ArchitectureThe purpose of this document is to discuss the realm of Architecture and the various forms it has evolved over...
ArchitectureA typical solution architecture would be as follows:                                                          ...
ArchitectureAgain for example the Payment Engine would have architecture of its own such as:Once again we can have the Arc...
ArchitectureA typical system of systems architecture can be as follows:                                                   ...
ArchitectureA Banking Product Architecture such as Remittances will typically look as follows:                            ...
ArchitectureA letter of Credit would have the architecture as follows:The architecture is so varied that a bank/corpoprate...
Architecture                                     Business Process ModellingAn important tool of Architecture is Business P...
Architecture                                                      TO BE                                                   ...
ArchitectureNote:    Names if any are Suggestive only and without any relation to any real entity         whatsoever. It i...
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Architecture ver 1

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Architecture ver 1

  1. 1. ArchitectureThe purpose of this document is to discuss the realm of Architecture and the various forms it has evolved overthe years.Architecture is defined as: • It is a set of descriptive representations for multiple stakeholders • It is detailed enough to create an instance of implementation • It can be used as a reference for making changes in the future.Example – Enterprise – System – Component Honda – Car – EngineThe engine which is a component can become a system and the Fuel Gauge can become the component. Youcan still go further drill down where the Fuel Gauge now becomes the system and the Needle becomes thecomponent.The CEOs in 1960’s were finance people. The CEOs then became finance and general management people.The CEO of today has to be a finance, general management and a systems person put together.The CEO will now be called Enterprise Architect. Bill Gates does not call himself just a CEO. His designation isCEO and Chief Architect.The role between Analyst and Architecture is getting blurred as some firms combine the essence of both. Alsosome pure – play Architecture Companies do not consider a role of Solution Architect and believe thatEnterprise Architecture is all that is supposed to be in an Architecture. The definition, nomenclature and theusage has become varied such that each industry seems to bring its own flavour in it – manufacturing will getcoloured with its nomenclature, utilities, financial services and so on. Here they tend to have models for eachstake holder such as 1 for strategy, 1 for Business, 1 for Systems, etc.Enterprise Architecture seems to be the flavour as it tries to define the entire gamut from conception toinception. An interesting offshoot to it is the Business Process Model which not only shows end-to-end processwith message flows but also maps time through Critical Path method.Again if we see the Architecture it varies in implementation from a Services Company and a Product Company.For a Services Company the architecture revolves around implementation and customization. Here thechallenge lies in integrating the solution with the existing frame-work of solutions and ensuring that data andmessage flows correctly giving the desired results. Customization requires coding but that is not as extensiveas for a productFor a Product Company the implementation part does not change but in addition to it needs architecture tomanufacture the product. Thus architecture now needs to go down to the coding level.Now let us take a bank. Here it will have the following: 1. Products which is sourced from external vendors 2. Products and customization developed in-house 3. Solutions built in-house on the above-mentioned productsArchitecture becomes a challenge here as it needs people to have to have a deep domain knowledge, productknowledge and business process to give a true and accurate picture of the requirement. 1
  2. 2. ArchitectureA typical solution architecture would be as follows: 2
  3. 3. ArchitectureAgain for example the Payment Engine would have architecture of its own such as:Once again we can have the Architecture for the Platform – Netweaver, which will be as follows:Thus architecture can go upto granular level. 3
  4. 4. ArchitectureA typical system of systems architecture can be as follows: 4
  5. 5. ArchitectureA Banking Product Architecture such as Remittances will typically look as follows: 5
  6. 6. ArchitectureA letter of Credit would have the architecture as follows:The architecture is so varied that a bank/corpoprate can be considered as an universe with myriadsolutions and architecture defining its processes, products and solutions. 6
  7. 7. Architecture Business Process ModellingAn important tool of Architecture is Business Process Modelling. This is very handy and a helpful tool to defineand map the process or the way any activity is done. One can map the process of the entire organization orvarious units within it such as HR, Finance, etc. If it is mapped with time then the Business Process Modelwould show the Critical Path Method (CPM).These models can represent the current status of any business process in any organization which can betermed as AS IS. From there when the business process gets refined with deletion or addition of any or allprocess we get the TO BE picture. Thus the business process can be used to map and time the existingprocess from AS IS – TO BE.It is a great tool to depict the entire process in a very easy and lucid way which can be veryeasily understood and then further used for analysis and for change managementLet us take an example of issuing a Cheque Book by a bank under Retail Banking AS IS Management Goal To improve Customer Service with minimal waiting period The bank is taking 12 days to issue a cheque book after the cheque book request is received which, the management feels is too long and it is causing customer dis-satisfaction which in turn costs Narrative customer loyalty and impacts the business.The Time Taken from the time request is received to receipt of cheque book is as follows: • 1. Sending request to Back Office - 24 Hours • 2. Time taken to process the request - 48 Hours • 3. Time Taken to send the Request to Vendor - 24 Hours • 3. Time to Print, Staple, etc. and get the Cheque Book ready - 48Hours • 4. Time To Dispatch the Cheque Book - 24 Hours • 5. Time taken by Courier to Deliver the Cheque Book - 96 Hours • ============================================================ • Total Time Taken - 264 Hours or 12 DaysBusiness Process Model https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B0C5jfwA8L4paUNVYXNoNllzVEk/edit 7
  8. 8. Architecture TO BE Call Centre To reduce the time for the customers to receive the cheque book after receiving the cheque Objective book request from current 12 days to 6 days When the customer calls, the customer must be told whether s/he is eligible to receive a cheque book or not For cheque book requests received through emails or through drop box they must be intimated through email, SMS or Letter Process For customers getting declined, they must visit nearest branch Once cheque book request is approved, for issuing cheque book, send the request to vendor Vendor on receiving cheque book request from call centre, they have to print and courier the cheque book to the customer.The Time Taken from the time request is received to receipt of cheque book is as follows: • 1. Deciding on Cheque Status - 3 Minutes • 2. Time Taken to send the Request to Vendor - 1 Minute • 3. Time to Print, Staple, etc. and get the Cheque Book ready - 48Hours • 4. Time To Dispatch the Cheque Book - 24 Hours • 5. Time taken by Courier to Deliver the Cheque Book - 72 Hours • ============================================================ • Total Time Taken - 144 Hours or 6 DaysBusiness Process Model https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B0C5jfwA8L4pc3h6VmxtQ2dNQTA/editI have given links below for two such business process models which are as follows: Factoring: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B0C5jfwA8L4pbTQtYkphX3d2X0E/editEnd to End Business Process with Sub – processes https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B0C5jfwA8L4pSjVDaFZOUWtOMG8/editNote: To view the HTML please do the following: 1. Create a New folder and 2. Extract the files to the folder. 3. Then click Index and you will be able to see it as a HTML file. 4. Where there is + sign, click on it to view sub-processDo not try to open it directly as it will not open. 8
  9. 9. ArchitectureNote: Names if any are Suggestive only and without any relation to any real entity whatsoever. It is only to give a feel and touch of how transactions can be structured and names are indicative This article is meant for education purposes only and it is not be reproduced for any commercial purpose by print or electronic medium whatsoeverThis case study is written by:Partho H. ChakrabortyA - 305, DSR Spring Beauty Apts., 124/1, ITPL Main Road, Brookefields, Kundalahalli, Bangalore - 560 037,IndiaTel: +91 80 420 50293, Cell: +91 99863 22504email: parthohc@airtelmail.in; parthohc@rediffmail.comSkype: parthohc01 9

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