Evolution of planning legislation in india

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Evolution of planning legislation in india and five years plan

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Evolution of planning legislation in india

  1. 1. The Maharaja Sayajirao University, Vadodara MURP-2014-16 | PARTH SADARIA Planning Legislation & Professional Practice Evolution of planning legislation in India
  2. 2. • Planning of town and cities in India dates back to the Vedic times. • Mansara Shilpa Shastra is the oldest known scripture in India which talks about town and village planning. • During the modern times, the organized efforts for the Town Planning started during British period, which not only provided legal support, but also provided a guideline for preparing planning proposals. • The history of contemporary planning practice in India dates back to the enactment of the Bombay Improvement Trust Act 1920. BACKGROUND • The visit of Sir Patrick Geddes to India and his propagation of the work -home place theory laid the foundation for the setting up of Improvement Trusts and subsequently thinking process for enactment of Town and Country Planning Acts in various States and the establishment of State T&CP Departments. • Following this, Urban Development Authorities were set up under Development Authority Acts for addressing the problems of fast growing towns and cities and formulating Master Plans which apart from having strong spatial connotations also have both social and economic aims. Evolutionary Process of Acts City Improvement acts • Bombay Improvement act 1898 • Mysore Improvement Act – 1903 • Calcutta improvement Act1911 Town Planning act • Bombay town planning act, 1915 • Madras town planning act, 1920 • Madhya Pradesh town planning act, 1948 • Jammu and Kashmir town planning act, 1963 Town and Improvement trust acts • Bihar town planning and Improvement trust act, 1931 • Orissa town planning and Improvement trust act, 1956 Town and country planning acts • Assam town and country planning act, 1959 • Mysore town and country planning act, 1961 • Gujarat town and country planning act, 1964
  3. 3. STATUTORY PROCESS FOR PLANNED DEVELOPMENT OF TOWNS AND CITIES • Statutory process of master plan formulation in India was inspired by the erstwhile comprehensive planning system envisaged under the Town and Country Planning Act, 1947 of United Kingdom. • As most of the Town Improvement Trust Acts then in force in various states did not contain provisions for preparation of Master Plans, a need was felt to have a Comprehensive Town and Country Planning Act on the lines of U.K. • Accordingly, Central Town and Country Planning Organization or TCPO drafted the Model Town and Regional Planning and Development Law in 1962, which formed the basis for various States to enact Town and Country Planning Acts, with modifications to suit local conditions. • model Law was revised by TCPO in year 1985 as “Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law” to enact a comprehensive urban and regional planning legislation in all the States and UT’s.
  4. 4. Two Types of Planning Systems Socio-economic Development Planning System Five Year Plan National Planning Commission Spatial Planning System focuses on judicious use of land. Spatial planning levels: National; Inter-state; State; Metropolitan area; District; Local. Plans prepared in consultation with •the National Development Council, •central ministries, •state governments, •Experts, and also •civil society organizations. Economic sectors: Agriculture, industry, Energy, Transport, Communication, Rural development, Urban development. Social sectors: Health, Education, Employment and skill development, Women and child development, Social inclusion. PLANNING SYSTEM IN INDIA
  5. 5. PLANNING COMMISSION • The planning commission is an organization in the government of India which formulates India's five year plan • It was set up on 15 mar, 1950 with prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru as the chairman FIVE YEAR PLAN: • It is the plan document constructed on the basis of recommendation made by a large number of working groups which deal with the major sector of economic activities. • It lays down broad strategies, objectives, growth rate, sectoral targets etc. Components of five year plans – • Central component • State component In the introduction to the five year plan, Jawaharlal Nehru said "planning is a continuous movement towards desired goals". In India five year plans have been implemented since 1st April 1951
  6. 6. Plan Target Actual Main Goal First Plan (1951 – 56) 2.9% 3.6% • Agricultural & Transport sector. Second Plan (1956 – 61) 4.5% 4.3% • Rapid industrialization with special emphasis on basic and Heavy industries. Third Plan (1961 – 66) 5.6% 2.8% • Self-reliance, Self-sufficiency in food grains and substantial expansion of employment opportunities. Fourth Plan (1969 – 1974) 5.7% 3.3% • Attainment of Economic stability Self-sufficient in food grain production. Fifth Plan (1974 – 79) 4.4% 4.8% • poverty eradication, Self-Reliance, to control Inflation and Reduction of Economic Inequalities. Sixth Plan (1980 – 85) 5.2% 6.0% • reduce the poverty Seventh Plan (1985 – 90) 5.0% 6.0% • promotion of efficiency through modern technology and productivity, reduction of poverty, unemployment and regional imbalances. Eighth Plan (1992 – 97) 5.6% 6.8% • promotion of HRD, full employment and rural development. Ninth Plan (1997 – 2002) 6.5% 5.4% • Growth with social justice and equality, Rural development and Agriculture. Tenth Plan (2002 – 2007) 8.0% 7.8% • Integrated rural development, poverty, employment creation and agriculture. Eleventh Plan (2007 – 2012) 9.0% 10.0% • Faster economic growth and inclusive growth. Twelfth plan (2012-2017) 9.0% -- • ‘faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth’.
  7. 7. FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN (1951-56) Target Actual 2.1% 3.6% S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 291 15 2 Irrigation & flood control 310 16 3 Power 260 13 4 Village & small industries 43 2 5 Industry 74 4 6 Transport 523 27 7 Social services 459 23 8 9 10 TOTAL 1960 100 • This plan gave more importance to Agricultural & Transport sector. OBJECTIVES: • To correct the disequilibrium in economy caused by second world war & partition • To initiate simultaneously a process of all round development which would rise in national income & improvement in living standards of people Achievements: • GDP – 3.6% per year • Evolution of good irrigation system Problems faced: • Development of only a few industries • Private industries had not developed
  8. 8. • This plan gave more importance to Rapid industrialization with special emphasis on basic and Heavy industries. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 549 11.7 2 Irrigation & flood control 430 9.2 3 Power 452 9.7 4 Village & small industries 187 4 5 Industry 938 20.10 6 Transport 1261 27 7 Social services 855 18.3 8 9 10 TOTAL 4672 100 Target Actual 4.5% 4.3% SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN (1956-61) OBJECTIVES: • Increase of 25% in national income • Rapid industrialization with special emphasis on development of basic & heavy industries • Large expansion of employment opportunities • Increased scope of industrialization by increasing production of iron & steel • development of public sector Achievements: • Five steel mills at Bhilai, Durgapur and Jamshedpur • hydro-electric power projects • Production of coal increased • More railway lines were added in the north east • Large enterprises in 17 industries were nationalized • Tata institute of fundamental research – established in 1957 as a research institute • Atomic energy commission – homi j. Bhabha (founder, 1958) Problems faced:
  9. 9. • This plan gave more importance to Self-reliance, Self-sufficiency in food grains and substantial expansion of employment opportunities. • . S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 549 11.7 2 Irrigation & flood control 430 9.2 3 Power 452 9.7 4 Village & small industries 187 4 5 Industry 938 20.10 6 Transport 1261 27 7 Social services 855 18.3 8 9 10 TOTAL 4672 100 Target Actual 5.6% 2.8% THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN (1961-66) OBJECTIVES: • Effective use of country’s resources • To increase the national income by 5% per year • To increase the production of agriculture so that nation is self- sufficient in food grains • To provide employment opportunities for every citizen of the country • To establish equality among all people of the country Achievements: • Decentralization • Organizations formed like - panchayat and jilla parishad • Many fertilizer & cement plants were built • Green revolution • State electricity boards & state secondary education boards were formed • State road transportations were formed Problems faced: • Sino-Indian war of 1962 exposed weakness in the economy & shifted focus towards defense industry • In 1965-66, India fought a war with Pakistan which led to inflation & priority was shifted to price stabilization • Gdp rate during this duration was lower at 2.8%
  10. 10. ANNUAL PLAN (1966-69) • Due to failure of third five year plan government of India did not implemented fourth five year plan. • This period (April 1, 1966 to march 31, 1969) known as plan holiday in Indian planning period. • Annual plans given more importance to irrigation and agriculture sector and to control inflation increasing agricultural production. Plan Budget (Rs) (crores) GDP increase Industry Agriculture 1966-67 2221 1.1% 2.8% 76MT 1967-68 2246 9.9% 2.2% 95.1MT 1968-69 2377 10.2% 7% 98MT
  11. 11. • This plan gave more importance to Attainment of Economic stability Self-sufficient in food grain production. • . S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 2320 14.7 2 Irrigation & flood control 1354 8.6 3 Power 2932 18.6 4 Village & small industries 243 1.5 5 Industry 2864 18.2 6 Transport 3080 19.56 7 Social services 2968 18.9 8 9 10 TOTAL 15779 100 Target Actual 5.7% 3.3% FOURTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1969-74) OBJECTIVES: • Completing the investment in projects which were already in hand • Increasing existing capacities to level required for present or future development • Taking advantage of internal development or availabilities to build new industries or new bases for industries. Achievements: • Food grains production increased to bring about self- sufficiency in production • Great advancement made with regard to India's national income spending on war efforts reduced industrial spending • Tested the 1st nuclear weapon in 1974, considered as one of the emerging powers Problems faced: • India was attacked in 1962 followed by another one in 1965 in addition to that India faces drought • A gap was created between people of rural areas & urban areas
  12. 12. • This plan gave more importance to poverty eradication, Self-Reliance, to control Inflation and Reduction of Economic Inequalities. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 4865 12.4 2 Irrigation & flood control 3877 9.8 3 Power 7400 18.8 4 Industry 9581 24.3 5 Transport 6870 17.4 6 Social services 6833 17.3 7 8 9 10 TOTAL 39426 100 Target Actual 4.4% 4.83% FIFTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1974-79) OBJECTIVES: • Removal of poverty • Attainment self sufficiency in agriculture and defense • To check rural and urban unemployment • Production support policies in the wheat industry sector • To develop labor intensive technological improvements Achievements: • Food grain production was above 118 million tons due to improvement of infrastructural facilities. • Bombay high had shot up the commercial production of oil in India. Problems faced: • The international economy was in trouble • Food, oil & fertilizers where prices sky-rocketed • Several inflationary pressures • Plan was terminated in 1978 (instead of 1979) when janta party came to power
  13. 13. • This plan gave more importance to reduce the poverty 30%. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 6624 6.10 2 Rural development 6997 6.4 3 Special area program 1580 1.4 4 Irrigation & flood control 10930 10 5 Power 30751 28.10 6 Industry 16948 15.5 7 Communication, Broad-casting 3469 3.2 8 Transport 14208 13 9 Social services 15917 14.6 10 TOTAL 109292 100 Target Actual 5.2% 5.7% SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1980-85) OBJECTIVES: • Focus on enlargement of employment potential in agriculture and allied activities and encouragement to small industry • The objective changed to removal of poverty by expanding economy as plan was rejected when congress party came power • Aimed for rapid industrial development, to raise the standard of living of poorest of masses • Family planning concept introduced • Emphasis on the information technology sector Achievements: • GDP growth achieved 5.4% • Speedy industrial development • Self sufficiency in food • Science and technology also made a significant advance • Government investments in the Indian healthcare sector • Transportation & communication system also improved Problems faced: • During this time prime minister was Rajiv Gandhi & hence industrial development was emphasis of this plan • Some opposed it specially the communist groups, this slowed down the pace of progress
  14. 14. • This plan gave more importance to promotion of efficiency through modern technology and productivity, reduction of poverty, unemployment and regional imbalances. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 12793 5.8 2 Rural development 15246 7 3 Special area program 3470 1.6 4 Irrigation & flood control 16590 7.8 5 Power 61789 28.10 6 Industry 29220 13.4 7 Communication, Broad-casting 8426 3.9 8 Transport 29548 13.5 9 Social services 34960 17 10 TOTAL 218730 100 Target Actual 5.0% 6.0% SEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1985-90) OBJECTIVES: • Improved facilities for education to girls • Emergence of informatics, and hooking up of telecommunications with computers • Inland waterways, product pipelines, civil aviation, coastal shipping. • Government undertook to increase productivity of oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, fish, egg,meat, milk . Achievements: • Social justice • Modern technology • Agricultural development • Full supply of food, clothing and shelter • Making India an independent economy • Achieved a growth rate of 6% Problems faced: • 1989-91 was a period of political instability in India and hence no five year plan was implemented • In 1991, India faced a crisis in foreign exchange reserves
  15. 15. • This plan gave more importance to promotion of HRD, full employment and rural development. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 12793 5.8 2 Rural development 15246 7 3 Special area program 3470 1.6 4 Irrigation & flood control 16590 7.8 5 Power 61789 28.10 6 Industry 29220 13.4 7 Communication, Broad-casting 8426 3.9 8 Transport 29548 13.5 9 Social services 34960 17 10 TOTAL 218730 100 Target Actual 5.6% 6.8% EIGHTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1992-97) OBJECTIVES: • Prioritize specific sectors which requires immediate investment • Social welfare measures like improved health, sanitation, communication & provision for extensive education facilities at all levels • Eradication of illiteracy among the people in age group of 15 to 35 years • To check increasing population growth by creating mass awareness programs • Modernization of industrial sector • Involvement of Panchayat raj, Nagarpalika, N.G.O’s and people’s participation Achievements: • Rise in the employment level • Poverty reduction • Self-reliance on domestic resources • Self-sufficiency in agricultural production • GDP Growth Per Annum 6.8 Problems faced:
  16. 16. • This plan gave more importance Growth with social justice and equality, Rural development and Agriculture. Target Actual 6.5% 5.7% NINTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1997-2002) OBJECTIVES: • To prioritize agricultural sector and emphasize on the rural development • To generate adequate employment opportunities and promote poverty reduction • To stabilize the prices in order to accelerate the growth rate of the economy • To ensure food and nutritional security • To provide for the basic infrastructural facilities like education for all, safe drinking water, primary health care, transport, energy • To check the growing population increase • To encourage social issues like women empowerment, conservation of certain benefits for the special groups of the society • To create a liberal market for increase in private investments Achievements: • A combined effort of public, private, and all levels of government • ensured the growth of India's economy. • Service sector showed fast growth rate Problems faced: S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 37239 3.96 2 Rural development 88965 9.45 3 Special area program 5408 0.57 4 Irrigation & flood control 69830 7.42 5 Power 219243 23.3 6 Industry 44695 4.75 7 Communication, Broad-casting 92836 9.86 8 Transport 143249 15.22 9 Social services 194529 20.67 10 Environment 15667 1.66 TOTAL 941041 100
  17. 17. • This plan gave more importance to integrated rural development, poverty, employment creation and agriculture. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 58933 3.86 2 Rural development 121928 7.99 3 Special area program 20789 1.37 4 Irrigation & flood control 103315 6.77 5 Power 403977 26.47 6 Industry 58939 2.86 7 Communication, Broad-casting 98968 6.49 8 Transport 225977 14.81 9 Social services 347391 22.77 10 Environment 30424 1.99 TOTAL 1525639 100 Target Actual 8.0% 7.8% TENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2002-07) OBJECTIVES: • To transform the country into the fastest growing economy of the world • Human and social development • Industry and services: Industry, Minerals, Energy, Information technology, Tourism, Real estate, Construction • Forests and environment • Science and technology • schooling to be compulsory for children Achievements: • The National Common Minimum Program (NCMP) has stated that housing for weaker sections in rural areas will be extended on a large scale. • Strengthening of vulnerable houses in EWS & LIG category,. • National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, 2007 was announced in December 2007. Problems faced:
  18. 18. • This plan gave more importance to faster economic growth and inclusive growth. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 674105 18.5 2 Power 854123 23.4 3 Industry 153600 4.2 4 Transport 667793 18.3 5 Social services 1102327 30.9 6 General services 42283 1.2 7 8 9 10 TOTAL 1525639 100 Target Actual 9.0% 10.0% ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2007-12) OBJECTIVES: • Income & Poverty • Education • Health • Women and Children • Infrastructure • Environment Achievements: • Increase in National Income • Increase in Per Capita Income • Increase in the Rate of Capital Formation • Development of Agriculture • Industrial Development • Infrastructure Development • Generation of Employment • Development of Social Services • Structural and Institutional Changes FAILURES: • No Substantial Increase in the Standard of Living • Increase in Unemployment • More Ambitious • Predominance of Welfare Considerations • Less Growth in Productive Sector
  19. 19. • This plan gave more importance to ‘faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth’. S.No Sectors Expenditure (crores) Percentage 1 Agriculture 259767.19 2.82 2 Rural Development 1032714.57 11.21 3 Irrigation and Flood Control 493564.16 5.36 4 Energy 2280044.81 24.75 5 Industry and Minerals 237703.00 2.58 6 Transport 863509.20 9.37 7 Science, Technology & Environment 46170.75 0.50 8 General Economic Services 137097.83 1.49 9 Social Services 3730599.87 40.50 10 General Services 128828.62 1.40 TOTAL 9210000 100 Target Actual 9.0% ---% TWELFTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2012---) OBJECTIVES: • To deal with disparity of income and wealth • Govt. activism required for socially desirable activities with available resources and foreign exchange • Govt. intervention required for development of infrastructure • Balanced regional development. Achievements: FAILURES:
  20. 20. National Institution for Transforming India Aayog • Formed - 1 January 2015 • A group of people with authority entrusted by the government to formulate/regulate policies concerning transforming India. • It is a commission to help government in social and economic issues. • Also it's an Institute of think tank with experts in it. Parameter NITI Aayog Planning Commission Financial clout • To be an advisory body, or a think-tank. The powers to allocate funds might be vested in the finance ministry • Enjoyed the powers to allocate funds to ministries and state governments Full-time members • The number of full-time members could be fewer than Planning Commission • The last Commission had eight full- time members States' role • State governments are expected to play a more significant role than they did in the Planning Commission • States' role was limited to the National Development Council and annual interaction during Plan meetings Member secretary • To be known at the CEO and to be appointed by the prime minister • Secretaries or member secretaries were appointment through the usual process Part-time members • To have a number of part-time members, depending on the need from time to time • Full Planning Commission had no provision for part-time members
  21. 21. References • http://evolutionofindianplanninglegislation.blogspot.in/2015/06/historicalbackgroundofplanning. • Urban Planning in India-SOC 477 Project Authors - Sahay Shrey Y6411, Siddhartha Kandoi Y6472, Soumil Srivastava Y6478 • Planning System in India Dr. S. K. Kulshrestha • Town planning and development laws:evolution and current amendments, J.KSHIRSAGAR & R.SRINIVAS, Town and country planning organization, Ministry of urban development, government of india

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