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Ma sem 3 Elt1 Unit 1 Sarasvati and Satan


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English plays a conflicting double role in India. The presentation is an excerpt from the research paper by E. Annamalai from Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore. This presentation is made for academic learning purposes.

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Ma sem 3 Elt1 Unit 1 Sarasvati and Satan

  1. 1. Excerpt from Satan and Sarasvati: The Double Face of English in India E. ANNAMALAI Central Institute of Indian Languages Mysore
  2. 2. Abstract • English plays a conflicting double role in India in policy and practice, in public platform and private choice, and in symbolic allegiance, and instrumental use. After independence, a pattern of bilingualism has emerged as the executive, legislative, legal and educational domains with English and an Indian language. At the popular level, however, preference for English has increased in spite of political opposition to it.
  3. 3. • When India attained freedom in 1947, the British symbols were replaced but the institutions and instruments were retained. • This is true of English Language also, which had symbolic as well as institutional and instrumental functions. As there was a new national flag symbolising the emergence of a new society with new values, pride and power, there aught to be a new national language.
  4. 4. • There was earlier no national language legally and English was the official language. There were aspirations and pressures to make Hindi or Hindustani as the national language of the new nation, but ultimately, recognising the multinational character of the country, the Indian constitution did not speak of the national language of the Union.
  5. 5. • There was no difference of opinion in the Constituent Assembly, which debated the provisions of the Constitution, that English will be replaced as the official language. The differences were only regarding which language (Hindi or Hindustani) will replace it and when. The final decision was that it would be Hindi in Devnagari Script, which will become sole official language of the Union after 15 years from 1950 when India became republic until which time English will continue to be the official language along with Hindi to be used for official purposes as authorised by the president of India time to time.
  6. 6. • The states of Union can adopt any language or languages in use in the State as their official language or languages and they can also continue the use of English until the time they find suitable for complete switch over and there is no time limit prescribed for them…There was growing political opposition in some States to the progressive use of Hindi for official purposes. (Kumaramalangam 1967) in 1963, two years before the parliament passed the Official Language Bill (Amended in 1967).
  7. 7. • Providing for the continuous use of English without time limit giving legal status to the assurance given by the Prime Minister Nehru in the Parliament to the opponents of Hindi four years earlier. English is now the associate language of the Union.
  8. 8. • According to the Constitution, English will be used for all proceedings in the Supreme Court, the highest court of the Union and High Courts, the highest courts of the States, until the parliament legislates otherwise. • The Official Language Act mentioned above allowed that the proceedings in the Supreme Court may be in Hindi and in the High Courts may be in the States Official Languages, but the judgment, decree and order must be accompanied by an authorised translation in English…
  9. 9. • Thus the legislative and judicial documents in the Union and in the States are bilingual in English and in Indian Language with equal language authority.
  10. 10. • The replacement of English as the medium of education at the primary and secondary stages has taken place for all subjects in large number of schools, though the English medium is still available, particularly in schools run by private trusts, minority organizations, missionaries and the central government. It is an alternative medium in all stages of school education in all States and Union Territories which no other language has including Hindi. (Chaturvedi and Singh 1981)
  11. 11. • English medium is prestigious and in great demand. For replacement of English in Higher education (Under-graduate, post-graduate, and professional colleges), the policy is lukewarm, and there is strong resistance citing arguments of academic mobility of teachers and students, availability of the text and reference materials and lack of development of Indian Languages, particularly the technical terms, employment and research opportunities for students in India and abroad . (Shah 1968)
  12. 12. • There is however, Indian language medium must be provided compulsorily as an alternative stream in government colleges in some states like Tamilnadu. It may be said that medium of education is potentially bilingual and Indian languages.
  13. 13. • English is taught as a language for its instrumental value in schools and colleges compulsorily in almost all parts of the country.. • At the secondary school stage student should learn at least three languages and one of them is English uniformly through the country.