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# Physics Project

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ppt on relativity

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### Physics Project

1. 2. COOL BUT SCARY THEORY OF RELATIVITY SPECIAL THEORY GENERALM THEORY - ALBERT EINSTEIN
2. 3. GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
3. 4. CURVED SPACE GRAVITY UNIFIELD-THEORY BLACK-HOLES CURVED-TIME PHOTO-FACT ALBUM HISTORY
4. 5. In 1915 Einstein developed the general theory of relativity in which he considered objects accelerated with respect to one another. He developed this theory to explain apparent conflicts between the laws of relativity and the law of gravity. To resolve these conflicts he developed an entirely new approach to the concept of gravity, based on the principle OF equivalence. HE APPLICATED HIS RELATIVITY PRINCILES ON ACCELERATED FRAMES TOO. HISTORY
5. 6. CURVED-SPACE ---gravity According to principle of relativity, in an isolated system, one cannot make out whether he is moving or not. But initially it didn’t go well for accelerated frames of reference. So Albert thought that gravity and acceleration must have the same effects. We know that moving things shrink (special relativity). So even spinning things shrink. So a wheel spinning with high speed shrink. Hence its spokes also get shorten. But they cannot since they are moving sideways only. They only get thinner. Albert concluded that the wheel must bend space so that there is extra room for spokes to bend The rotational motion of heavenly bodies drag the fabric of space-time. This phenomenon is called FRAME BRAGGING
6. 7. Albert said that space is nothing but a three dimensional elastic-fabric. Gravity is a curvature formed by object having mass, in fabric of space-time . This meant that New ton's un iversal law of gravitation is not so universal. Albert d enied existence of any mutual att ractive force between objects having mass. He was sure that all effects of gravity can be describ ed by bent, curved, twisted or othe rwise mangled space. He at last concluded that CURVED-SPACE ---gravity MATTER BENDS SPACE HOW DARE HE PROVE ME WRONG He also concluded that light and matter follow shape of space-time.
7. 8. Albert discovered time as the fourth dimension. He said that space-time is a single structure. It means,time is a real physical thing, spread over the whole space. So travelling in space means time-travel The curvature formed in space disrupts the path of matter or light ray. They have to take the curved path which elongates their time, meaning GRAVITY SLOWS TIME DOWN Since acceleration is proved to have same effects as gravity, (PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY) ACCELERATION SLOWS TIME DOWN SLOW-TIME
8. 9. BLACK HOLES Black Holes are real mysteries of the universe. Due to their infinite gravity, they don't just bend light but pull in completely , so it can never escape. They don’t just slow down time-they stop it. So for a person who approach black-hole, time would pass very slowly. So when he returns back, less time would have passed for him. This way time travel can be done provided we get a lots of stuff to squash together to make a nice strong gravity field. But the problem is that time travel cannot be done in past (since it has many controversies). Since last decade physicists like STEPHEN HAWKINS have been working over effects of black and white holes on relativity theory.
9. 10. UNIFELD FIELD THEORY Unified Field Theory, a theory that proposes to unify the four known interactions, or forces—the strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational forces—by a simple set of general laws. The attempts to develop a unified field theory are grounded in the belief that all physical phenomena should ultimately be explainable by some underlying unity. Einstein tried unsuccessfully during the last 30 years of his life to develop a theory that would represent forces and material particles by fields only, in which particles would be regions of very high field intensity. The development of quantum theory, which Einstein rejected, and the discovery of many new particles, however, precluded Einstein's success in formulating a unifying theory based on relativity and classical physics alone. American physicist Steven Weinberg and the Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam . succeeded in unifying the weak interaction and the electromagnetic interaction. It is called electro-weak force.
10. 11. PHOTO-FACT ALBUM
11. 12. Albert Einstein German-born American physicist Birth :March 14, 1879 Death :April 18, 1955 Place of Birth: Ulm, Germany Known for Proposing the theory of relativity, a physical theory of gravity, space, and time Explaining the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion Career 1905 Published papers on special relativity, Brownian motion, and the photoelectric effect 1909-1911 :Taught physics at the University of Zürich 1911-1912 :Taught physics at the German-speaking university in Prague 1912-1914: Returned to teach at the University of Zürich 1914 :Became a professor at the University of Berlin and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics 1916 :Published a paper on general relativity, extending his earlier theory of special relativity 1919 :A solar eclipse confirmed Einstein's prediction that starlight bends in the vicinity of a massive body such as the sun. 1921 :Won the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the photoelectric effect 1933 :Began teaching at Princeton University 1939: Pointed out, in a letter to President Roosevelt, the possibility that an extremely powerful bomb might be constructed using atomic chain reactions in uranium, and suggested that the Germans might be working on such a bomb. Albert Einstein German-born American physicist Birth :March 14, 1879 Death :April 18, 1955 Place of Birth: Ulm, Germany Known for Proposing the theory of relativity, a physical theory of gravity, space, and time Explaining the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion Career 1905 Published papers on special relativity, Brownian motion, and the photoelectric effect 1909-1911 :Taught physics at the University of Zürich 1911-1912 :Taught physics at the German-speaking university in Prague 1912-1914: Returned to teach at the University of Zürich 1914 :Became a professor at the University of Berlin and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics 1916 :Published a paper on general relativity, extending his earlier theory of special relativity 1919 :A solar eclipse confirmed Einstein's prediction that starlight bends in the vicinity of a massive body such as the sun. 1921 :Won the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the photoelectric effect 1933 :Began teaching at Princeton University 1939: Pointed out, in a letter to President Roosevelt, the possibility that an extremely powerful bomb might be constructed using atomic chain reactions in uranium, and suggested that the Germans might be working on such a bomb.
12. 13. Did You Know Einstein could not find a job in physics upon graduating from college, and became a technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. He worked on theoretical physics in his spare time. Einstein did not receive a Nobel Prize for his theory of relativity. Einstein immediately left Germany for the United States following Hitler's rise to power. Einstein spent much of his later career searching for a unified field theory, but was unsuccessful. Einstein declined the presidency of the state of Israel when it was offered to him in 1952 by state leaders. The element einsteinium, discovered in 1952, was named in honor of Albert Einstein.
13. 16. BACK to history