16 century costumes th (Northern Renaissance) 1500-1600
FACTORS IN THE DISSEMINATION OF FASHION INFORMATION • the intermarriage of the royal families from different countries • imported garments and fabrics • books dealing with costume • travelers who brought back information about and examples of foreign styles.
TEXTILESA treadle-powered spinning wheel in combinationwith a device called a bobbin-and-flyer mechanismmade spinning easier.Hand knitting seems to have begun in Europe afterthe 15th century. By the latter part of the 16thcentury it was being used to make stockings.Decorative Techniques of the 16th CenturyEmbroidered decorations were applied not only toouter garments, but also to visible neck and sleeveedges of undergarments such as shirts andchemises.A variety of Italian drawn and cutwork techniqueswere also employed.In another decorative technique called filet or lacis,the artisan embroidered patterns on a netbackground Womans chemise from the late 16th century, probably from Venice. The white linen garment is embroidered with lavender floss silk and gold thread
Costume of men and women in the 16th century can besaid to have gone through three different phases .•early phase in which a transition was made frommedieval styles to the styles of the Renaissance•second phase concentrated in the second to the fourthdecades of the century in which marked Germaninfluence can be seen•final phase in which Spanish influences were strong.
Throughout the century, men worean evolved form of the earlierbraies, which the English tended torefer to as drawers Drawers
COSTUME FOR MEN: (1500-1515)SHIRTS•Made of white linen, shirts were cut full and gathered into a round or squareneckline.•The neckline was often decorated with embroidery or cutwork.•They had long, raglan sleeves.DOUBLET AND HOSEThese were laced together, the doublet being only waist length.Hose were seamed into one garment with a codpiece at the front.In one version the doublet (also called a paltock in England) was cut with a deepV at the front, which some-times had a filler (or stomacher) of contrasting colorinserted under the V.Laces could be used to hold the open area together, and also to hold the sleevesin place.
Stomacher - A richly ornamented garment covering the stomach and chest,worn by both sexes in the 15 and 16th centuries, and later worn under a bodiceby women.
JACKET OR JERKINSometimes worn over doubletsjackets were cut the length as doublets,were similar in shaping, andwere with or without sleeves.In England, the jerkin was usedsynonymously with the word jacketafterwards
BASESBases were separate short skirts worn with a jacket or dofor civil dress; over armor for military dress.Made from series of lined and stiffened gores (wedge-shaped pieces), persisted in civilian dress until well intothe mid-century.
ROBES OR GOWNSGowns were long, full garments with hugefunnel-shaped or large hanging sleevesthat opened down the front.The front facings were made ofcontrasting fabric or fur and turned backto form wide, decorative revers.Younger and more fashionable men woreshorter gowns, ending below the hips.Gowns were worn over doublets orjackets.
OUTDOOR GARMENTSWORN FOR WARMTHCircular cloaks, open at thefront and with a slit up theback to facilitate horsebackriding were worn overdoublets and hose.
COSTUME FOR MEN: (1515-1550) Whereas the earlier styles had relatively slender silhouettes, the second phase emphasized fullness in the construction of the costume with large, bulky, puffed areas. Garments were ornamented with decorative slashings or panes (narrow strips of fabric) under which contrasting linings were placed.The knight on the left wears the decoratively slashedcostume of a German soldier. The slashed upper stocksover his hips contrast with the nether stocks, which coverhis legs. Strips of cloth are tied around his leg at the knee.A codpiece is visible at the front of his upper stocks, hishat is an exaggeration by the artist of the militaryheaddress of the period
SHIRTS, DOUBLETS, JACKETSAll these garments continued muchas before, with marked increases inslashed decoration.Instead of having separate bases,some doublets and jackets were cutwith gored skirts.Some had no sleeves; some had wideU- or V-shaped necklines beneathwhich the wide neck, the doublet, andpart of the shirt was often visible.Bases were still worn with armor.Sleeves of the outermost garmentwere cut very full, often with a pufffrom armhole to elbow and a closer fitfrom elbow to wrist. Henry VIII in later life 1537 Interalced gold braid, jewels and slashing (where the under shirt is pulled through).
A slashed doubletof what appears tobe orange silk.
HOSEHose were held up by lacing them to thedoublets.Some were divided into two sections, upperstocks and nether stocks, which were sewntogetherCod-pieces, the pouches of fabric for thegenitals sewn at the front of the upper stocks.Although upper stocks and nether stockscontinued to be attached, upper stocks (alsocalled breeches) eventually took on theappearance of a separate garment, and were cutsomewhat fuller than the lower section.Style variations included:•Long breeches, fitting the leg closely and endingat the knee.•Breeches ending at the hip and more rounded..
Prince Hercule-Francois, 1572.The Duke wears wide, somewhat melon-shaped, trunkhose with a codpiece.His jacket with its high collar surrounded by asmall tuff has the fashionable peascod bellyshape, and finishes below the waistline in a rowof pecadils.His hat is in the capotain shape, decorated witha jeweled band and a plume. The short cape isfur-lined.
ROBES OR GOWNSSlight alterations in cut and trimming of robesmade for increased width. The wide reversextended into a wide collar andthese sleeve types developed:Sleeveless but with wide, extremely deeparmholes lined in contrasting fabric and turnedback upon themselves to show off the lining.Short, very full, puffed-and-slashedLong hanging sleeves.
COSTUME FOR MEN: (1550-1600)By mid-century, the width of the shoulders hadnarrowed and decreased further.The width of the hip area gradually increased.By the beginning of the third phase, a newcombination of garments had evolved, and menno longer appeared in short jackets or longerskirted jackets and hose.Instead, the upper hose and nether hose hadevolved into a large, padded breech (calledtrunk hose), which was joined to nether orlower stocks.Alternatively, separate breeches were worn,with hose kept in place by garters.The codpiece gradually went out of style aftermid-century.
SHIRT COLLARS, RUFFSAround mid-century, men displayed the small,square collar of the shirt at the neck edge of thedoublet.Next, the collar of the shirt became a small ruffle,and in the final stage of evolution the ruff developedas a separate item of costume, separate from theshirt.Very wide, often of lace, and stiffly starched, the ruffbecame one of the most characteristic features ofcostume during the second half of the 16th centuryand persisted into the first decades of the 17thcentury as well.
DOUBLETThe neck was cut high, its shape and finishvaried. Doublets were made with a row ofsmall, square flaps called pecadilsjust below the waist. Sleeves, though padded, followed theshape of the arm and narrowed as thecentury progressed until by 1600 sleeveswere unpadded and closely fitted.Waistlines followed the natural waist at theback, but dipped to a point at the front, Peascod bellywhere padding emphasized the shape.By 1570, the amount of padding increasedand the point at the front of the doubletbecame so pronounced that it was called apeascod belly as it resembled the puffed-out chest of a peacock.
JACKET OR JERKINWorn over the doublet, the jacket was similar inshaping, but as it usually had short puffed sleevesor pecadils at the arm and no sleeve, the sleeveof the doublet beneath became the outermostsleeve.
BREECHESBreeches were separate garments worntogether with sepa-rate stockings.They included:Skintight versions.Wide at the top and tapering to theknee (called Venetians).Wide and full throughout (called openbreeches)
Close-up photograph of slashed satin breeches of about 1600 shows the way inwhich this garment was constructed.
Engraving of 1581 shows men who all wear peascod belly-shaped doublets and neck ruffs. Theman at left wears very full Venetian breeches, the men second from left and at the far right wearshort trunks attached to full-length hose, and the man third from the left wears short trunks withcanions
TRUNK HOSETrunk hose were made in several shapes:Melon shaped; usually paned, heavily padded,and ending at the hip or somewhat below;approximately the shape of a pumpkingallygaskins :Sloping gradually from a narrowwaist to fullness concentrated about mid-thigh Melon shapedwhere they ended also called Slops.A short section, not much more than a padaround the hips, worn with very tight-fitting hose.This form had limited use outside of veryfashionable court circles. Boucher calls themculots
CANIONSAn extension from the end of the trunk hoseto the knee or slightly below, canions weremade either in the same color or in acontrasting color to trunk hose.Canions fastened to separate stockings atthe bottom
HOSE AND STOCKINGSWith trunk hose and canions, stockings were used more than the long, joinedhose. Stockings and hose were either cut and sewn or knitted. References toknitting begin to appear around 1530 and in 1589; an English inventor made amachine for knitting stockings.OUTDOOR GARMENTSGowns were largely replaced by shorter and longer capes after the middle of thecentury. Short capes were cut very full, flaring out sharply from the shoulder.
There is evidence of a linen under-bodice made from two layers of fabricstiffened with glue. By the 17th century, this garment had taken on the namestays in English. Earlier it had been known as a pair of bodys, as it was cut into two sections andfastened at the front and back with laces or tapes.The stiffening was provided by a busk, a new device made from a flat, long pieceof wood or whalebone that was sewn into one or more casings provided in thestays.The shaping and support of the outer garment is yet another function ofundergarments.Beginning with the verdugale, continuing with the bum roll, and culminating inthe huge wheel farthingale, under-garments henceforth are important elementsin the shape of Western costume.
The lady wears a wheel farthingale.The skirt of the farthingale opens at the front,but the petticoat beneath it is not visible.Around the waist is placed a ruffle the width ofthe farthingale.She wears a standing lace ruff at the neck.Her hair is dressed high with jeweleddecorations.
Costume Components for Women: 1500-1530This first phase was a transition from the stylesof the Medieval period.CHEMISEThe chemise continued to be the undermostgarment.DRESSESGowns were fairly plain, somber colorspredominated.Bodices were fitted, skirts long and full, flaringgently from the waistline to the floor in the frontand trailing into long trains at the back.Women wore either a single dress or two layersconsist-ing of an outer and an under-dress. The lady wears a wide-sleeved gown with a typically square-cut neckline. Her headdressIf two dresses were worn, the outer skirt might is a coif with lappets hanging down onbe looped up in front to display the contrasting either side of the face.skirt of the under-dress.
Trains on outer gowns often had decorative under-linings.The train was buttoned or pinned to the waist at the back in order to show the lin-ingfabric.Most often dress necklines were square, with the edge of the chemise visible, orthey might be cut with smaller or larger V-shaped openings at the front or at bothfront and back.Lacings held the V-shaped opening together.Sleeve styles included:•Smooth-fitting narrow sleeves with decorative cuffs.•Wide funnel shapes with contrasting linings.•Hanging sleeves.When two layers were worn, the under-dress usually had closely fitted sleeves andthe outermost large, full, funnel-shaped sleeves or hanging sleeves.
OUTDOOR GARMENTSExcept for ceremonial occasions when theopen mantle fastening with a chain or braid atthe front was still worn, women wore long, fullcloaks.
Costume Components for Women :1530-1575 GermanyDressesSoftly gathered skirts were joined to closely fitted bodices with low and square orrounded necklines.Sleeves were close fitting, with horizontal bands alternating with somewhatenlarged, puffed areas. The cuff extended into a point over the wrist.Hair and head-dressHair was often held in a net, over which was placed a wide brimmed hat trimmedwith plumes.JewelryGold chains, frequently worn along with a wide jeweled “ dog collar” were importantstatus symbols
The lady wears typical German dress with sleeves madein alternately wider and narrower sections having V-shaped cuffs that cover the backs of her hands. She hasseveral gold chains around her neck. Her headdress isalso a fanciful exaggeration of the cur-rent style of hatsfor women.
Costume Components for Women in other NorthernEuropean CountriesThe second phase of costume for women outside of Germany was marked bySpanish influences whereas mens styles of this period had been more directlyinfluenced by German stylesOne important aspect of the Spanish influence was a tendency to emphasizedark colors, especially black.
DRESSESSignificant changes took place in theconstruction of dresses. Instead of an under-dress and an outer-dress, women wore apetticoat (an underskirt) and an overdress.The overall silhouette was rather like anhourglass. Bodices narrowed to a smallwaistline. Skirts gradually expanded to aninverted cone shape with an inverted Vopening at the front.Bodices and skirts of dresses were sewntogether. The waist dipped to an elongated Vat the front.A rich, jeweled belt outlined the waistline, andfrom the dip in front its long end fell down thecenter front of the gown almost to the floor. The ruffled cuff of the chemise is visible at the end of the sleeve. Large, detachable undersleeves match the fabric of the petti-coat. The flared skirt was supported underneath by a hoop called a verdugale or Spanish farthingale
Necklines were at first mostlysquare, but later were made in avariety of more closed styles whichincluded:•High, closed necklines withstanding, wing collars.•Neck fillers, part of the chemise,which were closed up to the throatand ended in a small ruffle.•Ruffs, of moderate size at thisphase of their develop-ment, wornwith high, fitted collars This lady wear Spanish styled sleeveless ropa. Small ruffles, probably on her chemise, extend above the high collar and below the ends of the sleeves. Her coif dips slightly at the front.
The following sleeve styles developed:•Narrow at the shoulder and expanding to ahuge, wide square cuff that turned back uponitself. This cuff was often made of fur or ofheavy brocade to match the petticoat•A detachable, false sleeve decorated withpanes and slashes through which the linen ofthe chemise was visible might be sewn to theunderside of the cuff or, if the chemise wererichly decorated, the sleeve of the chemisemight be seen below the cuff.•Made with a puff at the shoulder and a close-fitting, long extension of the sleeve to the wrist.Though worn elsewhere as well, this style wasespecially popular in France.•Full from shoulder to wrist where it was caughtinto a cuff.•Wider at the top, narrower at the bottom
Sleeve decorations includedCutting and paning with decorative fabrics, and fastening the panes withaiguillettes (small, jeweled metal points).Padded rolls of fabric were sometimeslocated at the joining of bodice and sleeve,and these served to hide the lacesfastening separate sleeves to bodices.
PETTICOATSAlthough the petticoat wasseparate from the dress, itsvisibility through the inverted V atthe front of the skirt made it anintegral part of the ensemble.Petticoats were usually cut fromrich, decorative fabric (oftenbrocade or cut velvet).The back of the petticoat wascovered by the skirt of the dress.Therefore often only the front ofthe petticoat was made inexpensive fabric, while the invisibleback was made of lighter weight,less expensive fabric.
SUPPORTING GARMENTSThe flared, cone-shaped skirt required support to achieve the desired rigidity ofline. Support was provided by a Spanish device called the verdugale (inSpanish, verdugado) or Spanish farthingale.The verdugale was a construction of whalebone, cane, or steel hoopsgraduated in size from the waist to the floor and sewn into a petticoat orunderskirt.
ROPAOriginally a Spanish style, the ropa wasan outer gown or surcote made eithersleeveless, with a short puffed sleeve,or with a long sleeve, puffed at the topand fitted for the rest of the arms length.It fell from the shoulders, unbelted in anA-line to the floor.Some versions closed in front, but mostwere open to display the dress beneath.
Costume Components for Women: 1575—1600The first changes in the last quarter of thecentury came in the shape of the skirt,which grew wider at the top.Instead of the cone-shaped Spanishfarthingale, a padded roll was placedaround the waist in order to give skirtsgreater width below the waist. The Englishcalled these pads bum rolls, "bum" beingEnglish slang for but-tocks.Later instead of using graduated circles ofwhalebone, cane, or steel sewn into acanvas skirt, the circles were the samediameter top to bottom. Steel or canespokes fastened the top-most hoop to awaistband. It was called the wheel, drum,or French farthingale.
The farthingale was later worn with a roll of stiffened material called a BumRoll. The bum roll could be used to add more width to the body, whilstspreading skirt fullness evenly. The Bum Roll had tapes which enabled itto be tied to the waist, settling over the farthingale.
During the 16th century, the farthingale was popular. This was a petticoat stiffenedwith reed or willow rods so that it stood out from a womans body, like a coneextending from the waist.
DRESSESDresses worn over wheel farthingales had enormous skirts that were either cut andsewn into one continuous piece all around, or open at the front or sides over amatching underskirt.Sleeves were made fuller and with very high sleeve caps. The front of the bodice was elongated, ending in a deep V at the waist. Additionalheight came from high standing col-lars and dressing the hair high on the head.
RUFFSRuffs grew to enormous widths.Made of sheer linen or of lace they had to besupported by a frame called the supportasseor by starching.Constructions included:•Gathering one edge of a band of fabric to thesize of the neck to form a frill of deep folds.•Round, flat lace pieces without depth or foldslike a wide collar.•Several layers of lace rounds placed one overthe other.•Open ruffs, almost a cross between a collarand a ruff, stood high behind the head andfastened in front into a wide, square neckline A ruff under propped with a supportasse," a frame which holds the ruff in place.
CONCHKnown in French as a conque, this was a sheer, gauzelike veil sofine that in some portraits it can just barely be seen. It was cut the full length of the body from shoulder to floor and worncapelike over the shoulders.At the back of the neck it was attached to a wing-like constructionthat stood up like a high collar behind the head.
ACCESSORY ITEMS FOR MEN AND WOMEN: 16 th CENTURY
HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR MEN: At the beginning of the century .HAIRMen cut their hair straight across the back in a length anywhere from below theears to the shoulder and combined this with a fringe of bangs across theforehead.HATS Prominent hat styles included:A pill-box like shape with turned-up brim that might have decorative cut-outsections in the brim—some-times referred to as a French bonnetA skull cap or hair net holding the hair close to the head topped by a hat with abasin-shaped crown and wide brim, the brim turned up at one point. Many hatswere decorated with feathers.
HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR MEN: AFTER 1530hair Beards became fashionable, and the hair was cut shorthats Hat styles included:A moderately sized, flat crowned hat with a small brim and a feather plume.Beret like styles with feather plumes
HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR MEN:AFTER MID-CENTURYhair Men allowed their hair to grow longer;beards and moustaches remained popularhats Hat styles included those withincreasingly high crowns, some with softshapes, others with stiffer outlines.Brims tended to be narrow.The high-crowned, narrow-brimmed hatwas called a capotainTrimmings for hats included feathers,braid, and jewels.
HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR WOMEN .HEADDRESSThe custom of having married and adultwomen cover the hair, continued. These headcoverings were the most important: The small coif is decorated withcoif: A cap of white linen or more decorative jewels.fabric, usually with long lappets or short squareor pointed extensions below the ears thatcovered the side of the face.Coif shapes ranged from round to heartshaped or gabled, an English style shaped likea pointed arch.As the century progressed, the coif was setfurther back on the head, allowing more hair toshow. Decorative over-caps might be placedon top of the coif, some trimmed with jewels ormetallic netting. Her coif dips slightly at the front.
hair In the last two-thirds of the century, more hair was visible. The hair wascombed back from the forehead, puffed up slightly around the face, then pulledinto a coil at the back of the head.To balance the width of the wheeled farthingale, extra height was gained bydressing the hair high and decorating it with jeweled ornaments.
FOOTWEAR With a few exceptions, trends in styles of footwear were sim-ilar for men and for women. Often because they were more visible, mens styles tended to greater exaggeration.ShoesSquare-toed shapes becamemore exaggerated as theperiod progressed, especiallyfor mens shoes. Decorationincluded slashing with puffs offabric pulled through theopenings. Costume historiansof the 19th century calledthese shoes duckbillsbecause their shaperesembled the bill of a duck.
During the second half of the century, toes remained square, but width decreasedand shoes conformed more closely to the shape of the foot.Among the shoe styles worn by men and women were:•Mules—backless shoes.•Shoes with a tongue, tying with laces (latchets) that crossed the tongue from eitherside.•High-heeled shoes for men and women first appeared sometime during the 1570s,the heels about one-and-a-half inches high. Sometimes ribbon rosettes might beplaced at the front of the shoe or decorative stones set into them.Styles worn only by women included:•Low-cut slippers with a strap across the ankle.•Chopines—high, platform-soled shoes that originated in Italy, and spread to otherparts of Europe.•boots Boots were worn out-of-doors when riding horse-back.
JEWELRYAlthough lavishly used by royalty and wealthy men and women during the first halfof the century, jewelry use by men decreased during the second half of thecentury.Men did not give up wearing jewelry but rather wore smaller quantities and morerestrained pieces.Women continued to wear large quantities of extravagant jewels.
The types of jewelry worn by both men and women included:Neck ornaments:Men wore wide jeweled collars that were not a part of the garment but a separatecircular piece made of ornamental plates joined together.Both men and women wore neck chains of gold or other pre-cious metals that werewrapped several times around the neck. Women wore pendant necklaces.Men and women pinned brooches to hats, hoods, and various parts of theclothing.Aiguillettes (ay-gwe-laze), consisting of small jeweled points mounted on laceswhich served to hold panes or slashes together, were placed on hats.Earrings were popular in countries and periods when the hair or headdress didnot cover the ears.Rings were worn everywhere.
The following items of jewelry were worn exclusively by women:Ferronieres were worn in France, but were not especially popular inEngland.Jeweled belts with long cords hanging down the front became popular forwomen after the second decade.On the cord were mounted such things as a jeweled tassel, a perfumeholder (pomander), a purse, or a mirror.
ACCESSORIEShand-carried accessories Those most often used included:purses: Often suspended from belts, purses were carried by both men andwomen.fans: The earliest form was a square of embroidered fabric mounted on a stick;later forms included ostrich or peacock feathers mounted on ornamental sticksand circular folding fans.handkerchiefs: Both men and women carried handker-chiefs.gloves Fashionable gloves often had decorated cuffs.masks Women wore masks out-of-doors when riding to protect the complexionagainst the sun.
COSMETICSMany cosmetics were made from potentially dangerous chemicals such asmercuric salts, which were used to whiten the complexion. Red coloringwas applied to lips and cheeks. Perfumes were used.