ,it b e com e s m u ch e as ie r to h ave a convers ation about their work.• Th e y can com e to an opinion ab ou t th e ir work and it• give s th e te ach e r a b e tte r ins igh t into h ow th e s tu d e nts approach and think ab ou t th e ir work.

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